34,076 results match your criteria fine structure

Simulation study of potential time-of-flight capabilities for a multilayer DOI-PET detector with an independent readout structure.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu, JAPAN.

A multilayer depth-of-interaction positron emission tomography (DOI-PET) detector with an independent readout structure has a potential advantage as a time-of-flight (TOF)-PET detector. To evaluate the potential TOF capabilities of a multilayer DOI-PET detector, which consists of thin layers of a cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) scintillator coupled to a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) array, we examined the detector's CTR performance via Monte Carlo simulations. We used several types of scintillator structures: a monolithic plate, laser-processing array with 3. Read More

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Protein-Peptide Binding Site Detection Using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

iMolecule, Center for Computational and Data-Intensive Science and Engineering, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 121205, Russia.

Peptides and peptide-based molecules represent a promising therapeutic modality targeting intracellular protein-protein interactions, potentially combining the beneficial properties of biologics and small-molecule drugs. Protein-peptide complexes occupy a unique niche of interaction interfaces with respect to protein-protein and protein-small molecule complexes. Protein-peptide binding site identification resembles image object detection, a field that had been revolutionalized with computer vision techniques. Read More

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Solvent-Evaporation Induced and Mechanistic Entropy-Enthalpy-Balance Controlled Polymer Patch Formation on Nanoparticle Surfaces.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 22:7100-7105. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

The formation of polymer-patch nanoparticles (PNPs) involves a condensation process of grafted chains on a nanoparticle (NP) surface, which is conventionally achieved via a fine-tuning of the solvent quality. However, such a critical solvent condition differs dramatically between polymers, and the formation mechanism of different patchy structures remains under debate. In this study, we demonstrate by a combined simulation and experimental study that such a surface-patterning process can be easily achieved via a simple solvent evaporation process, which creates a natural nonsolvent condition and is, in principle, adaptable for all polymers. Read More

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Temporal fine structure: associations with cognition and speech-in-noise recognition in adults with normal hearing or hearing impairment.

Int J Audiol 2021 Jul 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute for Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate associations between sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) and performance in cognitive and speech-in-noise recognition tests.

Design: A binaural test of TFS sensitivity (the TFS-LF) was used. Measures of cognition included the reading span, Raven's, and text-reception threshold tests. Read More

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Sympatry and habitat associations of sigmodontine rodents in a neotropical forest-savanna interface.

Mammalia 2020 13;84(3):227-238. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103, USA.

Small mammal communities in the Neotropics are composed largely of sigmodontine rodents. However, many questions regarding these communities remain unanswered, especially those pertaining to fine-scale sympatry and habitat selection. To address this, we examined sigmodontine community structure and vegetation in the western margin of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest and the southwestern-most extent of the Cerrado (CE) (an extensive South American savanna ecoregion) of Paraguay. Read More

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November 2019

Brown banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) shows high genetic diversity and differentiation in Malaysian waters.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14874. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Universiti Malaya , 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The demersal brown banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum is a major component of sharks landed in Malaysia. However, little is known about their population structure and the effect of high fishing pressure on these weak swimming sharks. Both mitochondrial DNA control region (1072 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (1044 bp) were used to elucidate the genetic structure and connectivity of C. Read More

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Population structure associated with Bioregion and seasonal prey distribution for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in South Africa.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biosciences, University of Durham, Durham, UK.

Many marine species exhibit fine-scale population structure despite high mobility and a lack of physical barriers to dispersal, but the evolutionary drivers of differentiation in these systems are generally poorly understood. Here we investigate the potential role of habitat transitions and seasonal prey distributions on the evolution of population structure in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, off South Africa's coast, using double-digest Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Population structure was identified between the eastern and southern coasts and correlated with the habitat transition between the temperate Agulhas (southern) and subtropical Natal (eastern) Bioregions, suggesting differentiation driven by resource specialisations. Read More

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Ultrastructural heterogeneity of the mitochondrial population in rat embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.

