77,178 results match your criteria first-line treatment


Intravenous high-dose methotrexate based systemic therapy in the treatment of isolated primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: an LOC network study.

Am J Hematol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Neurology, APHP, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

The treatment of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) remains controversial regarding the use of local, systemic, or combined treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy and toxicity of intravenous high-dose methotrexate (IV HD-MTX) based systemic therapy in a uniformly treated population of PVRL patients. From a nationwide French database, we retrospectively selected 59 patients (median age: 70 years, median Karnofsky Performance Status: 90%) with isolated PVRL at diagnosis who received first-line treatment with HD-MTX between 2011-2018. Read More

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Targeted therapy for pediatric low-grade glioma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. The standard approach for symptomatic unresectable tumors is chemotherapy. Recently, key molecular alterations/pathways have been identified and targeted drugs developed and tested in clinical trials. Read More

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Clinical Effectiveness of Second-line Sunitinib Following Immuno-oncology Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Real-world Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, Calgary, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Limited data exist on the clinical effectiveness of second-line (2L) vascular endothelial growth factor (receptor) targeted inhibitor (VEGF(R)i) sunitinib after first-line (1L) immuno-oncology (IO) therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in real-world settings.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study among adult patients with mRCC treated with 2L sunitinib following 1L IO was conducted from select International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) centers. All analyses were performed overall and by 1L ipilimumab + nivolumab (IPI+NIVO) or 1L IO+VEGF(R)i. Read More

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Tumor hypoxia: the major culprit behind cisplatin resistance in cancer patients.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Apr 13:103327. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of functional genomics, Structural biology & Bioinformatics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, TRUE Campus, CN Block-6, Sector V, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700 091, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201002, India. Electronic address:

Cisplatin is the most commonly used first-line drug for cancer treatment. However, many patients develop resistance to cisplatin therapy which ultimately results in therapy failure and increased mortality. A growing body of evidence shows that the hypoxic microenvironment is the prime factor underlying tumor insensitivity to cisplatin treatment. Read More

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Changes in treatment of community-onset Clostridioides difficile infection after release of updated guidelines, Atlanta, Georgia, 2018.

Anaerobe 2021 Apr 13:102364. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; Georgia Emerging Infections Program, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Updated Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) guidelines published in 2018 recommend vancomycin as first-line treatment. Of 833 community-onset CDI cases in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia in 2018, over half did not receive first-line treatment, although guideline adherence increased over the year. Second-line treatment was more common in patients treated in ambulatory settings. Read More

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Microglial IL-10 and β-endorphin expression mediates gabapentinoids antineuropathic pain.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

King's Lab, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Pharmacy, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Gabapentinoids are recommended first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. They are neuronal voltage-dependent calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit ligands and have been suggested to attenuate neuropathic pain via interaction with neuronal α2δ-1 subunit. However, the current study revealed their microglial mechanisms underlying antineuropathic pain. Read More

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Os acromiale : literature review and treatment options.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Dec;86(4):702-705

Os acromiale is due to a defect of fusion of the different ossification centers of the acromion. It is a common cause of shoulder pain that should be evoked in the differential diagnosis of the sub-acromial conflict. CT scan or magnetic resonance are therefore often helpful to confirm the diagnosis. Read More

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December 2020

Biologic Treatment Algorithms for Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis with Comorbid Conditions and Special Populations: A Review.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dermatology Research and Education Foundation, Irvine, CA, USA.

The emergence of data from clinical trials of biologics, the approval of new biologics, and our improved understanding of psoriasis pathogenesis have increased the therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Biologics currently approved for the treatment of psoriasis include tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitors, ustekinumab (an IL-12/23 inhibitor), and IL-23 inhibitors. Data from clinical trials and studies of the safety and efficacy of biologics provide essential information for the personalization of patient care. Read More

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Management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children update and recommendations on medical treatment.

Int Braz J Urol 2021 Feb 28;47. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Service of Urology, Italian Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: Defective closure of the neural tube affects different systems and generates sequelae, such as neurogenic bladder (NB). Myelomeningocele (MMC) represents the most frequent and most severe cause of NB in children. Damage of the renal parenchyma in children with NB acquired in postnatal stages is preventable given adequate evaluation, follow-up and proactive management. Read More

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February 2021

Predictors of Quality of Life Improvement with Escitalopram and Adjunctive Aripiprazole in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A CAN-BIND Study Report.

CNS Drugs 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 5950 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A1, Canada.

Background: Non-response to first-line treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is common; for such individuals, quality of life (QoL) impairments can be severe. Identifying predictors of QoL changes may support the management of cases with persistent depressive symptoms despite adequate initial pharmacological/psychological treatment.

Objective: The present study aimed to explore predictors of domain-specific QoL improvement following adjunctive aripiprazole treatment for inadequate response to initial antidepressant therapy. Read More

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IgG4-related kidney disease: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.

