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Systems genetic analysis of binge-like eating in a C57BL/6J x DBA/2J-F2 cross.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 May 12:e12751. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Addiction Genetics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Binge eating is a heritable trait associated with eating disorders and refers to the rapid consumption of a large quantity of energy-dense food that is associated with loss of control and negative affect. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder in the US; however, the genetic basis is unknown. We previously identified robust mouse inbred strain differences between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J in binge-like eating of sweetened palatable food in an intermittent access, conditioned place preference paradigm (PF-CPP). Read More

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Genetic and epigenetic features of promoters with ubiquitous chromatin accessibility support ubiquitous transcription of cell-essential genes.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Gene expression is controlled by regulatory elements within accessible chromatin. Although most regulatory elements are cell type-specific, a subset is accessible in nearly all the 517 human and 94 mouse cell and tissue types assayed by the ENCODE consortium. We systematically analyzed 9000 human and 8000 mouse ubiquitously-accessible candidate cis-regulatory elements (cCREs) with promoter-like signatures (PLSs) from ENCODE, which we denote ubi-PLSs. Read More

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From cellular function to global impact: the vascular perspective on COVID-19.

Can J Surg 2021 05 12;64(3):E289-E297. Epub 2021 May 12.

From the Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. (Strauss, Jetty); the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont. (Strauss, Seo, Carrier, Jetty); the Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. (Carrier); and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ont. (Carrier).

Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic a year ago, our understanding of its effects on the vascular system has slowly evolved. At the cellular level, SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 - accesses the vascular endothelium through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and induces proinflammatory and prothrombotic responses. At the clinical level, these pathways lead to thromboembolic events that affect the pulmonary, extracranial, mesenteric, and lower extremity vessels. Read More

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The diagnostic accuracy of Artificial Intelligence-Assisted CT imaging in COVID-19 disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Inform Med Unlocked 2021 6;24:100591. Epub 2021 May 6.

Health Research Institute, Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathies Research Centre, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems have become critical in support of decision-making. This systematic review summarizes all the data currently available on the AI-assisted CT-Scan prediction accuracy for COVID-19. The ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct, PROSPERO, and EMBASE were systematically searched. Read More

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Rethinking CRITID Procedure of Brain Targeting Drug Delivery: Circulation, Blood Brain Barrier Recognition, Intracellular Transport, Diseased Cell Targeting, Internalization, and Drug Release.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 24;8(9):2004025. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Key laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery Systems of the Education Ministry Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology West China School of Pharmacy Sichuan University Chengdu 610041 China.

The past decades have witnessed great progress in nanoparticle (NP)-based brain-targeting drug delivery systems, while their therapeutic potentials are yet to be fully exploited given that the majority of them are lost during the delivery process. Rational design of brain-targeting drug delivery systems requires a deep understanding of the entire delivery process along with the issues that they may encounter. Herein, this review first analyzes the typical delivery process of a systemically administrated NPs-based brain-targeting drug delivery system and proposes a six-step CRITID delivery cascade: circulation in systemic blood, recognizing receptor on blood-brain barrier (BBB), intracellular transport, diseased cell targeting after entering into parenchyma, internalization by diseased cells, and finally intracellular drug release. Read More

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Canonical Hamiltonian ensemble representation of dephasing dynamics and the impact of thermal fluctuations on quantum-to-classical transition.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10046. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Quantum Frontiers of Research and Technology, NCKU, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan.

An important mathematical tool for studying open quantum system theory, which studies the dynamics of a reduced system, is the completely positive and trace-preserving dynamical linear map parameterized by a special parameter-time. Counter-intuitively, akin to the Fourier transform of a signal in time-sequence to its frequency distribution, the time evolution of a reduced system can also be studied in the frequency domain. A recent proposed idea which studies the representation of dynamical processes in the frequency domain, referred to as canonical Hamiltonian ensemble representation (CHER), proved its capability of characterizing the noncalssical traits of the dynamics. Read More

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On the estimate of music appraisal from surface EEG: a dynamic-network approach based on cross-sensor PAC measurements.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University Campus: Biology building, Thessaloniki, 54124, GREECE.

Objective: The aesthetic evaluation of music is strongly dependent on the listener and reflects manifold brain processes that go well beyond the perception of incident sound. Being a high-level cognitive reaction, it is difficult to predict merely from the acoustic features of the audio signal and this poses serious challenges to contemporary music recommendation systems. We attempted to decode music appraisal from brain activity, recorded via wearable EEG, during music listening. Read More

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Institutional and behaviour-change interventions to support COVID-19 public health measures: a review by the Lancet Commission Task Force on public health measures to suppress the pandemic.

