5,790 results match your criteria floral development


Natural temperature fluctuations promote regulation of .

Genes Dev 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom.

Plants monitor many aspects of their fluctuating environments to help align their development with seasons. Molecular understanding of how noisy temperature cues are registered has emerged from dissection of vernalization in , which involves a multiphase cold-dependent silencing of the floral repressor locus (). Cold-induced transcriptional silencing precedes a low probability PRC2 epigenetic switching mechanism. Read More

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[Cloning and temporal-spatial expression analysis of dfr gene from Scutellaria baicalensis with different colors].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1312-1323

School of Life Sciences, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi, China.

Dihydroflavanol-4-reductase (Dfr) is a key enzyme that regulates the synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. To investigate the difference of dfr gene in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with different colors in the same ecological environment, three complete full-length sequences of dfr gene were cloned from the cDNA of S. baicalensis with white, purple-red and purple colors using homologous cloning and RACE techniques. Read More

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Strigolactones regulate sepal senescence in Arabidopsis.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Flower sepals are critical for flower development and vary greatly in lifespan depending on their function post-pollination. Very little is known about what controls sepal longevity. Using a sepal senescence mutant screen, we identified two Arabidopsis mutants with delayed senescence directly connecting strigolactones (SL) with senescence regulation in a novel floral context that hitherto has not been explored. Read More

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High spatial resolution imaging of the dynamics of cuticular lipid deposition during Arabidopsis flower development.

Plant Direct 2021 Apr 29;5(4):e00322. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Iowa State University Ames IA USA.

The extensive collection of () and () mutants of maize and Arabidopsis have proven invaluable in dissecting the branched metabolic pathways that support cuticular lipid deposition. This bifurcated pathway integrates a fatty acid elongation-decarbonylative branch and a fatty acid elongation-reductive branch, which collectively has the capacity to generate hundreds of cuticular lipid metabolites. In this study, a combined transgenic and biochemical strategy was implemented to explore and compare the physiological function of three homologous genes, , , and , in the context of this branched pathway. Read More

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Genome-Wide Changes of Regulatory Non-Coding RNAs Reveal Pollen Development Initiated at Ecodormancy in Peach.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 9;8:612881. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Genome Science and Technology Program, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, United States.

Bud dormancy is under the regulation of complex mechanisms including genetic and epigenetic factors. To study the function of regulatory non-coding RNAs in winter dormancy release, we analyzed the small RNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression from peach () floral buds in endodormancy, ecodormancy and bud break stages. Small RNAs underwent a major shift in expression primarily between dormancy and flowering with specific pairs of microRNAs and their mRNA target genes undergoing coordinated differential expression. Read More

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DOTFL1 affects the floral transition in orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore.

A major obstacle for orchid (Orchidaceae)breeding and production is a long juvenile phase before orchid reproductive development. The molecular basis for prolonged vegetative growth in orchids remains largely unclear despite many efforts to clarify the relevant mechanisms. In this study, we report functional characterization of Dendrobium Orchid TERMINAL FLOWER1 (DOTFL1), an ortholog of TFL1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), from the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Read More

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An Optimized Transformation System and Functional Test of -Like TCP Gene in (Gesneriaceae).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

The development of an ideal model plant located at a key phylogenetic node is critically important to advance functional and regulatory studies of key regulatory genes in the evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) biology field. In this study, we selected in the family Gesneriaceae, a basal group in Lamiales, as a model plant to optimize its genetic transformation system established previously by us through investigating a series of factors and further conduct functional test of the -like floral symmetry gene . By transforming a RNAi:CpCYC vector, we successfully achieved the desired phenotypes of upright actinomorphic flowers, which suggest that actually determines the establishment of floral zygomorphy and the horizontal orientation of flowers in . Read More

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Is Required for Floral Organ Identity and Number in Tomato.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization-Volcani Institute, HaMaccabbim Road 68, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.

