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The effect of oral omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on muscle maintenance and quality of life in patients with cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3815-3826. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Bond University Nutrition and Dietetics Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; Dietetics and Foodservices, Mater Health, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Mater Research Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background & Aims: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has been proposed as a potential therapy for cancer-related malnutrition, which affects up to 70% of patients with cancer. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of oral omega-3 PUFA supplementation on muscle maintenance, quality of life, body weight and treatment-related toxicities in patients with cancer.

Methods: Randomised controlled trials in patients with cancer aged ≥18 years were retrieved from 5 electronic databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL (via EBSCOhost), and Web of Science, from database inception until 31st of December 2019. Read More

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Exp Parasitol 2021 Jun 12:108125. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health problem and is described as one of the most neglected diseases worldwide. It affects about 6-7 million people. Currently, only two drugs are available for the treatment of this disease: nifurtimox and benznidazole. Read More

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Land-use dynamics associated with mangrove deforestation for aquaculture and the subsequent abandonment of ponds.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 7;791:148320. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara (The Nature Conservancy in Indonesia), Graha Iskandarsyah 3rd Floor, Jl. Iskandarsyah Raya No. 66C, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta, 12160, Indonesia.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of large area mangrove deforestation, aquaculture pond building, and the subsequent abandonment of ponds in a large delta in Indonesia, namely the Mahakam Delta. So, we developed and applied a novel methodology for exploring the lifespan of aquaculture ponds. Using historical multispectral and radar data, the lifespans of aquaculture ponds across the delta were estimated via a chronological analysis of the landscape into four different states: primary mangroves → deforested mangroves → ponds → abandoned/inactive ponds. Read More

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Long term salinity disrupts the hepatic function, intestinal health, and gills antioxidative status in Nile tilapia stressed with hypoxia.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 10;220:112412. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Center for Applied Research on the Environment and Sustainability, The American University in Cairo, 11835 Cairo, Egypt; Department of Engineering Hydrology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

In aquaculture, fish are stressed with several factors involved in impacting the growth rate and health status. Although Nile tilapia can resist brackish water conditions, hypoxia status may impair the health condition of fish. Nile tilapia were exposed to salinity water at 0, 10, and 20‰ for four weeks then the growth behavior was checked. Read More

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Heterogeneous histories of recombination suppression on stickleback sex chromosomes.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.

How consistent are the evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes shortly after they form? Insights into the evolution of recombination, differentiation, and degeneration can be provided by comparing closely related species with homologous sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and its sister species, the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus), have been well characterized. Read More

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First Record of the Cymothoid Isopod Nerocila exocoeti Pillai, 1954 (Crustacea, Isopoda) in the South-West Indian Ocean and First Record of a Perciform Host, Echeneis naucrates, for this Species.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Save Our Seas Foundation-D'Arros Research Centre (SOSF-DRC), Rue Philippe Plantamour 20, 1201, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose: Cymothoid isopods of the genus Nerocila are generally poorly known. The aim of this work was to document the first record of cymothoid isopod Nerocila exocoeti for the South-West Indian Ocean, representing a significant westward range extension for this species.

Methods: A single adult, female N. Read More

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An in vivo reporter for tracking lipid droplet dynamics in transparent zebrafish.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States.

Lipid droplets are lipid storage organelles found in nearly all cell types from adipocytes to cancer cells. Although increasingly implicated in disease, current methods to study lipid droplets in vertebrate models rely on static imaging or the use of fluorescent dyes, limiting investigation of their rapid in vivo dynamics. To address this, we created a lipid droplet transgenic reporter in whole animals and cell culture by fusing tdTOMATO to Perilipin-2 (PLIN2), a lipid droplet structural protein. Read More

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Association Between Rare Earth Element Cerium and the Risk of Oral Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

