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Acute retrobulbar optic neuritis with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease complicated with microscopic polyangiitis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e24889

Department of Rheumatology.

Rationale: Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte protein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is a new disease entity with various clinical phenotypes. MOGAD often present with recurrent optic neuritis (ON), and it can also develop as a compartment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Moreover, multiple autoantibodies such as an anti-myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) had been reported in the serum of patients with NMOSD. Read More

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Dynamic analysis of CSF1R-related leukoencephalopathy on magnetic resonance imaging: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 10;21(1):156. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology, Liuzhou People's Hospital, Liuzhou, China.

Background: Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)-related leukoencephalopathy is a rare and rapidly progressive leukoencephalopathy characterized by cognitive, motor, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, which is often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs and follow-up MRI of CSF1R-related leukoencephalopathy could help in establishing a diagnosis, but these features are not widely known by general neurologists.

Case Presentation: A 34-year-old man was admitted for progressive weakness of the right limbs over 8 months. Read More

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Therapeutic drug monitoring of intravenous anti-tuberculous therapy: management of an 8-month-old child with tuberculous meningitis.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2021 Apr 6:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Caen University Hospital, Caen, France.

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is now uncommon in high-income countries. It is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with high rates of mortality and morbidity if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. An 8-month-old girl with TBM who was treated with high-dose intravenous anti-tuberculous drugs (ATD) is reported. Read More

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Chemoprevention with low-dose aspirin, mesalazine, or both in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis without previous colectomy (J-FAPP Study IV): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, two-by-two factorial design trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Drug Discovery Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The only established treatment for preventing colorectal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is colectomy, which greatly reduces patient quality of life. Thus, an alternative method is warranted. In this trial, we aimed to clarify the individual and joint effects of low-dose aspirin and mesalazine on the recurrence of colorectal polyps in Japanese patients with FAP. Read More

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Drinking to cope as a mechanism between sleep problems and heavy episodic drinking among trauma survivors.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology.

Women who have experienced trauma report high rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and sleep problems. Prior work suggests that poor sleep exacerbates heavy alcohol use; however, potential mechanisms for this association are unclear. Consistent with the self-medication model, one possibility may be that women with a history of trauma are drinking at increased rates in order to cope with the affective consequences of poor sleep. Read More

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Examination of Mediators and Moderators to Understand How and in What Context Game Changers Increases HIV Prevention Advocacy Among Persons Living With HIV in Uganda.

Int J Behav Med 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the group-based Game Changers intervention demonstrated effects on the primary goal of increased HIV-protective behaviors among social network members (alters), via the mechanism of increased participant engagement in HIV prevention advocacy with alters. We sought to understand how and in what context the intervention has its effects by examining specific mediators and moderators of the intervention's effect on increased prevention advocacy.

Methods: The RCT was conducted with 98 adult PLWH in Uganda. Read More

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Attentive brain states in infants with and without later autism.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Mar 30;11(1):196. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK.

Early difficulties in engaging attentive brain states in social settings could affect learning and have cascading effects on social development. We investigated this possibility using multichannel electroencephalography during a face/non-face paradigm in 8-month-old infants with (FH, n = 91) and without (noFH, n = 40) a family history of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An event-related potential component reflecting attention engagement, the Nc, was compared between FH infants who received a diagnosis of ASD at 3 years of age (FH-ASD; n = 19), FH infants who did not (FH-noASD; n = 72) and noFH infants (who also did not, hereafter noFH-noASD; n = 40). Read More

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Cultivation and Enabling Effects of Social Support and Self-Efficacy in Parent-Child Dyads.

Ann Behav Med 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Wroclaw Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: There are two alternative mechanisms, elucidating the reciprocal relationship between self-efficacy and social support when explaining health outcomes: self-efficacy beliefs may operate as the establisher of social support (the cultivation model) or social support may enable the formation of self-efficacy beliefs (the enabling model).

Purpose: In line with the cultivation hypothesis, it was tested if self-efficacy (measured in parents and children) would indirectly predict parental and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), via the mediator, social support (parent-provided, child-received). In line with the enabling hypothesis, it was tested if social support would predict MVPA indirectly, via the mediator, self-efficacy. Read More

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Long-term functioning to provide empirical support for the clinical relevance of treatment outcomes for methamphetamine use disorders.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 14;124:108291. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States; Analytics and PsychoPharmacology Laboratory (APPL) and the Program of Excellence in Addiction Research, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States.

Background: Research has yet to empirically evaluate methamphetamine (MA) use outcome measures commonly used to indicate treatment success. Clinically meaningful outcomes must be associated with long-term functioning in important life domains. This study evaluated the association between different MA use outcomes and long-term life-functioning. Read More

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Surgical treatment of retroiliac ectopic ureters with secondary hydronephrosis and hydroureter in a dog.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 Apr;258(7):740-747

Case Description: An 8-month-old 41.2-kg (90.6-lb) sexually intact male Dogue de Bordeaux with urinary incontinence and signs of nausea was referred for further evaluation and treatment of bilateral hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and ectopic ureters. Read More

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Trait attributions and threat appraisals explain why an entity theory of personality predicts greater internalizing symptoms during adolescence.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Mar 23:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Adolescents who hold an entity theory of personality - the belief that people cannot change - are more likely to report internalizing symptoms during the socially stressful transition to high school. It has been puzzling, however, why a cognitive belief about the potential for change predicts symptoms of an affective disorder. The present research integrated three models - implicit theories, hopelessness theories of depression, and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat - to shed light on this issue. Read More

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Long-term fingolimod treatment in two pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis.

Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, La Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Data suggest that patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) should initiate treatment with a disease-modifying therapy early to slow progression. The PARADIGMS trial demonstrated that oral fingolimod reduced the annual rate of relapse by 82% compared with intramuscular interferon beta-1a in children with POMS. The PARADIGMS study had a follow-up of 2 years, but no data are available about the safety and efficacy of fingolimod for longer periods in children with POMS. Read More

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Anti-SAE autoantibody-positive Japanese patient with juvenile dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial lung disease - a case report.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2021 Mar 19;19(1):34. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1, Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8666, Japan.

Background: Clinical phenotypes and outcomes in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have been defined by various myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs). One of the recently described MSAs associated with DM is targeted against the small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme (SAE). We report an anti-SAE autoantibody-positive JDM patient complicated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Read More

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Strengthening resilience to reduce HIV risk in Indian MSM: a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 04;9(4):e446-e455

Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are extremely marginalised and stigmatised, and therefore experience immense psychosocial stress. As current HIV prevention interventions in India do not address mental health or resilience to these stressors, we aimed to evaluate a resilience-based psychosocial intervention in the context of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention.

Methods: We did a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial in Chennai (governmental tuberculosis research institute) and Mumbai (non-governmental organisation for MSM), India. Read More

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A novel missense variant in TRAPPC2 causes X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(11):e25169

Department of Endocrinology.

Rationale: X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (X-linked SEDT) is a rare hereditary cause in childhood short stature due to mutations in trafficking protein particle complex subunit 2 (TRAPPC2) gene located on chromosome Xp22. Several pathogenic variants in TRAPPC2 have been reported, but missense variants are rare.

Patient Concerns: A 13-year, 8-month-old Chinese Han boy presenting with short stature for the past 7 years. Read More

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Inferring hidden objects from still and communicative onlookers at 8, 14, and 36 months of age.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jul 9;207:105115. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.

The current study investigated across five eye-tracking experiments children's developing skill of adopting others' referential perspective (Level 1 perspective taking) and to what extent it involves automatic processes or requires ostensive communicative cues. Three age groups (8-, 14-, and 36-month-olds) were tested on their expectation of an object appearing behind one of two peripheral occluders. A centrally presented person in profile either provided an ostensive communicative pointing cue or sat still, oriented to one of the two occluders. Read More

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Inpatient Point-of-Care HIV Early Infant Diagnosis in Mozambique to Improve Case Identification and Linkage to Antiretroviral Therapy.

Glob Health Sci Pract 2021 Apr 1;9(1):31-39. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA.

Introduction: Novel approaches to case identification and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are needed to close gaps in early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV. Point-of-care (POC) EID is a recent innovation that eliminates the long turnaround times of conventional EID that limit patient management in the inpatient setting. The initial deployment of POC EID in Mozambique focused primarily on outpatient clinics; however, 2 high-volume tier-4 pediatric referral hospitals were also included. Read More

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Posterior pole retinal breaks causing posterior pole retinal detachment in a middle-aged man with retinal vasculitis and moderate myopia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 26;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Vitreo-Retina, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

A 38-year-old man presented with sudden decreased vision in the right eye 3 years ago due to vitreous haemorrhage. During follow-up, right eye fundus showed evidence of vasculitis, non-perfusion areas and neovascularisation elsewhere. Systemic evaluation findings of positive Mantoux test, QuantiFERON Gold test and right apical pleuroparenchymal fibrosis observed on high-resolution CT of the chest were suggestive of postinfection probable tubercular aetiology. Read More

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February 2021

Children's palliative care: examination of a nursing rotation programme.

Int J Palliat Nurs 2021 Feb;27(1):20-29

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield.

Background: An 8-month rotation programme was implemented for five nurses employed in two kinds of children's palliative care environments: hospital wards and hospices. This study reports the views of the nurses completing the rotation. The research drew on appreciative inquiry and involved a pre- and post-rotation interview and questionnaire. Read More

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February 2021

Lorlatinib in pretreated ALK- or ROS1-positive lung cancer and impact of TP53 co-mutations: results from the German early access program.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 9;13:1758835920980558. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department Internal Medicine-Oncology, Pius Hospital, Oldenburg, Germany.

Introduction: We report on the results of the German early access program (EAP) with the third-generation ALK- and ROS1-inhibitor lorlatinib.

Patients And Methods: Patients with documented treatment failure of all approved ALK/ROS1-specific therapies or with resistance mutations not covered by approved inhibitors or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis were enrolled and analyzed.

