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Results from a mobile drug checking pilot program using three technologies in Chicago, IL, USA.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Aug 28;228:108976. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Chicago Recovery Alliance, 3100 W Taylor St, Chicago, IL, 60612, United States; DePaul University Master of Public Health Program, 1 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 60604, United States.

Background: Opioid overdose deaths in the United States continue to rise, with the majority of deaths involving fentanyl. Drug checking has been used in Europe and Canada to assess adulteration of the illegal drug supply, but faces legal barriers in the United States. We are presenting information from a pilot mobile program offering drug checking services to participants of a harm reduction program in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Read More

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Effectiveness and safety of ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 17;11(9):e050532. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Graduate Program in Sciences Applied to Women's Health, Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco (MEJC/EBSERH), Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte Health Sciences Center, Natal, Brazil.

Introduction: Ivermectin is a drug with antiviral properties and has been proposed as an alternative treatment for patients with COVID-19, in some countries; however, there is limited evidence to support its clinical use. Accordingly, the aim of this review and meta-analysis is to obtain superior evidence on the effectiveness and safety of ivermectin in treatment of COVID-19.

Methods And Analysis: We will search in the medical databases and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases for randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised trials published from December 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab as frontline treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Both continuous therapy with acalabrutinib and fixed-duration therapy with venetoclax-obinutuzumab are effective for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We hypothesised that frontline time-limited, minimal residual disease (MRD)-guided triplet therapy with acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab would induce deep (ie, more patients with undetectable MRD) and durable remissions.

Methods: In this open-label, single-arm, investigator-sponsored, phase 2 study, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma were recruited from two academic hospitals in Boston, MA, USA. Read More

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September 2021

Shear strain and inflammation-induced fixed charge density loss in the knee joint cartilage following ACL injury and reconstruction: a computational study.

J Orthop Res 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, FI, 70210, Kuopio, Finland.

Excessive tissue deformation near cartilage lesions and acute inflammation within the knee joint after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and reconstruction surgery accelerate the loss of fixed charge density (FCD) and subsequent cartilage tissue degeneration. Here, we show how biomechanical and biochemical degradation pathways can predict FCD loss using a patient-specific finite element model of an ACL reconstructed knee joint exhibiting a chondral lesion. Biomechanical degradation was based on the excessive maximum shear strains that may result in cell apoptosis, while biochemical degradation was driven by the diffusion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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September 2021

A fixed multi-site interaction charge model for an accurate prediction of the QM/MM interactions.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center for Molecular Therapeutics and New Drug Development, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China.

A fixed multi-site interaction charge (FMIC) model was proposed for the accurate prediction of intermolecular electrostatic interactions based on the quantum mechanical linear response of a molecule to an external electric field. In such a model, some additional off-center interaction sites were added for capturing multipole interactions for a given molecule. By multivariate least-square fitting analysis of the calculated QM/MM interactions of a given molecule with the electrostatic environment and the electrostatic potentials of the environment at the pre-defined distributed interaction sites, the FMIC of the molecule was obtained. Read More

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September 2021

Brolucizumab in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Indian Real-World Experience: The BRAILLE Study.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 7;15:3787-3795. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Vitreoretinal Services, Disha Eye Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Purpose: To assess the short-term efficacy and safety profile of intravitreal brolucizumab injection in Indian eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) under real-world conditions.

Patients And Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective chart review of 94 eyes of 94 patients with nAMD (treatment-naïve and switch-therapy) undergoing brolucizumab therapy. Re-treatment as per pro-re-nata protocol was performed based on fixed visual and tomographic criteria. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic borrowing from a single prior data source using the conditional power prior.