Front Public Health 2021 25;9:647120. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Cerium (Ce), the most abundant of rare earth elements in the earth's crust, has received much health concerns due to its wide application in industry, agriculture, and medicine. The current study aims to evaluate whether there is an association between Ce exposures and the risk of developing oral cancer. Serum Ce level of 324 oral cancer patients and 650 matched healthy controls were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Read More

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LncRNA HAS2-AS1 Promotes Glioblastoma Proliferation by Sponging miR-137.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:634893. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

GBM (Glioblastoma multiform) is the most malignant tumor type of the central nervous system and has poor diagnostic and clinical outcomes. LncRNAs (Long non-coding RNAs) have been reported to participate in multiple biological and pathological processes, but their underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to explore the role of the lncRNA HAS2-AS1 (HAS2 antisense RNA 1) in GBM. Read More

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Circular RNA circHIPK3 Activates Macrophage NLRP3 Inflammasome and TLR4 Pathway in Gouty Arthritis via Sponging miR-561 and miR-192.

Inflammation 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1, Jianshe East Road, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan Province, China.

Increasing evidences indicate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expressions in various diseases. However, the role of circRNAs in inflammatory response of gouty arthritis remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of circHIPK3 in inflammatory response of gouty arthritis. Read More

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A Comparative Study of Human and Zebrafish Pregnane X Receptor Activities of Pesticides and Steroids Using Reporter Gene Assays.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 18;12:665521. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier (IRCM), Inserm U1194, Institut Régional du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM), Université Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in mammals. Many studies suggest that PXR may play a similar role in fish. The interaction of human PXR (hPXR) with a variety of structurally diverse endogenous and exogenous chemicals is well described. Read More

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First report of tilapia lake virus emergence in fish farms in the department of Córdoba, Colombia.

Vet World 2021 Apr 10;14(4):865-872. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Biological Research of the Tropic, University of Córdoba, Colombia.

Background And Aim: In 2016, the tilapia-producing farms in the department of Córdoba, Colombia, had witnessed outbreaks of disease with clinical signs compatible with those caused by the tilapia lake virus (TiLV). This study was conducted to confirm the presence of TiLV in some fish farms in the department of Córdoba.

Materials And Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in seven farms using a non-random sampling method from July 2016 to December 2017. Read More

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Mesoporous Mn-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods obtained via pyridinium chloride enabled microwave-assisted synthesis by utilizing Donax variabilis seashells for implant applications.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 6;126:112170. Epub 2021 May 6.

Tissue Engineering Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Manganese-doped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MnHAp) nanorods, a bio-apatite were synthesized via pyridinium chloride mediated microwave approach using bio-waste Donax variabilis seashells to treat orthopedic infections. This is the first report on using pyridinium chloride mediated mesoporous MnHAp nanorods synthesis. Pure and Mn doped HAp samples were examined using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies to confirm the prepared HAp nanorods. Read More

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Age and growth of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) around Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

UMR ENTROPIE (Université de La Réunion, IRD, CNRS, Université de Nouvelle-Calédonie, IFREMER), Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, France.

Sharks exhibit varied demographic strategies depending on both the species and the population location, which make them more or less vulnerable to fishing. Accurate evaluation of local age and growth parameters is therefore fundamental for the sustainable management of their stocks. Although demographic parameters have been assessed for bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) populations in several locations of the world, this information was missing so far around the Reunion Island, in the South West Indian Ocean. Read More

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LncRNA HOXA-AS2 Activates the Notch Pathway to Promote Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital, Ningbo, 315000, Zhejiang, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial participants in cancer development. HOXA cluster antisense RNA 2 (HOXA-AS2) plays a tumor promoter role in bladder cancer. However, the functional role of HOXA-AS2 in cervical cancer remains unclear. Read More

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Evidence of determinate growth in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) based on long-term recapture and osteohistological confirmation.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center, Georgetown, South Carolina, USA.

