35,892 results match your criteria fire


A Brief History of Carbon Monoxide and Its Therapeutic Origins.

Nitric Oxide 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

It is estimated that 10% of carbon throughout the cosmos is in the form of carbon monoxide (CO) [1]. Earth's earliest prebiotic atmosphere included the trinity of gasotransmitters CO, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (HS), for which all of life has co-evolved with [2]. Speculation for extraterrestrial life in harsh environments is similarly based on harnessing atmospheric CO as a primary energy source [3]. Read More

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N-methylene phosphonic acid chitosan/graphene sheets decorated with silver nanoparticles as green antimicrobial agents.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Organic Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Chemistry, Hannam University, Daejeon 34054, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

A green and scalable approach for the preparation of few-layered graphene utilizing the biowaste of potato peels has been developed. The potato peels have been dried and carbonized to obtain a new graphite structure that has been exfoliated in N-methylene phosphonic acid chitosan (MPC). The exfoliation process assisted the formation of graphene sheets with a high size diameter and quality of 50% based on the weight of graphite structure. Read More

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Ablation of p75 signaling strengthens gamma-theta rhythm interaction and counteracts Aβ-induced degradation of neuronal dynamics in mouse hippocampus in vitro.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Apr 9;11(1):212. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Neuronal Oscillations Laboratory, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, 17164, Solna, Sweden.

Gamma and theta brain rhythms play important roles in cognition and their interaction can affect gamma oscillation features. Hippocampal theta oscillations depend on cholinergic and GABAergic input from the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca. These projecting neurons undergo degeneration during aging and maintain high levels of neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75). Read More

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Emollients and smoking: a fire hazard that could be prevented to reduce future deaths.

BMJ Evid Based Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

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Neuromechanical wave resonance in jellyfish swimming.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.

For organisms to have robust locomotion, their neuromuscular organization must adapt to constantly changing environments. In jellyfish, swimming robustness emerges when marginal pacemakers fire action potentials throughout the bell's motor nerve net, which signals the musculature to contract. The speed of the muscle activation wave is dictated by the passage times of the action potentials. Read More

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Fire Acupuncture versus conventional acupuncture to treat spasticity after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249313. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), HangZhou, China.

Background: Post-stroke spasm is currently a complex clinical problem that remains to be resolved. Due to its excellent efficacy and few side effects, clinicians have used fire acupuncture to treat post-stroke spasticity in China.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of fire acupuncture compared with conventional acupuncture to treat post-stroke spasms and provide a detailed summary of the commonly used acupoints. Read More

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Dynamic image quantization using Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neurons.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 9;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

This paper introduces a novel coding/decoding mechanism that mimics one of the most important properties of the human visual system: its ability to enhance the visual perception quality in time. In other words, the brain takes advantage of time to process and clarify the details of the visual scene. This characteristic is yet to be considered by the state-of-the-art quantization mechanisms that process the visual information regardless the duration of time it appears in the visual scene. Read More

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The Association of Structural Inequities and Race with out-of-Hospital Sudden Death during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Northwell Health, Hempstead & Department of Cardiology, Northwell Health, New York & Center for Equity of Care, Northwell Health, Lake Success, NY.

- Social influencers of health (SIOH) namely race, ethnicity and structural inequities are known to affect the incidence of out of hospital sudden death (OHSD). We sought to examine the association between SIOH and the incidence of OHSD in the diverse neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemic. - NYC ZIP stratified data on OHSD were obtained from the Fire Department of New York during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemic (March 1 - April 10, 2019) and the same period in 2020. Read More

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Wildfires in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone - risks and consequences.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Science, Engineering & Environment, University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT, United Kingdom.

