19,638 results match your criteria fission

Methamphetamine exposure induces neuronal programmed necrosis by activating the receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 -related signalling pathway.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21561

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.

Methamphetamine (METH) is a synthetic drug with severe neurotoxicity, however, the regulation of METH-induced neuronal programmed necrosis remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of METH-induced neuronal programmed necrosis. We found that neuronal programmed necrosis occurred in the striatum of brain samples from human and mice that were exposed to METH. Read More

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Covariance distributions in single particle tracking.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032405

Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

Several recent experiments, including our own experiments in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, have characterized the motions of gene loci within living nuclei by measuring the locus position over time, then proceeding to obtain the statistical properties of this motion. To address the question of whether a population of such single-particle tracks, obtained from many different cells, corresponds to a single mode of diffusion, we derive theoretical equations describing the probability distribution of the displacement covariance, assuming the displacement itself is a zero-mean multivariate Gaussian random variable. We also determine the corresponding theoretical means, variances, and third central moments. Read More

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CSNK1G2 differently sensitizes tamoxifen-induced decrease in PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K and ERK signaling according to the estrogen receptor existence in breast cancer cells.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0246264. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do, Republic of Korea.

Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator used for breast cancer patients. Prolonged use of tamoxifen is not recommended for some patients. In this study, we aimed to identify molecular targets sensitive to TAM using a genome-wide gene deletion library screening of fission yeast heterozygous mutants. Read More

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Tempo and mode in karyotype evolution revealed by a probabilistic model incorporating both chromosome number and morphology.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 16;17(4):e1009502. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Ecological Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan.

Karyotype, including the chromosome and arm numbers, is a fundamental genetic characteristic of all organisms and has long been used as a species-diagnostic character. Additionally, karyotype evolution plays an important role in divergent adaptation and speciation. Centric fusion and fission change chromosome numbers, whereas the intra-chromosomal movement of the centromere, such as pericentric inversion, changes arm numbers. Read More

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Experimental Evidence for Common Driving Effects in Low-Energy Fission from Sublead to Actinides.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(13):132502

Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan, France.

Isotopic distributions of fragments from fission of the neutron-deficient ^{178}Hg nuclide are reported. This experimental observable is obtained for the first time in the region around lead using an innovative approach based on inverse kinematics and the coincidence between the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ and a new detection arm close to the target. The average fragment N/Z ratio and prompt neutron M_{n} multiplicity are derived and compared with current knowledge from actinide fission. Read More

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Actinide Crystallization and Fission Reactions in Cooling White Dwarf Stars.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(13):131101

Illinois State University, Department of Physics, Normal, Illinois 61790, USA.

The first solids that form as a cooling white dwarf (WD) starts to crystallize are expected to be greatly enriched in actinides. This is because the melting points of WD matter scale as Z^{5/3} and actinides have the largest charge Z. We estimate that the solids may be so enriched in actinides that they could support a fission chain reaction. Read More

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Live-cell single-molecule tracking highlights requirements for stable Smc5/6 chromatin association .

Elife 2021 Apr 16;10. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

The essential Smc5/6 complex is required in response to replication stress and is best known for ensuring the fidelity of homologous recombination. Using single-molecule tracking in live fission yeast to investigate Smc5/6 chromatin association, we show that Smc5/6 is chromatin associated in unchallenged cells and this depends on the non-SMC protein Nse6. We define a minimum of two Nse6-dependent sub-pathways, one of which requires the BRCT-domain protein Brc1. Read More

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Neuromedin U uses Gαi2 and Gαo to suppress glucose-stimulated Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0250232. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly conserved peptide in mammals, is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes, including impairment of pancreatic β-cell function via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ultimately suppressing insulin secretion. NMU has two receptors, NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and NMUR2, both of which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Only NMUR1 is expressed in mouse islets and β cell-derived MIN6-K8 cells. Read More

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TcO Separation through Selective Crystallization Assisted by Polydentate Benzene-Aminoguanidinium Ligands.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Tc is one of the most abundant radiotoxic isotopes in used nuclear fuel with a high fission yield and a long half-life. Effective removal of pertechnetate (TcO) from an aqueous solution is important for nuclear waste separation and remediation. Herein, we report a series of facilely obtained benzene-linked guanidiniums that could precipitate TcO and its nonradioactive surrogate ReO from a high-concentration acidic solution through self-assembly crystallization. Read More

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Dynamical analysis of the fission yeast cell cycle via Markov chain.

