24,047 results match your criteria find mechanisms

Trout-like multifunctional piezoelectric robotic fish and energy harvester.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Dr NW, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332, UNITED STATES.

This work presents our experimental studies on a trout-inspired multifunctional robotic fish as an underwater swimmer and energy harvester. Fiber-based flexible piezoelectric composites with interdigitated electrodes, specifically Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) structures, strike a balance between the deformation and actuation force capabilities to generate hydrodynamic propulsion without requiring additional mechanisms for motion amplification. A pair of MFC laminates bracketing a passive fin functions like artificial muscle when driven out of phase to expand and contract on each side to create bending. Read More

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Magnetic correlations in single-layer NbSe2.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Madrid, 28049, SPAIN.

By means of spin-resolved density functional theory calculations using both atomic orbitals and plane-wave basis codes, we study the electronic and magnetic ground state of single-layer NbSe2. We find that, for all the functionals considered, the most stable solution in this 2D superconductor is the ferrimagnetic ground state with a magnetic moment of 1.09 µB at the Nb atoms and of 0. Read More

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Sex ratios and mental health: Evidence from China.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Apr 30;42:101014. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Wenlan School of Business, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, China; The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

While sex ratios (i.e., relative numbers of men and women) have been linked to various economic and social outcomes, how sex ratios affect mental health is underexplored. Read More

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Biofilm characteristics and transcriptomic analysis of Haemophilus parasuis.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 29;258:109073. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is a conditional pathogen with the ability to form biofilms which can lead to ineffective drug treatment and severe chronic infections resulting in significant economic losses to the pig industry. Currently, knowledge of biofilm formation by H. Read More

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Spatial Reconstruction of the Early Hepatic Transcriptomic Landscape after an Acetaminophen Overdose using Single-cell RNA Sequencing.

Toxicol Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

An acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. A hallmark characteristic of APAP hepatotoxicity is centrilobular necrosis. General, innate mechanisms such as lower amounts of GSH and higher Cyp2e1 expression in pericentral (PC) hepatocytes are known to contribute to the differences in susceptibility to cell injury between periportal (PP) hepatocytes and PC hepatocytes. Read More

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Divided We Stand: The Collaborative Work of Patients and Providers in an Enigmatic Chronic Disease.

Proc ACM Hum Comput Interact 2021 Jan;4(CSCW3)

Columbia University, Department of Biomedical Informatics.

In chronic conditions, patients and providers need support in understanding and managing illness over time. Focusing on endometriosis, an enigmatic chronic condition, we conducted interviews with specialists and focus groups with patients to elicit their work in care specifically pertaining to dealing with an enigmatic disease, both independently and in partnership, and how technology could support these efforts. We found that the work to care for the illness, including reflecting on the illness experience and planning for care, is significantly compounded by the complex nature of the disease: enigmatic condition means uncertainty and frustration in care and management; the multi-factorial and systemic features of endometriosis without any guidance to interpret them overwhelm patients and providers; the different temporal resolutions of this chronic condition confuse both patients and provides; and patients and providers negotiate medical knowledge and expertise in an attempt to align their perspectives. Read More

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January 2021

Altered Inhibitory Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease: Evidence From Lexical Decision and Simple Reaction Time Tasks.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 26;15:624026. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, LPL, Aix-en-Provence, France.

Introduction: Although the motor signs of Parkinson's disease (PD) are well defined, nonmotor symptoms, including higher-level language deficits, have also been shown to be frequent in patients with PD. In the present study, we used a lexical decision task (LDT) to find out whether access to the mental lexicon is impaired in patients with PD, and whether task performance is affected by bradykinesia.

Materials And Methods: Participants were 34 nondemented patients with PD, either without () medication ( = 16) or under optimum () medication ( = 18). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 uses a multipronged strategy to impede host protein synthesis.