Despite the general perception that crocodilians exhibit indeterminate growth, recent long-term field studies and laboratory investigations have independently suggested that growth in these animals is determinate. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine skeletal growth in a wild adult American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) based on change in body length measurements (snout-vent length) in the field and confirm these findings using osteohistological analyses (presence/absence of an external fundamental system [EFS]) of long bones. The alligator was captured and measured five times over 7 years and exhibited no discernable growth during that period, suggesting skeletal maturity had been attained at or prior to its first capture. Read More

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Successful Use of Geochemical Tools to Trace the Geographic Origin of Long-Snouted Seahorse Raised in Captivity.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

ECOMARE, CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Santiago University Campus, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

The global market of dried seahorses mainly supplies Traditional Chinese Medicine and still relies on blurry trade chains that often cover less sustainable practices targeting these pricey and endangered fish. As such, reliable tools that allow the enforcement of traceability, namely to confirm the geographic origin of traded seahorses, are urgently needed. The present study evaluated the use of elemental fingerprints (EF) in the bony structures of long-snouted seahorses raised in captivity in two different locations (southern Portugal and Northern Spain) to discriminate their geographic origin. Read More

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Copy Number Profiles of Prostate Cancer in Men of Middle Eastern Ancestry.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary-Cumming School of Medicine and Alberta Precision Labs, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada.

Our knowledge of prostate cancer (PCa) genomics mainly reflects European (EUR) and Asian (ASN) populations. Our understanding of the influence of Middle Eastern (ME) and African (AFR) ancestry on the mutational profiles of prostate cancer is limited. To characterize genomic differences between ME, EUR, ASN, and AFR ancestry, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies for deletion and MYC amplification were carried out on 42 tumors arising in individuals of ME ancestry. Read More

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: MALDI-TOF MS and Whole Genome Sequencing Confirm That Serotypes K, L and M Deviate from Well-Known Reference Strains and Numerous Field Isolates.

Microorganisms 2021 May 7;9(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

is one of the most important bacterial agents of respiratory diseases in poultry. For correct identification and characterization of this fastidious bacterium, reliable diagnostic tools are essential. Still, phenotypic tests are used to identify and serotyping is the most common method for characterization, despite known drawbacks and disadvantages such as divergent results, cross-reactivity between strains, or the non-typeability of strains. Read More

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Genetic Variation between Triploid and Diploid (Burchell, 1822) Using RAPD Markers.

Vet Sci 2021 May 4;8(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus 21030, Malaysia.

This study was designed to examine the use of RAPD markers in discriminating triploid and diploid African catfish (Burchell, 1822). Following a routine technique, triploidy was induced by cold shock and confirm by erythrocyte measurement in . Thereafter, 80 RAPD markers were screened; out of which, three showed the highest percentage of polymorphism (i. Read More

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CHL1 deletion is associated with cognitive and language disabilities - Case report and review of literature.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 May 31:e1725. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Cytogenetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Background: There is a small, but growing number of reports of pediatric patients with terminal deletions at 3p26.3 involving only the cell adhesion molecule L1-like (CHL1) gene that has been found to have language delays and intellectual disability. Here we report a one month of age patient who developed seizures and tone abnormalities, with persistent and prominent gross and fine motor delays. Read More

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Changes in Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) and other primate populations in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park and Oku Community Reserve, the heart of Grauer's gorilla global range.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 31:e23288. Epub 2021 May 31.

Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA.

Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) have declined drastically across their range in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Survey data analysed in 2016 estimated a 77% decline in numbers between the mid- 1990s and 2016 and predicted that Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP), and the contiguous Oku Community Reserve (OCR) held much of the global population. An estimate of 3800 Grauer's gorillas was made across its range at that time. Read More

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Protein kinase A activity and NO are involved in the regulation of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) red blood cell osmotic fragility.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Toreza, 44, St-Petersburg, Russia, 194223.