Following the 1986 Chornobyl accident an area of approaching 5000 km surrounding the nuclear plant was abandoned, creating the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Whilst this area likely contains the most radioactive terrestrial ecosystem on earth, over the nearly 35 years since the accident the absence of humans and associated activities has resulted in increases in wildlife numbers. Both the Belarussian and Ukrainian components of the CEZ are now designated as nature reserves; together they form one of Europe's largest protected areas and have been described as an iconic example of rewilding. Read More

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Short-Term Effects of Wildfire Ash on Water Quality Parameters: A Laboratory Approach.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centro Universitário de Brasília (UniCEUB), SEPN 707/907, Asa Norte, Brasília, Federal District (DF), 70790-075, Brazil.

Climate change coupled with inappropriate burning practices has increased large-scale wildfires in Brazilian tropical savannahs (Cerrado). Considering that the effects of ash from wildfires on water parameters are scarcely known in tropical savannahs, this study investigated the chemical changes caused by ash in the soft water, commonly used for bioassays. To this end, ash samples were collected immediately following a fire in a Cerrado area (Federal District, Brazil) and put into water (1:10 ash:soft-water m/v) to check physical parameters under laboratory conditions. Read More

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North American boreal forests are a large carbon source due to wildfires from 1986 to 2016.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7723. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Wildfires are a major disturbance to forest carbon (C) balance through both immediate combustion emissions and post-fire ecosystem dynamics. Here we used a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to simulate C budget in Alaska and Canada during 1986-2016, as impacted by fire disturbances. We extracted the data of difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) for fires from Landsat TM/ETM imagery and estimated the proportion of vegetation and soil C combustion. Read More

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Mechanisms of human drug-induced anaphylaxis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr;147(4):1133-1142

Department "Auto-immunité et Hypersensibilités," DMU BioGeM, APHP, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France; "Inflammation, Microbiome and Immunosurveillance" INSERM UMR 996, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris-Saclay, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

Drug-induced anaphylaxis is a hyperacute reaction affecting multiple organs that can be of fatal consequence. Its incidence is increasing, consistent with a global increased sensitization to various allergens and drugs in the population. Few risk factors and mechanisms have been identified from human studies due to the rarity of anaphylactic events and their unpredictability. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of thunder-fire moxibustion for patients with knee osteoarthritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25384

Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a major public health issue because it causes pain and functional limitation in patients. Many studies have reported that moxibustion, a treatment in traditional Chinese medicine, is effective in treating KOA. The aim of this protocol is to develop a standard in advance for synthesize and assess the efficacy and safety of thunder-fire moxibustion for KOA from these randomized controlled trial. Read More

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Managing fires in a changing world: Fuel and weather determine fire behavior and safety in the neotropical savannas.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 5;289:112508. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF, CEP 70910-900, Brazil; PEQUI - Pesquisa e Conservação do Cerrado. SRTVN Qd. 701, Ed. Brasília Rádio Center, Sala 3030, Brasília, DF, CEP: 70719-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Fire is an important ecological disturbance, but anthropogenic wildfires increasingly threaten native ecosystems and human lives. In fire-prone ecosystems, zero-fire policies have been replaced by active fire management to reduce the risk of wildfires and improve ecological outcomes. The environmental drivers of fire behavior are widely known, but climate change and deforestation are changing their roles, making fires less predictable. Read More

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Opportunities and challenges for savanna burning emissions abatement in southern Africa.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;288:112414. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

International Savanna Fire Management Initiative (ISFMI), Level 4, 346 Kent Street, Sydney, 2000, New South Wales, Australia.

Savanna fires occurring in sub-Saharan Africa account for over 60% of global fire extent, of which more than half occurs in the Southern Hemisphere contributing ~29% of global fire emissions. Building on experience in reducing savanna fire emissions in fire-prone north Australian savannas through implementation of an internationally accredited 'savanna burning' emissions abatement methodology, we explore opportunities and challenges associated with the application of a similar approach to incentivise emissions reduction in fire-prone southern African savannas. We first show that for a focal region covering seven contiguous countries, at least 80% of annual savanna large fire (>250 ha) extent and emissions occur under relatively severe late dry season (LDS) fire-weather conditions, predominantly in sparsely inhabited areas. Read More

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Vegetation structure parameters determine high burn severity likelihood in different ecosystem types: A case study in a burned Mediterranean landscape.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;288:112462. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Area of Ecology, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of León, 24071, León, Spain.