Clin Nephrol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized multisystem disease characterized by lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and fibrosis in affected tissues that can affect several organs including the kidney, the involvement of which is often manifested by tubulointerstitial nephritis. The pathogenic mechanisms of IgG4-RD are divided into two sections: one focused on potential initiation mechanisms, particularly genetic, and the other on specific pathological pathways. For the specific pathological pathways, cellular immunity, particularly T-cell mediated immunity, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. Read More

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Withholding vs. Continuing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Before Non-cardiac Surgery in Older Patients: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:654700. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Older hypertensive adults are at increased risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. As first line antihypertensive drug therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have many beneficial effects. However, the use of ACEIs/ARBs in the perioperative period remains controversial. Read More

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Comparison of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in bone with other sites: clinical characteristics, molecular features and immune status.

PeerJ 2021 31;9:e11133. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Urology, The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Gusu School, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is the lethal stage and the leading cause of death in prostate cancer patients, among which bone metastasis is the most common site. Here in this article, we downloaded the gene expression data and clinical information from online dataset. We found that prostate cancer metastasis in bone is prone to have higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and longer time on first-line androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI). Read More

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Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia as Presenting Symptom of Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Case Rep Hematol 2021 31;2021:5580823. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is related to an underlying condition in an estimated 50 to 60%, while the remaining is idiopathic, as a result of a combination of immune activation, deficiency, or dysregulation. AIHA is associated with viral infections, autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, lymphoproliferative disorders, and pregnancy. AIHA has predictive properties and may be a harbinger of future lymphoproliferative disorders in up to 20% of AIHA cases. Read More

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Bevacizumab-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and ERK Inactivation Contribute to Cardiotoxicity.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 17;2021:5548130. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Lung Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin 300060, China.

The molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiotoxicity associated with bevacizumab, a first-line immunotherapeutic agent used to treat lung cancer, are not fully understood. Here, we examined intracellular signal transduction in cardiomyocytes after exposure to different doses of bevacizumab . Our results demonstrated that bevacizumab significantly and dose-dependently reduces cardiomyocyte viability and increases cell apoptosis. Read More

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Lessons From Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Trials in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:652172. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) into the clinical management of different malignancies has largely changed our understanding of cancer treatment. After having proven efficacy in different tumor entities such as malignant melanoma and lung cancer, ICI were intensively tested in the setting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here they could achieve higher and more durable response rates compared to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI), that were sole standard of care for the last decade. Read More

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Optimal Sense-Making and Resilience in Times of Pandemic: Integrating Rationality and Meaning in Psychotherapy.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:645926. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Private Practice, Valencia, Spain.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a wide variety of psychological crises worldwide. In order to respond rapidly and efficiently to the complex challenges, mental health professionals are required to adopt a multidimensional and integrative view. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) founded by Albert Ellis promotes rationality and self-acceptance. Read More

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Second-line Eribulin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer patients. Multicentre Retrospective Study: The TETRIS Trial.

Int J Med Sci 2021 27;18(10):2245-2250. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Large and consistent evidence supports the use of eribulin mesylate in clinical practice in third or later line treatment of metastatic triple negative breast cancer (mTNBC). Conversely, there is paucity of data on eribulin efficacy in second line treatment. We investigated outcomes of 44 mTNBC patients treated from 2013 through 2019 with second line eribulin mesylate in a multicentre retrospective study involving 14 Italian oncologic centres. Read More

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Integrating Family-Based Treatment Principles in the Acute Inpatient Treatment of Adolescents with Restrictive Eating Disorders.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 9;14:449-454. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychiatric illnesses with one of the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. The health sequelae of eating disorders are one of the most common causes of medical hospitalizations at freestanding pediatric hospitals in the United States. The economic impact of EDs on health systems and families is substantial. Read More

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Emerging and Experimental Agents for Anal Cancer: What is New?

J Exp Pharmacol 2021 9;13:433-440. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Oncoclínicas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is an HPV-related malignancy with rising incidence in the past few decades in the US, characterized by high rates of complete response to chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. However, in a long-term follow-up, a meaningful subgroup of patients with locally advanced disease presents disease recurrence, which demands treatments with high morbidity and important impact in the quality of life. In metastatic or unresectable disease, palliative chemotherapy is the standard of care, but it is still associated with a dismal prognosis. Read More

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Walrus large bore guide catheter impact on recanalization first pass effect and outcomes: the WICkED study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lyerly Neurosurgery, Baptist Neurological Institute, Jacksonville, Florida, USA

Background: The use of a balloon-guide catheter (BGC) in acute stroke treatment has been widely adopted after demonstrating optimized procedure metrics and outcomes. Initial technical constraints of previous devices included catheter stiffness and smaller inner diameters. We aim to evaluate the performance and safety of the Walrus BGC, a variable stiffness catheter with a large bore 0. Read More

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Impact of systemic to topical steroids switch on the outcome of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): A monocenter retrospective study of 20 cases.