Results: In total, 52 patients were included [median age 57 years (range 32-81), 54% female, 62% never smokers, 98% adenocarcinoma]; 71% and 29% were ALK- and ROS1-positive, respectively. Read More

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February 2021

External carotid artery pseudoaneurysm following upper respiratory infection masquerading as a pharyngeal abscess in an 8-month-old.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Feb 16;42(4):102962. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Otolaryngology-H&N Surgery, Louisiana State University Health-Shreveport, 1501 King's Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA.

Pseudoaneurysms are very rare with an incidence of less than 0.1% in the pediatric population. Approximately 30 cases of carotid artery aneurysms in children have been published in the literature, usually affecting children over one year of age. Read More

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February 2021

Predictors of antiretroviral therapy initiation in eThekwini (Durban), South Africa: Findings from a prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0246744. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Division of Gender, Sexuality, and Health, HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Despite expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility in South Africa, many people diagnosed with HIV do not initiate ART promptly, yet understanding of the reasons is limited. Using data from an 8-month prospective cohort interview study of women and men newly-diagnosed with HIV in three public-sector primary care clinics in the eThekwini (Durban) region, South Africa, 2010-2014, we examined if theoretically-relevant social-structural, social-cognitive, psychosocial, and health status indicators were associated with time to ART initiation. Of 459 diagnosed, 350 returned to the clinic for their CD4+ test results (linkage); 153 (33. Read More

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February 2021

[Clinical characteristics and genetic analysis of a Chinese pedigree affected with thiamine pyrophosphokinase deficiency].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;38(2):141-144

Department of Pediatrics, Provincial Clinical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and genetic variant in a Chinese pedigree affected with thiamine pyrophosphokinase deficiency (TPKD).

Methods: Clinical data of the pedigree were analyzed retrospectively and summarized from the perspectives of clinical manifestation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and genotype. Relevant literature was also reviewed. Read More

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February 2021

Electronic health record usability and workload changes over time for provider and nursing staff following transition to new EHR.

Appl Ergon 2021 May 6;93:103359. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Education, United States; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Beckman Institute, United States.

The ubiquity of EHRs in healthcare means that small EHR inefficiencies can have a major impact on clinician workload. We conducted a sequential explanatory mixed methods study to: 1) identify EHR-associated workload and usability effects for clinicians following an EHR change over time, 2) determine workload and usability differences for providers (MD and Advance Practice Nurses) versus nurses (RNs and MAs), 3) determine if usability predicts workload, 4) identify potential sources of EHR design flaws. Workload (NASA-Task Load Index) and usability (System Usability Scale) measures were administered pre, 6-8 month and 30-32 months post-implementation. Read More

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Splenogonadal fusion: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Urol 2021 Feb 3;21(1):16. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Urology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, 57 Zhugan Xiang, Hangzhou, 310053, China.

Background: Splenogondal fusion (SGF) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal association between the splenic tissue and the gonads or mesonephric remnants. SGF that requires separate two-stage laparoscopic staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy on both the left and right sides is extremely rare. SGF could be misdiagnosed as testicular malignancy and leads to unnecessary orchiectomy. Read More

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February 2021

Orbital Apex Syndrome: A Clinico-anatomical Diagnosis.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Jul-Sep;15(3):336-337. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Division of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

An 8-month-old girl presented with fever, restricted left eye movements and increasing proptosis for 8 days. On examination she had left orbital cellulitis, relative afferent pupillary defect and ophthalmoplegia. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with orbits revealed orbital apex syndrome (OAS) with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Read More

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November 2020

An Atypical Presentation of Joubert Syndrome Due to a Novel Mutation in Gene.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Jul-Sep;15(3):294-296. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Division of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Neurology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Joubert syndrome is a rare brain malformation characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis. Infants with Joubert syndrome usually present with hypotonia, developmental delay, oculomotor apraxia, and respiratory abnormalities. Seizures in Joubert syndrome are not uncommon. Read More

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November 2020

A longitudinal observational study in two cats naturally-infected with hepadnavirus.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Mar 22;254:108999. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver disease in humans including chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH), a novel HBV-like hepadnavirus, was identified in domestic cats in 2018. From 6. Read More

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A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies-Associated Vasculitis Overlap Syndrome.

Case Rep Rheumatol 2021 7;2021:6690658. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.

An overlap of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies- (ANCA-) associated vasculitis (AAV) is extremely rare: approximately 40 cases have been reported to date. A literature review indicates that they are more common in women in their forties, and simultaneous onset has been reported in 69% of cases. In addition, both lupus nephritis and ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis were observed on renal biopsy. Read More

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January 2021

Incarcerated hiatal hernia - A rare postoperative complication following gastrectomy for stomach cancer. A case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Feb 18;79:219-221. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of General and Minimal Invasive Surgery, Nordwest Hospital, Frankfurt 60488, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Diaphragmatic complications following gastrostomies for gastric malignancies are extremely rare. The incidence of hiatal hernias after total gastrectomy for carcinoma is not well documented because of the poor prognosis associated with gastric cancer and the short life expectancy.

Presentation Of Case: This case report presents a 66-year-old male patient who developed an acute incarcerated hiatal hernia 8 month after total gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma. Read More

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February 2021