The design and implementation of pre-fire management strategies in heterogeneous landscapes requires the identification of the ecological conditions contributing to the most adverse effects of wildfires. This study evaluates which features of pre-fire vegetation structure, estimated through broadband land surface albedo and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data fusion, promote high wildfire damage across several fire-prone ecosystems dominated by either shrub (gorse, heath and broom) or tree species (Pyrenean oak and Scots pine). Topography features were also considered since they can assist in the identification of priority areas where vegetation structure needs to be managed. Read More

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Sick of news? Television news exposure, collective stressful events and headache related emergency department visits.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249749. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Neurology Department, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Stress is a well-known trigger for primary headache yet its impact is difficult to demonstrate in large epidemiological studies. Israeli national TV news is often referred to as the "tribal fire", as many Israelis watch national news coverage following terror attacks or military operations. We examined the association between exposure to television news and their content with headache related Emergency Department visits. Read More

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Direct and indirect disturbance impacts in forests.

Ecol Lett 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

Human and natural disturbances are key drivers of change in forest ecosystems. Yet, the direct and indirect mechanisms which underpin these changes remain poorly understood at the ecosystem level. Here, using structural equation modelling across a 150+ year chronosequence, we disentangle the direct and indirect effects of major disturbances in a temperate forest ecosystem. Read More

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COVID-19 Pandemic on Fire: Evolved Propensities for Nocturnal Activities as a Liability Against Epidemiological Control.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:646711. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Humans have been using fire for hundreds of millennia, creating an ancestral expansion toward the nocturnal niche. The new adaptive challenges faced at night were recurrent enough to amplify existing psychological variation in our species. Night-time is dangerous and mysterious, so it selects for individuals with higher tendencies for paranoia, risk-taking, and sociability (because of security in numbers). Read More

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Gaussian graphical modeling of the serum exposome and metabolome reveals interactions between environmental chemicals and endogenous metabolites.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7607. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Silent Spring Institute, 320 Nevada Street, Newton, MA, 02460, USA.

Given the complex exposures from both exogenous and endogenous sources that an individual experiences during life, exposome-wide association studies that interrogate levels of small molecules in biospecimens have been proposed for discovering causes of chronic diseases. We conducted a study to explore associations between environmental chemicals and endogenous molecules using Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) of non-targeted metabolomics data measured in a cohort of California women firefighters and office workers. GGMs revealed many exposure-metabolite associations, including that exposures to mono-hydroxyisononyl phthalate, ethyl paraben and 4-ethylbenzoic acid were associated with metabolites involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, and perfluoroalkyl substances were linked to bile acids-hormones that regulate cholesterol and glucose metabolism-and inflammatory signaling molecules. Read More

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Reconstruction scheme for excitatory and inhibitory dynamics with quenched disorder: application to zebrafish imaging.

J Comput Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.

An inverse procedure is developed and tested to recover functional and structural information from global signals of brains activity. The method assumes a leaky-integrate and fire model with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, coupled via a directed network. Neurons are endowed with a heterogenous current value, which sets their associated dynamical regime. Read More

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Soaring seas, forest fires and deadly drought: climate change conspiracies and mental health.

BJPsych Bull 2021 Apr 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Wolverhampton, UK.

There is scientific consensus that anthropogenic climate change is real and that it provides an existential threat to humanity and the planet. In this article, we focus on climate change conspiracy theories and the impact of such beliefs on mental health. We discuss the psychiatric disorders that might be relevant to conspiracy belief endorsement and we present the underlying psychological mechanisms. Read More

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Prehospital Trauma Care in Disasters and Other Mass Casualty Incidents - A Proposal for Hospital-Based Special Medical Response Teams.