Nature 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. Coronaviruses developed varied mechanisms to repress host mRNA translation to allow the translation of viral mRNAs and concomitantly block the cellular innate immune response. Although different SARS-CoV-2 proteins are implicated in host expression shutoff, a comprehensive picture of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking. Read More

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The potential role of m6A RNA methylation in diabetic retinopathy.

Exp Eye Res 2021 May 9:108616. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Structural Biology & Bioinformatics, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India; CSIR-IICB Translational Research Unit of Excellence (TRUE), Kolkata, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, India. Electronic address:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, affects most diabetic individuals and has become the leading cause of vision loss. Metabolic memory associated with diabetes retains the risk of disease occurrence even after the termination of glycemic insult. Further, various limitations associated with its current diagnostic and treatment strategies like unavailability of early diagnostic and treatment methods, variation in treatment response from patient to patient, and cost-effectiveness have driven the need to find alternative solutions. Read More

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VEGF counteracts amyloid-β-induced synaptic dysfunction.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109121

Institut NeuroMyoGène (INMG), Synaptopathies and Autoantibodies, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1217, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR5310, 69000 Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69000 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway regulates key processes in synapse function, which are disrupted in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by toxic-soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (Aβo). Here, we show that VEGF accumulates in and around Aβ plaques in postmortem brains of patients with AD and in APP/PS1 mice, an AD mouse model. We uncover specific binding domains involved in direct interaction between Aβo and VEGF and reveal that this interaction jeopardizes VEGFR2 activation in neurons. Read More

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Multimodal detection of protein isoforms and nucleic acids from low starting cell numbers.

Lab Chip 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. and The UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA and Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, 499 Illinois St, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.

Protein isoforms play a key role in disease progression and arise from mechanisms involving multiple molecular subtypes, including DNA, mRNA and protein. Recently introduced multimodal assays successfully link genomes and transcriptomes to protein expression landscapes. However, the specificity of the protein measurement relies on antibodies alone, leading to major challenges when measuring different isoforms of the same protein. Read More

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Embryo ecology: Developmental synchrony and asynchrony in the embryonic development of wild annual fish populations.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 19;11(9):4945-4956. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Center for Life in Extreme Environments Portland State University Portland OR USA.

Embryo-environment interactions are of paramount importance during the development of all organisms, and impacts during this period can echo far into later stages of ontogeny. African annual fish of the genus live in temporary pools and their eggs survive the dry season in the dry bottom substrate of the pools by entering a facultative developmental arrest termed diapause. Uniquely among animals, the embryos (encased in eggs) may enter diapause at three different developmental stages. Read More

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Ulinastatin Exhibits Antinociception in Rat Models of Acute Somatic and Visceral Pain Through Inhibiting the Local and Central Inflammation.

J Pain Res 2021 4;14:1201-1214. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Clinical Medical College, (900 Hospital of the Joint Logistic Support Force), Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350025, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Ulinastatin, a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor, has been widely used to treat various diseases clinically. However, so far, the antinociceptive effect of ulinastatin remains less studied experimentally and the underlying mechanisms of ulinastatin for pain relief remain unclear. This study aimed to find evidence of the analgesic effect of ulinastatin on acute somatic and visceral pain. Read More

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Tumor Mutation Burden and Differentially Mutated Genes Among Immune Phenotypes in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 4;14:2953-2965. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Nowadays, immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) have been extensively applied in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the outcome of anti-program death-1/program death ligand-1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) therapy is not satisfying in -mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients and its exact mechanisms have not been fully understood. Since tumor mutation burden (TMB) and tumor immune phenotype had been thought as potential predictors for efficacy of ICBs, we further studied the TMB and immune phenotype in LUAD patients to explore potential mechanisms for poor efficacy of ICBs in positive mutated patients and to find possible factors that could impact the tumor immune phenotype which might uncover some new therapeutic strategies or combination therapies. Read More

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YAP promotes the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome via blocking K27-linked polyubiquitination of NLRP3.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2674. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Hematology and Key Laboratory of Non-resolving Inflammation and Cancer of Hunan Province, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