MicroRNA172 (miR172) functions as a central regulator of flowering time and flower development by post-transcriptional repression of APETALA2-LIKE transcription factors. In the model crop (tomato), the miR172 family is still poorly annotated and information about the functions of specific members is lacking. Here, de-novo prediction of tomato miR172 coding loci identified seven genes (), that code for four unique species of miR172 (sly-miR172). Read More

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Phloem-Feeding Herbivores Affect Floral Development and Reproduction in the Etruscan Honeysuckle ( Santi).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plant Biology and Soil Sciences, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.

Floral development depends on multifactor processes related to genetic, physiological, and ecological pathways. Plants respond to herbivores by activating mechanisms aimed at tolerating, compensating, or avoiding loss of biomass and nutrients, and thereby survive in a complex landscape of interactions. Thus, plants need to overcome trade-offs between development, growth, and reproduction vs. Read More

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Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Chokeberry Juice Fermented by Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria with Potential Probiotic Properties during Fermentation at 4 °C for 4 Weeks.

Foods 2021 Apr 3;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Food Processing, Faculty of Agriculture Development, Democritus University of Thrace, 68200 Orestiada, Greece.

On the frame of this research survey, a novel potentially probiotic strain ( SP5) recently isolated from kefir grains was evaluated for chokeberry juice fermentation. Chokeberry juice was retrieved from the variety , a plant known to provide small, dark berries and to be one of the richest sources of antioxidants. The juice was subsequently fermented inoculating SP5 for 48 h at 30 °C. Read More

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Physiological and genetic characterization of heat stress effects in a common bean RIL population.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0249859. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

Heat stress is a major abiotic stress factor reducing crop productivity and climate change models predict increasing temperatures in many production regions. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important crop for food security in the tropics and heat stress is expected to cause increasing yield losses. Read More

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Transcriptional landscapes of floral meristems in barley.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 28;7(18). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstr. 3, OT Gatersleben, 06466 Seeland, Germany.

Organ development in plants predominantly occurs postembryonically through combinatorial activity of meristems; therefore, meristem and organ fate are intimately connected. Inflorescence morphogenesis in grasses (Poaceae) is complex and relies on a specialized floral meristem, called spikelet meristem, that gives rise to all other floral organs and ultimately the grain. The fate of the spikelet determines reproductive success and contributes toward yield-related traits in cereal crops. Read More

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Evaluating competition for forage plants between honey bees and wild bees in Denmark.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0250056. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Agroecology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Aarhus University, Slagelse, Denmark.

A recurrent concern in nature conservation is the potential competition for forage plants between wild bees and managed honey bees. Specifically, that the highly sophisticated system of recruitment and large perennial colonies of honey bees quickly exhaust forage resources leading to the local extirpation of wild bees. However, different species of bees show different preferences for forage plants. Read More

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The impaired biosynthetic networks in defective tapetum lead to male sterility in watermelon.

J Proteomics 2021 Apr 24:104241. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; State Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Innovation, Tianjin 300384, China. Electronic address:

Heterosis has been widely applied in watermelon breeding, because of the higher resistance and yield of hybrid. As the basis of heterosis utilization, genic male sterility (GMS) is an important tool for facilitating hybrid seed production, while the detailed mechanism in watermelon is still largely unknown. Here, we report a spontaneous mutant Se18 exhibited complete male sterility due to the uniquely multilayered tapetum and the un-meiotic pollen mother cells during pollen development. Read More

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Transposon-induced inversions activate gene expression in the maize pericarp.