Cureus 2021 Mar 2;13(3):e13657. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Surgery, Riverside Community Hospital, Riverside, USA.

Current mass casualty incident (MCI) response in the United States calls for rapid deployment of first responders, such as law enforcement, fire, and emergency medical services personnel, to the incident and simultaneous activation of trauma center disaster protocols. Past investigations demonstrated that the incorporation of advanced trauma-trained physicians and paramedics into prehospital teams resulted in improved mortality during routine emergency medical care in Europe and in the combat setting. To date, limited research exists on the incorporation of advanced trauma-trained physicians and paramedics into prehospital teams for civilian MCIs. Read More

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A Pilot Study to Assess Urban, Fire-Based Paramedic Accuracy in Identification of Anatomical Landmarks Necessary for Cricothyrotomy and Needle Chest Decompression Using Live Patient Models.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Apr 7:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio, TexasUSA.

Background: Cricothyrotomy and chest needle decompression (NDC) have a high failure and complication rate. This article sought to determine whether paramedics can correctly identify the anatomical landmarks for cricothyrotomy and chest NDC.

Methods: A prospective study using human models was performed. Read More

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Recognizing the insurance value of resilience: Evidence from a forest restoration policy in the southeastern U.S.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 3;289:112442. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

University of Arizona, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA.

The long-term supply of ecosystem services is dependent on properly functioning ecosystems and their susceptibility to natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as climate change and urbanization, as they can alter ecosystem structure and function. Forest function is not static, but rather a risky asset that fluctuates and can decrease as a result of forest disturbance. Therefore, concepts such as resilience and insurance value as well effective policy formulation, management, and restoration are key to maintaining these benefits. Read More

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Modelling forest fire and firebreak scenarios in a mediterranean mountainous catchment: Impacts on sediment loads.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 3;289:112497. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Water Research Institute, National Research Council, Francesco De Blasio 5, 70132, Bari, Italy.

Forests provide a number of ecological and hydrological services, for instance, contributing to decreased water and sediment yields through increased infiltration and reduced soil erosion. However, forest fires can turn positive forest services into drawbacks, enhancing surface runoff and soil erosion and damaging both hillslopes and downstream aquatic life in rivers. Therefore, appropriate mitigation strategies should be developed to limit these negative effects. Read More

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Presence of Native and Non-native Ants Linked to Lower Emergence Success of Loggerhead Sea Turtle Nests: Implications for Management.

Environ Entomol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Ants have been suggested as one of many population pressures sea turtles face potentially affecting nesting-beach survival of eggs and hatchlings. However, little is known about the extent to which ants act as incidental or primary mortality factors. Most research has focused on New World fire ants (genus Solenopsis), with confirmed records of other ant species interactions with sea turtle nests in situ being rare. Read More

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A Model-Based Approach for Pulse Selection from Electrodermal Activity.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 6;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Objective: We present a statistical model for extracting physiologic characteristics from electrodermal activity (EDA) data in observational settings.

Methods: We used insight about the integrate-and-fire physiology of sweat gland bursts, which predicts inverse Gaussian (IG) inter-pulse interval structure. At the core of our model-based paradigm is a subject-specific amplitude threshold selection process for EDA pulses based on the statistical properties of four right-skewed models including the IG. Read More

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Comparative Meta-analysis Effects of Nonnative Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Native Confamilials.

Environ Entomol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Forestry & Environmental Conservation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.

Nonnative species often transform local communities to the detriment of native species. Much of the existing invasion ecology research focuses on the effects of a few extremely impactful species, and it is less clear how nonnative species which are not causing economic or ecological impacts alter closely related natives at risk of being displaced. Filling these knowledge gaps is critical because consequences of nonnative species are likely to vary depending on taxonomic scale, functional trait, and spatial or temporal niche. Read More

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