Curr Genet 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The cell cycle is a complex network involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Intrinsic molecular noise in gene expression in the cell cycle network can generate fluctuations in protein concentration. How the cell cycle network maintains its robust transitions between cell cycle phases in the presence of these fluctuations remains unclear. Read More

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Mitochondrial membrane tension governs fission.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):108947

Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; National Centre for Competence in Research Programme Chemical Biology, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

During mitochondrial fission, key molecular and cellular factors assemble on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where they coordinate to generate constriction. Constriction sites can eventually divide or reverse upon disassembly of the machinery. However, a role for membrane tension in mitochondrial fission, although speculated, has remained undefined. Read More

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COPII collar defines the boundary between ER and ER exit site and does not coat cargo containers.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun;220(6)

Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

COPII and COPI mediate the formation of membrane vesicles translocating in opposite directions within the secretory pathway. Live-cell and electron microscopy revealed a novel mode of function for COPII during cargo export from the ER. COPII is recruited to membranes defining the boundary between the ER and ER exit sites, facilitating selective cargo concentration. Read More

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Parkin-independent mitophagy via Drp1-mediated outer membrane severing and inner membrane ubiquitination.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun;220(6)

Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Here, we report that acute reduction in mitochondrial translation fidelity (MTF) causes ubiquitination of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) proteins, including TRAP1 and CPOX, which occurs selectively in mitochondria with a severed outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Ubiquitinated IMM recruits the autophagy machinery. Inhibiting autophagy leads to increased accumulation of mitochondria with severed OMM and ubiquitinated IMM. Read More

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DDAH2 suppresses RLR-MAVS-mediated innate antiviral immunity by stimulating nitric oxide-activated, Drp1-induced mitochondrial fission.

Sci Signal 2021 Apr 13;14(678). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences; Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Beijing Key Laboratory for Cancer Invasion and Metastasis, Department of Oncology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

The RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway is pivotal for innate immunity against invading viruses, and dysregulation of this molecular cascade has been linked to various diseases. Here, we identified dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) as a potent regulator of the RLR-mediated antiviral response in human and mouse. Overexpression of DDAH2 attenuated RLR signaling, whereas loss of DDAH2 function enhanced RLR signaling and suppressed viral replication ex vivo and in mice. Read More

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Involvement of mitochondrial fission in renal tubular pyroptosis in mice exposed to high and environmental levels of glyphosate combined with hard water.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 5;283:117082. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC) has reached epidemic proportions. The combination of glyphosate and hard water has been postulated to play a potent aetiological role in CINAC. Therefore, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated aberrant mitochondrial fission and subsequent activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (Nlrp3)/caspase1 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of nephropathy. Read More

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Uranium integral fission product yields for a spectrally-shaped 14.1 MeV neutron source at the National Ignition Facility.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Apr 3;173:109711. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, WPAFB, OH, 45433, USA.

This paper describes the experimental results for an energy tuning assembly created to modify the National Ignition Facility deuterium-tritium fusion neutron source into a notional thermonuclear and prompt fission neutron spectrum, which has applications in integral measurements, nuclear data benchmarks, and radiation effects on microelectronics. The Monte Carlo neutron transport utilized MCNP5 to estimate the ETA-modified fluence using the ENDF-B/VIII.0 and IRDFF-II continuous energy nuclear data libraries, and SCALE Sampler was used to estimate the systematic nuclear data covariance using ENDF-B/VII. Read More

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Organic Nanoparticles-Assisted Low-Power STED Nanoscopy.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy plays a key role in achieving sub-50 nm high spatial resolution for subcellular live-cell imaging. To avoid re-excitation, the STED wavelength has to be tuned at the red tail of the emission spectrum of fluorescent probes, leading to high depletion laser power that might damage the cell viability and functionality. Herein, with the highly emissive silica-coated core-shell organic nanoparticles (CSONPs) enabling a giant Stokes shift of 150 nm, ultralow power STED is achieved by shifting the STED wavelength to the emission maximum at 660 nm. Read More

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Fusion and fission events regulate endosome maturation and viral escape.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7845. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Endosomes are intracellular vesicles that mediate the communication of the cell with its extracellular environment. They are an essential part of the cell's machinery regulating intracellular trafficking via the endocytic pathway. Many viruses, which in order to replicate require a host cell, attach themselves to the cellular membrane; an event which usually initiates uptake of a viral particle through the endocytic pathway. Read More

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Three in one: evolution of viviparity, coenocytic placenta and polyembryony in cyclostome bryozoans.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 12;21(1):54. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaja nab. 7/9, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Background: Placentation has evolved multiple times among both chordates and invertebrates. Although they are structurally less complex, invertebrate placentae are much more diverse in their origin, development and position. Aquatic colonial suspension-feeders from the phylum Bryozoa acquired placental analogues multiple times, representing an outstanding example of their structural diversity and evolution. Read More

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CFTR chloride channel activity modulates the mitochondrial morphology in cultured epithelial cells.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Apr 9:105976. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED), School of Medical Sciences, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), the National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

The impairment of the CFTR channel activity, a cAMP-activated chloride (Cl-) channel responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), has been associated with a variety of mitochondrial alterations such as modified gene expression, impairment in oxidative phosphorylation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a disbalance in calcium homeostasis. The mechanisms by which these processes occur in CF are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated a reduced MTND4 expression and a failure in the mitochondrial complex I (mCx-I) activity in CF cells. Read More

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Combined effects of a ketogenic diet and exercise training alter mitochondrial and peroxisomal substrate oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, United States.