Genetics 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Chromosomal inversions can have considerable biological and agronomic impacts including disrupted gene function, change in gene expression and inhibited recombination. Here we describe the molecular structure and functional impact of six inversions caused by Alternative Transpositions between p1 and p2 genes responsible for floral pigmentation in maize. In maize line p1-wwB54, the p1 gene is null and the p2 gene is expressed in anther and silk but not in pericarp, making the kernels white. Read More

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Coordinated and High-Level Expression of Biosynthetic Pathway Genes Is Responsible for the Production of a Major Floral Scent Compound Methyl Benzoate in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:650582. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Research Center for Ornamental Plants, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Methyl benzoate is a constituent of floral scent profile of many flowering plants. However, its biosynthesis, particularly in monocots, is scarcely reported. The monocot is a popular ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical regions partly for its intense and inviting fragrance, which is mainly determined by methyl benzoate and monoterpenes. Read More

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Evolution of the Subgroup 6 Genes and Their Contribution to Floral Color in the Perianth-Bearing Piperales.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:633227. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Flavonoids, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls are the plant pigments responsible for floral color. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are largely responsible for the red, purple, pink, and blue colors. genes belonging to subgroup 6 (SG6) are the upstream regulatory factors of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Read More

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MULTI-FLORET SPIKELET 2, a MYB Transcription Factor, Determines Spikelet Meristem Fate and Floral Organ Identity in Rice.

Plant Physiol 2020 Oct;184(2):988-1003

Rice Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Application and Safety Control of Genetically Modified Crops, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

An understanding of flower and panicle development is crucial for improving yield and quality in majority of grass crops. In this study, we used mapping-based cloning to identify MULTI-FLORET SPIKELET2 (MFS2), which encodes a MYB transcription factor and regulates flower and spikelet development in rice (Oryza sativa). In the mfs2 mutant, specification of palea identity was severely disturbed and showed degradation or transformation into a lemma-like organ, and the number of all floral organs was increased to varying degrees. Read More

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October 2020

TCP and MADS-Box Transcription Factor Networks Regulate Heteromorphic Flower Type Identity in Gerbera hybrida.

Plant Physiol 2020 Nov;184(3):1455-1468

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

The large sunflower family, Asteraceae, is characterized by compressed, flower-like inflorescences that may bear phenotypically distinct flower types. The CYCLOIDEA (CYC)/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-like transcription factors (TFs) belonging to the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP) protein family are known to regulate bilateral symmetry in single flowers. In Asteraceae, they function at the inflorescence level, and were recruited to define differential flower type identities. Read More

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November 2020

Characterization of C- and D-Class MADS-Box Genes in Orchids.

Plant Physiol 2020 Nov;184(3):1469-1481

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

Orchids (members of the Orchidaceae family) possess unique flower morphology and adaptive reproduction strategies. Although the mechanisms underlying their perianth development have been intensively studied, the molecular basis of reproductive organ development in orchids remains largely unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two AGAMOUS (AG)-like MADS-box genes, Dendrobium 'Orchid' AG1 (DOAG1) and DOAG2, which are putative C- and D-class genes, respectively, from the orchid Dendrobium 'Chao Praya Smile'. Read More

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November 2020

TGD5 is required for normal morphogenesis of non-mesophyll plastids, but not mesophyll chloroplasts, in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 102-8554, Japan.

Stromules are dynamic membrane-bound tubular structures that emanate from plastids. Stromule formation is triggered in response to various stresses and during plant development, suggesting that stromules may have physiological and developmental roles in these processes. Despite the possible biological importance of stromules and their prevalence in green plants, however, their exact roles and formation mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Antagonistic activities of cotranscriptional regulators within an early developmental window set expression level.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, NR4 7UH Norwich, United Kingdom;

Quantitative variation in expression of the floral repressor influences whether plants overwinter before flowering, or have a rapid cycling habit enabling multiple generations a year. Genetic analysis has identified activators and repressors of expression but how they interact to set expression level is poorly understood. Here, we show that antagonistic functions of the activator FRIGIDA (FRI) and the repressor FCA, at a specific stage of embryo development, determine expression and flowering. Read More

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The SvFUL2 transcription factor is required for inflorescence determinacy and timely flowering in Setaria viridis.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO, 63132, USA.