Even though rats are popular model animals, the ultrastructure of their pluripotent cells, i.e., embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), remains unexplored, although fine structure of pluripotent stem cells of mice and humans and its changes during differentiation have been investigated well. Read More

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Thioredoxins m are major players in the multifaceted light-adaptive response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant J 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Celular y Molecular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 18008, Granada, Spain.

Thioredoxins (TRXs) are well-known redox signalling players which carry out post-translational modifications in target proteins. Chloroplast TRXs are divided into different types and have central roles in light energy uptake and the regulation of primary metabolism. The isoforms TRXs m1, m2 and m4 from Arabidopsis thaliana are considered functionally related. Read More

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Steric and electronic effects of ligand substitution on redox-active FeS-based coordination polymers.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

One of the notable advantages of molecular materials is the ability to precisely tune structure, properties, and function via molecular substitutions. While many studies have demonstrated this principle with classic carboxylate-based coordination polymers, there are comparatively fewer examples where systematic changes to sulfur-based coordination polymers have been investigated. Here we present such a study on 1D coordination chains of redox-active Fe4S4 clusters linked by methylated 1,4-benzene-dithiolates. Read More

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Commuting to Work: Nucleolar Long Non-Coding RNA Control Ribosome Biogenesis from Near and Far.

Noncoding RNA 2021 Jul 14;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Mildred Scheel Early Career Center for Cancer Research (Mildred-Scheel-Nachwuchszentrum, MSNZ), University Hospital Würzburg, Josef-Schneider Str. 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Gene expression is an essential process for cellular growth, proliferation, and differentiation. The transcription of protein-coding genes and non-coding loci depends on RNA polymerases. Interestingly, numerous loci encode long non-coding (lnc)RNA transcripts that are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and fine-tune the RNA metabolism. Read More

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Imbalanced autophagy causes synaptic deficits in a human model for neurodevelopmental disorders.

Autophagy 2021 Jul 21:1-20. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a finely tuned process of programmed degradation and recycling of proteins and cellular components, which is crucial in neuronal function and synaptic integrity. Mounting evidence implicates chromatin remodeling in fine-tuning autophagy pathways. However, this epigenetic regulation is poorly understood in neurons. Read More

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Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale to the Adult Spanish Population (HSPS-S).

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 14;14:1041-1052. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.

Purpose: This article describes a cross-cultural adaptation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) to the adult Spanish population, and psychometric analysis of its validation and reliability.

Methods: Convenience sampling by participant accessibility was used. The original version was adapted culturally and linguistically using the back-translation method, and a pilot study was done with 88 participants. Read More

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Correction to: Fine-scale population structure and evidence for local adaptation in Australian giant black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using SNP analysis.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 20;22(1):559. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Australian Research Council Industrial Transformation Research Hub for Advanced Prawn Breeding, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia.

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Controlling the Structure and Function of Protein Thin Films through Amyloid-like Aggregation.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

ConspectusProtein thin films (PTFs) with tunable structure and function can offer multiple opportunities in various fields such as surface modification, biomaterials, packaging, optics, electronics, separation, energy, and environmental science. Although nature may offer a variety of examples of high-level control of structure and function, e.g. Read More

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Temporal correlates to monaural edge pitch in the distribution of inter-spike interval statistics in the auditory nerve.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology, Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, K. U. Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium

Pitch is a perceptual attribute enabling perception of melody. There is no consensus regarding the fundamental nature of pitch and its underlying neural code. A stimulus which has received much interest in psychophysical and computational studies is noise with a sharp spectral edge. Read More

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Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Are Preserved in Female Mice Exposed to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Independent of Estrogen.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 4;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Center for Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Males have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than females. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) exposure increases CVD risk with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are important to vascular structure and function and can contribute to the development of CVDs. Read More

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A deep learning algorithm for sleep stage scoring in mice based on a multimodal network with fine-tuning technique.

Neurosci Res 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

hhc Data Creation Center, Eisai Co., Ltd., Koishikawa 4-6-10, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8088, Japan. Electronic address:

Sleep stage scoring is important to determine sleep structure in preclinical and clinical research. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic sleep stage classification system for mice with a new deep neural network algorithm. For the purpose of base feature extraction, wake-sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) and non- rapid eye movement (NREM) models were developed by extracting defining features from mouse-derived electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, respectively. Read More

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High-Performance NiCoO/TiCT-HT Interfacial Nanohybrid for Electrochemical Overall Water Splitting.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong 999077, Hong Kong.