Ann Dermatol Venereol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Service de dermatologie, AP-HP, hôpitaux universitaires Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France; Université Paris Est Créteil, EpidermE, 94010 Créteil, France; Centre de référence des dermatoses bulleuses toxiques et toxidermies graves TOXIBUL, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France. Electronic address:

Background: There is no consensus on the treatment of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). At our center, systemic steroids (SS) are used for severe cases while topical steroids (TS) are used for mild and moderate forms.

Objectives: To investigate the short-term outcome for patients with DRESS receiving SS as first-line therapy before being transferred to our department and then switched to TS after admission. Read More

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Mirogabalin activates the descending noradrenergic system by binding to the αδ-1 subunit of voltage-gated Ca channels to generate analgesic effects.

J Pharmacol Sci 2021 May 7;146(1):33-39. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan; Medicinal Research Laboratories, School of Pharmacy, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan. Electronic address:

Gabapentinoids such as gabapentin and pregabalin, which bind specifically to the αδ subunit of voltage-gated Ca channels, are used for first-line treatment of neuropathic pain. Here, we examined the analgesic effect of mirogabalin besilate (referred to simply as mirogabalin), a novel gabapentinoid, focusing on its action on the spinal cord and the descending noradrenergic pain inhibitory system. When administered systemically (10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i. Read More

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MicroRNAs as the critical regulators of Doxorubicin resistance in breast tumor cells.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 15;21(1):213. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatment options for breast cancer (BC) patients. However, about half of the BC patients are chemotherapeutic resistant. Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered as one of the first line drugs in the treatment of BC patients whose function is negatively affected by multi drug resistance. Read More

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Benign juvenile idiopathic epilepsy in captive Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the ex situ conservation program (2005-2019).

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 15;17(1):165. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

NeurologiaVeterinaria, Getafe, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Benign juvenile idiopathic epilepsy has been described in humans but rarely in animals. The objectives of the study were to describe the clinical signs, clinical data, imaging findings, genetic examinations, treatment, long-term outcome and prognosis in Iberian lynx with juvenile epilepsy. Medical records, video recordings and diagnostic data from 2005 to 2019 were reviewed. Read More

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The Peculiar Clinical Symptoms and Treatment of Limbic Encephalitis Associated with AMPA Receptor Antibody.

Eur Neurol 2021 Apr 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) antibody-related diseases are very rare in autoimmune neurological diseases. We collected and analyzed the data of 3 patients with peculiar clinical manifestation positive for AMPA2-R antibody in the Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University. In our reported case series, 2 patients were male and 1 was female. Read More

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Managing multiple sclerosis in the Covid19 era: a review of the literature and consensus report from a panel of experts in Saudi Arabia.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 25;51:102925. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Itkan Health Consulting, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) act on the immune system, suggesting a need for caution during the SARS-CoV2/Covid-19 pandemic. A group of experts in MS care from Saudi Arabia convened to consider the impact of Covid-19 on MS care in that country, and to develop consensus recommendations on the current application of DMT therapy. Covid-19 has led to disruption to the care of MS in Saudi Arabia as elsewhere. Read More

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Responsiveness of Routine Diagnostic Tests for Vertebral Osteomyelitis May be Influenced by the Infecting Organism.

Spine J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Missouri Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) becomes increasingly more prevalent as people age, and it is a condition seen frequently by referral center spine surgeons. It can take as long as six months for a proper diagnosis to be made. Staphylococcus aureus (S. Read More

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The pediatric psychopharmacology of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review - Part I: The past and the present.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 12:110326. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe and lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with high social costs and a dramatic burden on the quality of life of patients and family members. Despite its high prevalence, reaching 1/54 children and 1/45 adults in the United States, no pharmacological treatment is still directed to core symptoms of ASD, encompassing social and communication deficits, repetitive behaviors, restricted interests, and abnormal sensory processing. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of psychopharmacological therapy available today for ASD in children and adolescents, in order to foster best practices and to organize new strategies for future research. Read More

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Consensus on the Treatment and Follow-Up for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Report From the First Global Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference for Developing Countries (PCCCDC).

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Apr;7:559-571

Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI), Bellinzona and Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.

Purpose: To present a summary of the recommendations for the treatment and follow-up for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) as acquired through a questionnaire administered to 99 physicians working in the field of prostate cancer in developing countries who attended the Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference for Developing Countries.

Methods: A total of 106 questions out of more than 300 questions addressed the use of imaging in staging mCRPC, treatment recommendations across availability and response to prior drug treatments, appropriate drug treatments, and follow-up, and those same scenarios when limited resources needed to be considered. Responses were compiled and the percentages were presented by clinicians to support each response. Read More

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