The transcription coactivator YAP plays a vital role in Hippo pathway for organ-size control and tissue homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated YAP is closely related to immune disorders and inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain less defined. Here, we find that YAP promotes the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular multi-protein complex that orchestrates host immune responses to infections or sterile injuries. Read More

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Asymmetric cell division shapes naive and virtual memory T-cell immunity during ageing.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2715. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Efficient immune responses rely on heterogeneity, which in CD8 T cells, amongst other mechanisms, is achieved by asymmetric cell division (ACD). Here we find that ageing, known to negatively impact immune responses, impairs ACD in murine CD8 T cells, and that this phenotype can be rescued by transient mTOR inhibition. Increased ACD rates in mitotic cells from aged mice restore the expansion and memory potential of their cellular progenies. Read More

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Evolution of Interbacterial Antagonism in Bee Gut Microbiota Reflects Host and Symbiont Diversification.

mSystems 2021 May 11;6(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Integrative Biology, Austin, Texas, USA

Gram-negative bacteria frequently possess type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), protein complexes that are able to inject toxic proteins into nearby cells. Many aspects of T6SS structure and function have been characterized for model species, but less is known about the evolutionary processes that shape T6SS and effector (toxin) diversity in host-associated microbial communities. The bee gut microbiota is a simple community that has codiversified with bees for >80 million years. Read More

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UNC-2 CaV2 channel localization at presynaptic active zones depends on UNC-10/RIM and SYD-2/Liprin-α in .

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Immunology, and Infection, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA

Presynaptic active zone proteins couple calcium influx with synaptic vesicle exocytosis. However, the control of presynaptic calcium channel localization by active zone proteins is not completely understood. In a forward genetic screen, we find that UNC-10/RIM (Rab3-interacting molecule) and SYD-2/Liprin-α regulate presynaptic localization of UNC-2, the CaV2 channel ortholog. Read More

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Atomic-Level Features for Kinetic Monte Carlo Models of Complex Chemistry from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

The high computational cost of evaluating atomic interactions recently motivated the development of computationally inexpensive kinetic models, which can be parameterized from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the complex chemistry of thousands of species or other processes and accelerate the prediction of the chemical evolution by up to four orders of magnitude. Such models go beyond the commonly employed potential energy surface fitting methods in that they are aimed purely at describing kinetic effects. So far, such kinetic models utilize molecular descriptions of reactions and have been constrained to only reproduce molecules previously observed in MD simulations. Read More

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Binding Mechanisms of Amyloid-like Peptides to Lipid Bilayers and Effects of Divalent Cations.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102-1982, United States.

In several neurodegenerative diseases, cell toxicity can emerge from damage produced by amyloid aggregates to lipid membranes. The details accounting for this damage are poorly understood including how individual amyloid peptides interact with phospholipid membranes before aggregation. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular mechanisms accounting for amyloid-membrane interactions and the role played by calcium ions in this interaction. Read More

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A developmental framework linking neurogenesis and circuit formation in the Drosophila CNS.

Elife 2021 May 11;10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, United States.

The mechanisms specifying neuronal diversity are well-characterized, yet it remains unclear how or if these mechanisms regulate neural circuit assembly. To address this, we mapped the developmental origin of 160 interneurons from seven bilateral neural progenitors (neuroblasts), and identify them in a synapse-scale TEM reconstruction of the larval CNS. We find that lineages concurrently build the sensory and motor neuropils by generating sensory and motor hemilineages in a Notch-dependent manner. Read More

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Leadership Through Influence: What Mechanisms Allow Leaders to Steer a Swarm?

Bull Math Biol 2021 May 10;83(6):69. Epub 2021 May 10.

Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio (DIST), Politecnico di Torino, Viale Pier Andrea Mattioli, 39, 10125, Turin, Italy.