This study highlights the facet structure control of regular NiCoO nanoplates and interfacial modulation through elemental doping and morphologically fitted assembly of TiCT nanosheets for high performances in OER/HER and overall water splitting. Over the resulting NiCoO/TiCT-HT in a solution of 1 M KOH, the OER and HER overpotentials of 262 and 210 mV, respectively, are achievable at a current density of 10 mA cm. In the case of the overall water splitting by using NiCoO/TiCT-HT as anode and cathode catalysts, only a potential of 1. Read More

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Histological examination of a retrieved custom-made 3D-printed titanium vertebra : Do the fine details obtained by additive manufacturing really promote osteointegration?

Eur Spine J 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Oncologic and Degenerative Spine Surgery, IRCCS - Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via G.C.Pupilli, 1, 40136, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: In the present report it is described the design, the manufacturing and the successful surgical implant of one of the first 3D custom titanium vertebra realized with Additive Manufacturing technique and its use for the spinal reconstruction after en-bloc resection for primary osteogenic sarcoma.

Methods: Clinical case presentation and the design of the 3D custom titanium vertebra was reported. It was also described the complex procedures adopted to evaluate the retrieved device from the histological point of view, as a tumor relapse hit the patient, one year after the reconstruction procedure. Read More

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Genetic Diversity and Azole Resistance Among Natural Aspergillus fumigatus Populations in Yunnan, China.

Microb Ecol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, and Key Laboratory for Southwest Microbial Diversity of the Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650032, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.

The emergence and spread of azole resistance alleles in clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus is a global human health concern and endangers the "One Health" approach in our fight against antifungal resistance (AFR) in this pathogen. A major challenge to combat AFR in A. fumigatus is the massive aerial dispersal ability of its asexual spores. Read More

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Argon Adsorption on Cationic Gold Clusters Au ( ≤ 20).

Molecules 2021 Jul 4;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Quantum Solid-State Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

The interaction of Au ( ≤ 20) clusters with Ar is investigated by combining mass spectrometric experiments and density functional theory calculations. We show that the inert Ar atom forms relatively strong bonds with Au. The strength of the bond strongly varies with the cluster size and is governed by a fine interplay between geometry and electronic structure. Read More

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Influence of Gating System Parameters of Die-Cast Molds on Properties of Al-Si Castings.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 5;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Technical Systems Design and Monitoring, Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies with a Seat in Prešov, Technical University of Košice, Štúrova 31, 080 01 Prešov, Slovakia.

The resulting quality of castings indicates the correlation of the design of the mold inlet system and the setting of technological parameters of casting. In this study, the influence of design solutions of the inlet system in a pressure mold on the properties of Al-Si castings was analyzed by computer modelling and subsequently verified experimentally. In the process of computer simulation, the design solutions of the inlet system, the mode of filling the mold depending on the formation of the casting and the homogeneity of the casting represented by the formation of shrinkages were assessed. Read More

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Tellurite Adsorption onto Bacterial Surfaces.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States.

Tellurium (Te) is an emerging contaminant and its chemical transformation in the environment is strongly influenced by microbial processes. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of tellurite [Te(IV), TeO] onto the common soil bacterium . Thiol-blocking experiments were carried out to investigate the role of cell surface sulfhydryl sites in tellurite binding, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was performed to determine the chemical speciation of the adsorbed tellurite. Read More

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A visible-light mediated ring opening reaction of alkylidenecyclopropanes for the generation of homopropargyl radicals.

Chem Sci 2021 Jul 28;12(26):9088-9095. Epub 2021 May 28.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Feringa Nobel Prize Scientist Joint Research Center, School of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology Meilong Road No. 130 Shanghai 200237 China.