Int Health 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The Lancet COVID-19 Commission Task Force for Public Health Measures to Suppress the Pandemic was launched to identify critical points for consideration by governments on public health interventions to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drawing on our review of published studies of data analytics and modelling, evidence synthesis and contextualisation, and behavioural science evidence and theory on public health interventions from a range of sources, we outline evidence for a range of institutional measures and behaviour-change measures. We cite examples of measures adopted by a range of countries, but especially jurisdictions that have, thus far, achieved low numbers of COVID-19 deaths and limited community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Read More

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Translating Data Analytics Into Improved Spine Surgery Outcomes: A Roadmap for Biomedical Informatics Research in 2021.

Global Spine J 2021 May 11:21925682211008424. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurological Surgery, 12275Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Study Design: Narrative review.

Objectives: There is growing interest in the use of biomedical informatics and data analytics tools in spine surgery. Yet despite the rapid growth in research on these topics, few analytic tools have been implemented in routine spine practice. Read More

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A level-wise spine registration framework to account for large pose changes.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA, 01609, USA.

Purposes: Accurate and efficient spine registration is crucial to success of spine image guidance. However, changes in spine pose cause intervertebral motion that can lead to significant registration errors. In this study, we develop a geometrical rectification technique via nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) to achieve level-wise vertebral registration that is robust to large changes in spine pose. Read More

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The importance of ongoing international surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National CJD Research & Surveillance Unit, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive, fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of misfolded prion protein in the CNS. International CJD surveillance programmes have been active since the emergence, in the mid-1990s, of variant CJD (vCJD), a disease linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Control measures have now successfully contained bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the incidence of vCJD has declined, leading to questions about the requirement for ongoing surveillance. Read More

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Micro-light-emitting diodes with quantum dots in display technology.

Light Sci Appl 2020 May 11;9(1):83. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Micro-light-emitting diodes (μ-LEDs) are regarded as the cornerstone of next-generation display technology to meet the personalised demands of advanced applications, such as mobile phones, wearable watches, virtual/augmented reality, micro-projectors and ultrahigh-definition TVs. However, as the LED chip size shrinks to below 20 μm, conventional phosphor colour conversion cannot present sufficient luminance and yield to support high-resolution displays due to the low absorption cross-section. The emergence of quantum dot (QD) materials is expected to fill this gap due to their remarkable photoluminescence, narrow bandwidth emission, colour tuneability, high quantum yield and nanoscale size, providing a powerful full-colour solution for μ-LED displays. Read More

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Skeletal muscle fibers count on nuclear numbers for growth.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle cells are noteworthy for their syncytial nature, with each myofiber accumulating hundreds or thousands of nuclei derived from resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). These nuclei are accrued through cell fusion, which is controlled by the two essential fusogens Myomaker and Myomerger that are transiently expressed within the myogenic lineage. While the absolute requirement of fusion for muscle development has been known for decades, the underlying need for the magnitude of multinucleation in muscle remains mysterious. Read More

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A Biomimetic Macroporous Hybrid Scaffold with Sustained Drug Delivery for Enhanced Bone Regeneration.

Biomacromolecules 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Bone regeneration is a highly complex physiological process regulated by several factors. In particular, bone-mimicking extracellular matrix and available osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have been regarded as key contributors for bone regeneration. In this study, we developed a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (CEGH) with sustained release of BMP-2 that would result in enhanced bone formation. Read More

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A mental health professional survey of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of opioid use disorder.

J Clin Psychol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Professional and Applied Psychology, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: The objective of this survey was to obtain mental health professional perspectives on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment.

Methods: Respondents (N = 84) rated components of CBT for their efficacy in OUD treatment. Ratings were reported for the overall sample, by degree completed, and by clinicians versus nonclinicians. Read More

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A study on ship collision conflict prediction in the Taiwan Strait using the EMD-based LSSVM method.

Authors:
Tian Chai Han Xue

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250948. Epub 2021 May 10.

Navigation Institute, Jimei University, Xiamen, China.