J Biopharm Stat 2021 Jul;31(4):403-424

Division of Biostatistics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

The conditional power prior is a popular method to borrow information from a single prior data source. The amount of borrowing is controlled by the power parameter which is fixed before running the new study. However, fixing this parameter before running a new study is often difficult and may be unwise because if the outcomes in the current study are much different from the prior data outcomes, the power parameter cannot be changed to reflect a more appropriate degree of borrowing. Read More

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Glycine increases fat-free mass in malnourished haemodialysis patients: a randomized double-blind crossover trial.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Genomic Research Lab and Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Protein energy wasting is associated with negative outcome in patients under chronic haemodialysis (HD). Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may increase the muscle mass. This post hoc analysis of a controlled double-blind randomized crossover study assessed the impact of BCAAs on nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life. Read More

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September 2021

Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 14;9:CD010216. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts & The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. Some people who smoke use ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organizations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare providers and regulators want to know if ECs can help people quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. Read More

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September 2021

A systematic and meta-analysis study on the prevalence of tuberculosis and relative risk factors for prisoners in Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand. Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) among prisoners in Iran, by performing a systematic and meta-analysis study on the related articles.

Methodology: Scopus, Iran doc, Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Iran Medex, Magiran, SID, Google Scholar, and EBSCO were searched. After quality assessment of the articles, a fixed or random model, as appropriate, was used to pool the results in a meta-analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Rationality, Efficacy, Tolerability of Empagliflozin plus Linagliptin Combination for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic review of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Junior Resident, SVSMCH, Hyderabad. India.

Background: Treatment of diabetes mellitus includes more than one drug of different groups, which may lead to high pill burden and non-adherence to drugs. We have aimed to systematically analyze the clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacoeconomic cost-effectiveness of the fixed-dose combination of empagliflozin plus a linagliptin in Type-2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: A literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and EMBASE was performed using the MeSH terms and/or keywords"((Single-pill combination) OR ((Fixed-dose combination) OR (Combination therapy)) AND (Empagliflozin add on-to Linagliptin) OR (Empagliflozin combined with Linagliptin) OR ((Combination of Empagliflozin and Linagliptin)" from the inception to February2021. Read More

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September 2021

Portable and automated analyzer for rapid and high precision dissolution of drugs.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Aug 11;11(4):490-498. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Nanobiosensing and Nanobioanalysis at Universities of Jilin Province, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, China.

We developed a novel portable and automated dissolution test analyzer for rapid and high precision in vitro dissolution testing of drugs. The analyzer consists of a flow-through-cell drug dissolution system, an automated sequential sampling system, a high-speed capillary electrophoresis (HSCE) system, and a data acquisition system. Combining the high-temporal resolution flow-gating sampling approach with HSCE, which has outstanding advantages of efficient separation and resolution, the analyzer can achieve rapid analysis and exhibits the ability in miniaturization for on-site assessment of different active pharmaceutical ingredients. Read More

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Randomised, double-blind comparison of a fixed co-formulation of intra-articular polynucleotides and hyaluronic acid versus hyaluronic acid alone in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: two-year follow-up.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 12;22(1):773. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Reconstructive Orthopaedic Surgery and Innovative Techniques - Musculoskeletal Tissue Bank, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via G.C. Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna, Italy.

Background: A first-year interim analysis of this two-year study suggested that intra-articular injections of highly purified, natural-origin polynucleotides and hyaluronic acid (HA) as a fixed combination (PNHA) might improve knee function and joint pain more effectively than HA alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the second-year analysis herein described was to verify whether the first-year interim outcomes persist over the whole two-year period.

Methods: Randomised, double-blind, HA-controlled clinical trial in 100 knee OA patients (98 randomised, 79 completing the study) in a high-specialisation tertiary care setting. Read More

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September 2021

Use of Statins as Lipid Lowering Agent in Hypercholesterolemia in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2020 Dec 31;58(232):1031-1035. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, Kathmandu Medical College, Duwakot, Bhaktapur, Nepal.

Introduction: Lipids contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity that can lead to different cardiovascular diseases. Statins are hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase inhibitors that effectively lower the cholesterol level. It is widely prescribed in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Read More

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December 2020

A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Compare Conventional Drug Instillation to A Device Dropper Method in Medical Treatment of Glaucoma.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021 Sep 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Glaucoma services., Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India.