Activation of the cAMP pathway by β-adrenergic stimulation and cGMP pathway by activation of guanylate cyclase substantially affects red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties in mammals. However, whether similar mechanisms are involved in RBC regulation of lower vertebrates, especially teleosts, is not elucidated yet. In this study, we evaluated the effects of adenylate cyclase activation by epinephrine and forskolin, guanylate cyclase activation by sodium nitroprusside, and the role of Na/H-exchanger in the changes of osmotic fragility and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response in crucian carp RBCs. Read More

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Mercury concentration in the sentinel fish species Orthopristis ruber: Effects of environmental and biological factors and human risk assessment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 25;169:112508. Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos e Bioindicadores "Profa. Izabel Gurgel" (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The present study aimed to assess corocoro grunt use as bioindicator of Hg contamination in coastal marine systems by testing environmental (seasons) and biological effects (sexual maturity, size and weight) on THg accumulation and assessing human health risk. Fish was captured in winter and summer seasons at Vermelha Beach, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil. Adult O. Read More

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Spatiotemporal patterns of variability in the abundance and distribution of winter-spawned pelagic juvenile rockfish in the California Current.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251638. Epub 2021 May 27.

Fisheries Ecology Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Santa Cruz, CA, United States of America.

Rockfish are an important component of West Coast fisheries and California Current food webs, and recruitment (cohort strength) for rockfish populations has long been characterized as highly variable for most studied populations. Research efforts and fisheries surveys have long sought to provide greater insights on both the environmental drivers, and the fisheries and ecosystem consequences, of this variability. Here, variability in the temporal and spatial abundance and distribution patterns of young-of-the-year (YOY) rockfishes are described based on midwater trawl surveys conducted throughout the coastal waters of California Current between 2001 and 2019. Read More

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The relationship between flavor formation, lipid metabolism, and microorganisms in fermented fish products.

Food Funct 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Traditional fermented fish products are favored due to their unique flavors. The fermentation process of fish is accompanied by the formation of flavor substances through a complex metabolic reaction of microorganisms, especially lipolysis and lipid oxidation. However, it is difficult to precisely control the reaction of microorganisms during the fermentation process in modern industrial production, and fermented fish products have lost their traditional characteristic flavors. Read More

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Enzymatic, morphological, and genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.

Fish have defense systems that are capable of repairing damages caused by xenobiotics like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), so the aims of this study were to identify BaP toxicity in melanomacrophages (MMs) cytoskeleton, evaluate the melanin area in MMs, and analyze genotoxicity. Rainbow trout juveniles (n = 24) were split in 48h and 7d treatments that received 2 mg/kg of BaP. After the experiment, blood samples were collected and liver was removed, to proceed with the analysis: EROD activity, MMs melanin area quantification, melanosomes movements, and a genotoxicity test. Read More

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Adaptive coping strategies towards seasonal change impacts: Indonesian small-scale fisherman household.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 30;7(4):e06919. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Economic Development Department, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia.

Small-scale fishers are always expected to adapt to fishing activities that cannot be conducted all year round due to weather and fishing season. This condition, especially when it is not the fish season, makes fishers face a problem. Notwithstanding, fishermen households need to develop an adequate adaptation strategy to solve the problem of fulfilling their needs, known as coping strategies. Read More

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Genomic relatedness of a canine Lactococcus garvieae to human, animal and environmental isolates.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 4;137:170-173. Epub 2021 May 4.

Bacteriology, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Lactococcus (L.) garvieae is a zoonotic fish pathogen that can also cause bacteraemia and endocarditis in humans and has been isolated from healthy or diseased domestic animals. Nevertheless L. Read More

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Male and female reproductive fitness costs of an immune response in natural populations.

Evolution 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 06269, USA.

Parasites can mediate host fitness both directly, via effects on survival and reproduction, or indirectly by inducing host immune defense with costly side-effects. The evolution of immune defense is determined by a complex interplay of costs and benefits of parasite infection and immune response, all of which may differ for male and female hosts in sexual lineages. Here, we examine fitness costs associated with an inducible immune defense in a fish-cestode host-parasite system. Read More

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