Inflorescence architecture in cereal crops directly impacts yield potential through regulation of seed number and harvesting ability. Extensive architectural diversity found in inflorescences of grass species is due to spatial and temporal activity and determinacy of meristems, which control the number and arrangement of branches and flowers, and underlie plasticity. Timing of the floral transition is also intimately associated with inflorescence development and architecture, yet little is known about the intersecting pathways and how they are rewired during development. Read More

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Flower Development of Heterodichogamous (Juglandaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2021 30;12:541163. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China.

is a monoecious heterodichogamous species with protogynous and protandrous mating strategies that occur at a 1:1 ratio and are randomly distributed in the population. The inconsistent male and female flowering periods of the same mating type result in an imbalance of the ratio of male and female flowers, contributing to the low yield of this species. However, little more is known about its floral development. Read More

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Genome-wide identification and expression pattern of SnRK gene family under several hormone treatments and its role in floral scent emission in .

PeerJ 2021 10;9:e10883. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

The Research Center for Ornamental Plants, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China.

The (Snf1-Related protein Kinase) gene family plays crucial roles in various plant signaling pathways and stress-adaptive responses including biotic and abiotic stresses via activating protein phosphorylation pathways. However, there is no information available on the role of the gene family in . is an important crop widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, herb, spice, or condiment. Read More

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Metabolic profiling and antioxidant activity during flower development in .

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Mar 22;27(3):445-455. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134 Korea.

Our previous study showed that flowers of had higher phenolic levels and higher antibacterial and antioxidant capacity compared to those of the leaves and stems. The aim of this study was to provide information on the variation in primary and secondary metabolites during flower development in by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and assays of total anthocyanin (TAC), flavonoid (TFC), and phenolic content (TPC), as well as gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) analysis. Assays of TPC, TAC, and TFC showed that the floral bud (stage I) contained higher TPC than did the partially open flower (stage II) and fully open flower (stage III). Read More

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Resolving the non-papilionaceous flower of Camoensia scandens, a papilionoid legume of the core genistoid clade: development, glands and insights into the pollination and systematics of the group.

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Instituto de Pesquisa Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, DIPEQ, Rua Pacheco Leão, 915 Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22460-030, Brazil.

Camoensia scandens is a papilionoid legume inserted in the core genistoid clade. It has large, crepuscular, scented flowers but the corolla is non-papilionaceous, which deviates from the pattern found in the subfamily. The vexillum has a folded claw, forming a tube, which is opposed to the androecium opening; all petals have yellow-gold crinkled margins. Read More

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MtFDa is essential for flowering control and inflorescence development in Medicago truncatula.

J Plant Physiol 2021 May 3;260:153412. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

Flowering plants display a vast diversity of flowering time and inflorescence architecture, which plays an important role in determining seed yield and fruit production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the flowering control and compound inflorescence development, especially in legumes, remain to be elucidated. Here, we reported the identification of MtFDa, an essential regulator of flowering in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Read More

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Seed-to-seed early-season cold resiliency in sorghum.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7801. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 3810 4th Street, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Early planted sorghum usually experiences cooler day/night temperatures, which may result in delayed growth, floral initiation, and infertile pollen, limiting productivity in high altitudes and temperate regions. Genetic variability for cold tolerance in sorghum has been evaluated by characterizing germination, emergence, vigor, and seedling growth under sub-optimal temperatures. However, the compounded effect of early season cold on plant growth and development and subsequent variability in potential grain yield losses has not been evaluated. Read More

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Developmental stochasticity and variation in floral phyllotaxis.

Authors:
Miho S Kitazawa

J Plant Res 2021 May 5;134(3):403-416. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Center for Education in Liberal Arts and Sciences, Osaka University, 1-16 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043, Japan.

Floral phyllotaxis is a relatively robust phenotype; trimerous and pentamerous arrangements are widely observed in monocots and core eudicots. Conversely, it also shows variability in some angiosperm clades such as 'ANA' grade (Amborellales, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales), magnoliids, and Ranunculales. Regardless of the phylogenetic relationship, however, phyllotactic pattern formation appears to be a common process. Read More

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