Purpose: To compare and analyze the performance of a device dropper (DD) over conventional drop instillation (CDI) method on ease of administration, compliance, patient satisfaction, and intraocular pressure (IOP) control in persons with glaucoma on ocular hypotensive medications.

Methods: We enrolled 72 individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, on treatment with fixed combination (α agonist+β blocker) drugs for at least 6 months. These were randomized into two groups (36 in each arm). Read More

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September 2021

Development of weight and age-based dosing of daily primaquine for radical cure of vivax malaria.

Malar J 2021 Sep 9;20(1):366. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/60 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Background: In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0. Read More

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September 2021

Nitric Oxide Modulation as a Potential Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Protective Role of NaHS in Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Minia University Faculty of Medicine, Minia. Egypt.

Background And Aim: Liver IR is a frequent clinical complication with high morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluated the possible protective effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, in IR-induced hepatic injury and explored the mechanisms of actions of the investigated drug.

Methods: Male albino rats (200-230 g) were divided into the following groups: group 1:Sham-operated non treated rats, group 2: IR non treated rats, group 3: L-NNA + IR rats, group 4: NaHS + IR rats, group 5: L-NNA + NaHS + IR rats. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of the Efficacy, Tolerability and Side Effect Profile of Vildagliptin-Metformin with Metformin-GlibenclamideMamong Nigerian.

West Afr J Med 2021 08;38(8):756-761

Department of Medicine, Bayero University / Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. E-mail:

Background: The use of fixed dose combination oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients is becoming popular among clinicians. Reduced pill burden with fixed combination OADs is generally perceived to improve adherence and efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability and side effects (SEs) profile of vildagliptin-metformin (VM) combination with metformin-glibenclamide (MG) combination in type 2 DM patients at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH). Read More

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Best Practices for Spatial Profiling for Breast Cancer Research with the GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 4;13(17). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.

Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease with variability in tumor cells and in the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Understanding the molecular diversity in breast cancer is critical for improving prediction of therapeutic response and prognostication. High-plex spatial profiling of tumors enables characterization of heterogeneity in the breast TME, which can holistically illuminate the biology of tumor growth, dissemination and, ultimately, response to therapy. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of β-Phenylethylamine on Psychomotor, Rewarding, and Reinforcing Behaviors and Affective State: The Role of Dopamine D1 Receptors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Pharmacology and Drug Abuse Research Group, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon 34114, Korea.

Beta-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) is a well-known and widespread endogenous neuroactive trace amine found throughout the central nervous system in humans. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of β-PEA on psychomotor, rewarding, and reinforcing behaviors and affective state using the open-field test, conditioned place preference (CPP), self-administration, and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) paradigms. We also investigated the role of the dopamine (DA) D1 receptor in the behavioral effects of β-PEA in rodents. Read More

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Long-acting antiretrovirals: a new era for the management and prevention of HIV infection.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Service and Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The long-acting antiretroviral cabotegravir and rilpivirine combination has just received FDA, EMA and Health Canada approval. This novel drug delivery approach is about to revolutionize the therapy of people living with HIV, decreasing the 365 daily pill burden to only six intramuscular injections per year. In addition, islatravir, a first-in-class nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor, is intended to be formulated as an implant with a dosing interval of 1 year or more. Read More

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September 2021

The bioequivalence of fixed-dose combination tablets of bisoprolol and ramipril and its drug-drug interaction potential.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Altasciences, Laval, Quebec, Canada.