Collective migration of cells and animals often relies on a specialised set of "leaders", whose role is to steer a population of naive followers towards some target. We formulate a continuous model to understand the dynamics and structure of such groups, splitting a population into separate follower and leader types with distinct orientation responses. We incorporate leader influence via three principal mechanisms: a bias in the orientation of leaders towards the destination (orientation-bias), a faster movement of leaders when moving towards the target (speed-bias), and leaders making themselves more clear to followers when moving towards the target (conspicuousness-bias). Read More

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CCR2-dependent monocyte-derived cells restrict SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a historic pandemic of respiratory disease (COVID-19) and current evidence suggests severe disease is associated with dysregulated immunity within the respiratory tract. However, the innate immune mechanisms that mediate protection during COVID-19 are not well defined. Here we characterize a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and find that early CCR2-dependent infiltration of monocytes restricts viral burden in the lung. Read More

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An experimental investigation to model wheezing in lungs.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 24;8(2):201951. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK.

A quarter of the world's population experience wheezing. These sounds have been used for diagnosis since the time of the Ebers Papyrus ( 1500 BC). We know that wheezing is a result of the oscillations of the airways that make up the lung. Read More

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February 2021

Consensus of travel direction is achieved by simple copying, not voting, in free-ranging goats.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 3;8(2):201128. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.

For group-living animals to remain cohesive they must agree on where to travel. Theoretical models predict shared group decisions should be favoured, and a number of empirical examples support this. However, the behavioural mechanisms that underpin shared decision-making are not fully understood. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluating the influence of action- and subject-specific factors on chimpanzee action copying.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 10;8(2):200228. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The ability to imitate has been deemed crucial for the emergence of human culture. Although non-human animals also possess culture, the acquisition mechanisms underlying behavioural variation between populations in other species is still under debate. It is especially controversial whether great apes can spontaneously imitate. Read More

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February 2021

Widespread deep seismicity in the Delaware Basin, Texas, is mainly driven by shallow wastewater injection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720;

Industrial activity away from plate boundaries can induce earthquakes and has evolved into a global issue. Much of the induced seismicity in the United States' midcontinent is attributed to a direct pressure increase from deep wastewater disposal. This mechanism is not applicable where deep basement faults are hydraulically isolated from shallow injection aquifers, leading to a debate about the mechanisms for induced seismicity. Read More

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Can public-private partnerships (PPPs) improve the environmental performance of urban sewage treatment?

J Environ Manage 2021 May 7;291:112660. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, PR China. Electronic address:

Insufficient sewage treatment facility is one important reason for wastewater entering and affecting aquatic ecosystems. The PPP mode, serving as one of the fastest-growing mechanisms for public service provision in recent decades, is considered to be an effective way to alleviate the pressure of funding shortages and to improve the efficiency of sewage treatment. However, the performance of PPPs has been questioned, especially the service quality given the inherent nature of the private sectors' pursuit of maximizing economic profit and the shortcoming of incomplete contracts. Read More

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Predicting mean ribosome load for 5'UTR of any length using deep learning.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 10;17(5):e1008982. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Informatics, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.

The 5' untranslated region plays a key role in regulating mRNA translation and consequently protein abundance. Therefore, accurate modeling of 5'UTR regulatory sequences shall provide insights into translational control mechanisms and help interpret genetic variants. Recently, a model was trained on a massively parallel reporter assay to predict mean ribosome load (MRL)-a proxy for translation rate-directly from 5'UTR sequence with a high degree of accuracy. Read More

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Intestinal microbes direct CXCR1 cells to balance intestinal immunity.

Gut Microbes 2019 Jul 6;10(4):540-546. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research and the Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Intestinal damage driven by unrestricted immune responses against the intestinal microbiota can lead to the development of inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. How such breakdown in tolerance occurs alongside the mechanisms to reinforce homeostasis with the microbiota are a focus of many studies. Our recent work demonstrates coordinated interactions between intact microbiota and CXCR1 expressing intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) that limits T helper 1 cell responses and promotes differentiation of regulatory T cells (Treg) against intestinal antigens including pathogens, soluble proteins and the microbiota itself. Read More

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