Ketogenic diets (KD) are reported to improve body weight, fat mass, and exercise performance in humans. Unfortunately, most rodent studies have used a low-protein KD, which does not recapitulate diets used by humans. Since skeletal muscle plays a critical role in responding to macronutrient perturbations induced by diet and exercise, the purpose of this study was to test if a normal-protein KD (NPKD) impacts shifts in skeletal muscle substrate oxidative capacity in response to exercise training (ExTr). Read More

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High-Lying 3A Dark-State-Mediated Singlet Fission.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

Singlet fission (SF), the conversion of one high-energy singlet to two low-energy triplets, provides the potential to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In the SF chromophores with symmetry, exemplified by polyenes, singlet-to-triplet conversion generally involves a low-lying 2A dark state, which serves as either a multiexciton (ME) intermediate to promote the SF process or a parasitic trap state to shunt excited-state populations via internal conversion. This controversial behavior calls for a deep understanding of dark-state-related photophysics involving the higher-lying singlet state. Read More

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Mitochondrial OMA1 and OPA1 as Gatekeepers of Organellar Structure/Function and Cellular Stress Response.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:626117. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, United States.

Mammalian mitochondria are emerging as a critical stress-responsive contributor to cellular life/death and developmental outcomes. Maintained as an organellar network distributed throughout the cell, mitochondria respond to cellular stimuli and stresses through highly sensitive structural dynamics, particularly in energetically demanding cell settings such as cardiac and muscle tissues. Fusion allows individual mitochondria to form an interconnected reticular network, while fission divides the network into a collection of vesicular organelles. Read More

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Mitochondrial Fission Protein 1: Emerging Roles in Organellar Form and Function in Health and Disease.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:660095. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1) was identified in yeast as being essential for mitochondrial division or fission and subsequently determined to mediate human mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Yet, its exact functions in humans, especially in regard to mitochondrial fission, remains an enigma as genetic deletion of Fis1 elongates mitochondria in some cell types, but not others. Fis1 has also been identified as an important component of apoptotic and mitophagic pathways suggesting the protein may have multiple, essential roles. Read More

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Radioactive waste treatments by using zeolites. A short review.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Apr 8;233:106610. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México, C. P. 52750, Mexico. Electronic address:

Radionuclides in the environment is an important issue, many techniques have been developed for the removal of radionuclides from the environment. One of those techniques is the adsorption and natural and synthesized materials have been used to remove different radionuclides from water. The adsorbents used for removal of radionuclides should have high retention capacity and they should be resistant to radiation. Read More

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A novel role of claudin-5 in prevention of mitochondrial fission against ischemic/hypoxic stress in cardiomyocytes.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Downregulation of claudin-5 in the heart is associated with the end-stage heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism of claudin-5 is unclear. Here we investigated the molecular actions of claudin-5 in perspective of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes to better understand the role of claudin-5 in cardioprotection during ischemia. Read More

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Different characteristics of mitochondrial dynamics-related miRNAs on the hemodynamics of pulmonary artery hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

J Cardiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Hypertension, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fission or fusion. These mitochondrial dynamics are reported to be associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is divided into 5 groups, including pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), based on its pathogenesis. Read More

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DNMT1 maintains metabolic fitness of adipocytes through acting as an epigenetic safeguard of mitochondrial dynamics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Adipocyte Structure and Function, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea;

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a key regulator of systemic energy metabolism, and impaired WAT plasticity characterized by enlargement of preexisting adipocytes associates with WAT dysfunction, obesity, and metabolic complications. However, the mechanisms that retain proper adipose tissue plasticity required for metabolic fitness are unclear. Here, we comprehensively showed that adipocyte-specific DNA methylation, manifested in enhancers and CTCF sites, directs distal enhancer-mediated transcriptomic features required to conserve metabolic functions of white adipocytes. Read More

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A conserved Ctp1/CtIP C-terminal peptide stimulates Mre11 endonuclease activity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

School and Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503, Japan;

The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) is important for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). The endonuclease activity of MRN is critical for resecting 5'-ended DNA strands at DSB ends, producing 3'-ended single-strand DNA, a prerequisite for HR. This endonuclease activity is stimulated by Ctp1, the homolog of human CtIP. Read More

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Theoretical Study on Singlet Fission in Aromatic Diaza -Indacene Dimers.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Materials Engineering Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.

We theoretically show that diaza (N)-substitution to -indacene with 4 π-electrons, by which the number of π-electrons in N--indacene amounts to 4+2, is a new strategy to design efficient singlet fission (SF) molecules. By N-substitution, the diradical character and the exchange integral are found to be tuned moderately, leading to satisfying the excitation energy level matching condition for SF with a large triplet excitation energy. On the basis of the effective electronic coupling related to the SF rate, we explore the optimal slip-stack dimer packings for fast SF. Read More

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