Classical cyclopropylcarbinyl radical clock reactions have been widely applied to conduct mechanistic studies for probing radical processes for a long time; however, alkylidenecyclopropanes, which have a similar molecular structure to methylcyclopropanes, surprisingly have not yet attracted researcher's attention for similar ring opening radical clock processes. In recent years, photocatalytic NHPI ester activation chemistry has witnessed significant blooming developments and provided new synthetic routes for cross-coupling reactions. Herein, we wish to report a non-classical ring opening radical clock reaction using innovative NHPI esters bearing alkylidenecyclopropanes upon photoredox catalysis, providing a brand-new synthetic approach for the direct preparation of a variety of alkynyl derivatives. Read More

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Structural Origins of Voltage Hysteresis in the Na-Ion Cathode P2-Na[MgMn]O: A Combined Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory Study.

Chem Mater 2021 Jul 21;33(13):4890-4906. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom.

P2-layered sodium-ion battery (NIB) cathodes are a promising class of Na-ion electrode materials with high Na mobility and relatively high capacities. In this work, we report the structural changes that take place in P2-Na[MgMn]O. Using X-ray diffraction, Mn -edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and Na NMR spectroscopy, we identify the bulk phase changes along the first electrochemical charge-discharge cycle-including the formation of a high-voltage " phase", an intergrowth of the OP4 and O2 phases. Read More

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[Potential of three-dimensional bioprinting in oral soft tissue engineering applications].

Y Zhang X M Zhang

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;56(7):613-619

Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University & Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences & Chongqing Municipal Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering of Higher Education, Chongqing 401174, China.

Oral soft tissue engineering involves the reconstruction or restoration of oral and maxillofacial functions and esthetics. As an emerging technology from the early 21st century, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting promises great application potentials in the preparation of scaffolds and engineered tissues/organs. Although oral soft tissues include dental pulp, periodontal ligament, gum, oral mucosa, and salivary glands as well as related maxillofacial skin, vascular, muscular, and neuronal tissues, the current application of 3D bioprinting in oral soft tissue-restoration is mainly limited to dental pulp-regeneration. Read More

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Altered cingulate structures and the associations with social awareness deficits and CNTNAP2 gene in autism spectrum disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jun 19;31:102729. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: Although evidence suggests that the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex involves social cognition, there are inconsistent findings regarding the aberrant cingulate gray matter (GM) and scanty evidence about altered cortical thickness and white matter (WM) of cingulate in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Evidence supports the association between the genetic variants of CNTNAP2 and altered brain connectivity. This study investigated the cingulate substructure and its association with social awareness deficits and the CNTNAP2 variants in individuals with ASD and typically-developing controls (TDC). Read More

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Spectroscopic and computational investigations of organometallic complexation of group 12 transition metals by methanobactins from Methylocystis sp. SB2.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jun 2;223:111496. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA. Electronic address:

Methanotrophic bacteria catalyze the aerobic oxidation of methane to methanol using Cu-containing enzymes, thereby exerting a modulating influence on the global methane cycle. To facilitate the acquisition of Cu ions, some methanotrophic bacteria secrete small modified peptides known as "methanobactins," which strongly bind Cu and function as an extracellular Cu recruitment relay, analogous to siderophores and Fe. In addition to Cu, methanobactins form complexes with other late transition metals, including the Group 12 transition metals Zn, Cd, and Hg, although the interplay among solution-phase configurations, metal interactions, and the spectroscopic signatures of methanobactin-metal complexes remains ambiguous. Read More

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The stability landscape of de novo TIM barrels explored by a modular design approach.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 13:167153. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica e Ingeniería de Proteínas, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

The ability to design stable proteins with custom-made functions is a major goal in biochemistry with practical relevance for our environment and society. Understanding and manipulating protein stability provide crucial information on the molecular determinants that modulate structure and stability, and expand the applications of de novo proteins. Since the (β/⍺)-barrel or TIM-barrel fold is one of the most common functional scaffolds, in this work we designed a collection of stable de novo TIM barrels (DeNovoTIMs), using a computational fixed-backbone and modular approach based on improved hydrophobic packing of sTIM11, the first validated de novo TIM barrel, and subjected them to a thorough folding analysis. Read More

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