Chronic antihypertensive treatment often includes combination of two or more therapies with complementary mechanism of action targeting different blood pressure (BP) control system. If available, these components are recommended to be administered as a fixed-dose combination (FDC) to reduce tablet burden, improve adherence and thus BP control. A combination of ramipril (RAMI) and bisoprolol (BISO) is one of the options used in clinical practice and is supported by therapeutic guidelines. Read More

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September 2021

Skin Resident Memory T Cells May Play Critical Role in Delayed-Type Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:654190. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Dermatology, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Delayed-type drug hypersensitivity reactions (dtDHR) are immune-mediated reactions with skin and visceral manifestations ranging from mild to severe. Clinical care is negatively impacted by a limited understanding of disease pathogenesis. Though T cells are believed to orchestrate disease, the type of T cell and the location and mechanism of T cell activation remain unknown. Read More

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Visual acuity outcomes of anti-VEGF treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in clinical trials.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Anti-VEGF treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has been evaluated in clinical trials. To select the best anti-VEGF drug and the best treatment regimen for nAMD, a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each anti-VEGF drug and treatment regimen is essential. In this review, we summarized visual acuity (VA) changes in 30 previous clinical trials of anti-VEGF treatment for nAMD. Read More

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September 2021

Capturing patient-reported and quality of life outcomes with use of shorter regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis: mixed-methods substudy protocol, TB PRACTECAL-PRO.

BMJ Open 2021 09 6;11(9):e043954. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Manson Unit, Médecins Sans Frontières, London, UK.

Introduction: People living with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis currently have few options for effective treatment and cure. Regimens that are available are toxic, may involve injections and take up to 2 years to complete treatment, with success rates as low as 50%. The TB-PRACTECAL trial is evaluating shorter, more tolerable regimens of oral drugs; we detail the substudy within this trial, PRACTECAL-PRO, which aims to evaluate patient experiences and perspectives on treatment, to understand outcomes more fully. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical effect and safety of venous access ports and peripherally inserted central catheters in patients receiving tumor chemotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug;10(8):9105-9113

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hainan Western Centra Hospital, Danzhou, China.

Background: To evaluate the effects and safety of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and venous access ports (PORTs) for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Methods: We searched randomized controlled trials and retrospective cohort studies comparing PICCs to PORTs in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Read More

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Efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hormones, oxidative stress, and inflammatory parameters among polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug;10(8):8991-9001

Shaanxi Institution of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Xi'an, China.

Background: There is a close relationship between hormones, oxidative stress, and inflammatory factors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the changes in hormones, oxidative stress, and inflammatory factors of PCOS patients who were supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs).

Methods: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science were searched from inception to February 2021. Read More

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NEPA (netupitant/palonosetron) for the antiemetic prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy (CINV) with Folfirinox and Folfoxiri even during the COVID-19 pandemic: a real-life study.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 08;25(16):5310-5317

Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Sciences, Section of Medical Oncology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Objective: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the treatment of cancer patients, with particular regard to the management of both chemotherapy and side effects. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are amongst the most troublesome side effects that impair patients' adherence to treatments and their quality of life (QoL). NEPA (Akynzeo®), is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant [a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), 300 mg] and palonosetron [(5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5HT) type3 receptor antagonist (5HT3RA), 0. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine as pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials.

Lancet Reg Health Am 2021 Aug 29:100062. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Health Sciences Graduate Program, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an anti-malarial and immunomodulatory drug considered a potential candidate for drug repurposing in COVID-19 due to their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the potential antiviral effects and anti-inflammatory profile, the results based on clinical studies are contradictory. Therefore, the quality of the decision-making process from meta-analyses summarizing the available evidence selecting studies with different designs and unblinded trials is limited. Read More

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A Natural Experiment to Test the Effect of Sanction Certainty and Celerity on Substance-Impaired Driving: North Dakota's 24/7 Sobriety Program.

J Quant Criminol 2021 Sep 4;37(3):647-670. Epub 2020 May 4.

University of Pennsylvania Law School, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objectives: Evaluate the deterrent effect of a program that increases the certainty and celerity of sanction for arrestees ordered to abstain from alcohol and other drugs on substance-impaired driving arrests.

Methods: We examine participant compliance with orders to abstain from alcohol and other drug use via breathalyzer, body-worn continuous alcohol monitoring (CAM) devices, transdermal drug patches, and urinalyses. We then evaluate the impact of the 24/7 Sobriety program on substance-impaired driving arrests. Read More

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September 2021