Ship collision accidents are the primary threat to traffic safety in the sea. Collision accidents can cause casualties and environmental pollution. The collision risk is a major indicator for navigators and surveillance operators to judge the collision danger between meeting ships. Read More

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Computational phenotyping of brain-behavior dynamics underlying approach-avoidance conflict in major depressive disorder.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 10;17(5):e1008955. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Adaptive behavior requires balancing approach and avoidance based on the rewarding and aversive consequences of actions. Imbalances in this evaluation are thought to characterize mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). We present a novel application of the drift diffusion model (DDM) suited to quantify how offers of reward and aversiveness, and neural correlates thereof, are dynamically integrated to form decisions, and how such processes are altered in MDD. Read More

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Practical Changes in Reference Services: A Case Study.

Med Ref Serv Q 2021 Apr-Jun;40(2):151-167

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Between 2018 and 2019, the librarians at the Strauss Health Sciences Library improved the efficiency and reach of their reference service by implementing four small-scale changes. These changes included revising the method of collecting statistics, creating FAQs, utilizing an appointment scheduler, and launching proactive chat. This case study will provide the background and research to support these changes, details on how the changes were implemented using Springshare tools, as well as the results and implications. Read More

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Not so sweet and simple: impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the β cell.

Islets 2021 May 10:1-14. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.

The link between COVID-19 infection and diabetes has been explored in several studies since the start of the pandemic, with associations between comorbid diabetes and poorer prognosis in patients infected with the virus and reports of diabetic ketoacidosis occurring with COVID-19 infection. As such, significant interest has been generated surrounding mechanisms by which the virus may exert effects on the pancreatic β cells. In this review, we consider possible routes by which SARS-CoV-2 may impact β cells. Read More

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Siberian cats help in solving part of the mystery surrounding golden cats.

Anim Genet 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

VetAgro Sup, Univ. Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, 69280, Marcy-l'Etoile, France.

Golden cats have been appreciated since the beginning of the cat fancy. Golden is a modification of the tabby coat. In the Siberian breed, a specific golden phenotype, named sunshine, has been described. Read More

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Learning From Clinical Consensus Diagnosis in India to Facilitate Automatic Classification of Dementia: Machine Learning Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 May 10;8(5):e27113. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Background: The Harmonized Diagnostic Assessment of Dementia for the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI-DAD) is the first and only nationally representative study on late-life cognition and dementia in India (n=4096). LASI-DAD obtained clinical consensus diagnosis of dementia for a subsample of 2528 respondents.

Objective: This study develops a machine learning model that uses data from the clinical consensus diagnosis in LASI-DAD to support the classification of dementia status. Read More

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First report of Corynespora cassicola causing black spot on Sarcandra glabra in China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, 248907, Nanning, Guangxi, China;

Sarcandra glabra is an important Chinese medicinal plant, which was widely cultivated under forest in south China. Guangxi province is the main producing areas of this herb. In June 2019, a serious leaf disease was found causing severe defoliation in the S. Read More

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Extracorporeal CO removal and renal replacement therapy in acute severe respiratory failure in COVID-19 pneumonia: Case report.

Semin Dial 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Critical Care, Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

The COVID-19 pandemic significates an enormous number of patients with pneumonia that get complicated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), some of them with refractory hypercapnia and hypoxemia that need mechanical ventilation (MV). Those patients who are not candidate to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the extracorporeal removal of CO (ECCO R) can allow ultra protective MV to limit the transpulmonary pressures and avoid ventilatory induced lung injury (VILI). We report a first case of prolonged ECCO R support in 38 year male with severe COVID-19 pneumonia refractory to conventional support. Read More

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Wireless Qi-powered, Multinodal and Multisensory Body Area Network for Mobile Health.

IEEE Internet Things J 2021 May 26;8(9):7600-7609. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA - 92697.

Wireless, battery-free Body Area Networks (BAN) enable reliable long-term health monitoring with minimal intervention, and have the potential to transform patient care via mobile health monitoring. Current approaches for achieving such battery-free networks are limited in the number, capability, and positioning of sensing nodes-this is related to constraints in power supply, data rate, and working distance requirements between the wireless power source and sensing nodes. Here, we investigate a Qi-based, near-field power transfer scheme that can effectively drive wireless, battery-free, multi-node and multi-sensor BAN over long distances. Read More

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Successful endoscopic surgery for emphysematous pyelonephritis in a non-diabetic patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(12):2862-2867

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518053, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Emphysema pyelonephritis (EPN) is a very dangerous type of urinary tract infection. It is a lethal disease that develops rapidly and causes the patient to deteriorate rapidly, and it can easily lead to systemic infections and even sepsis. The incidence is extremely low, and it is prevalent in patients with diabetes. Read More

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Screening for Core Genes Related to Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:668738. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a nervous system disease, lacks effective therapies at present. RNA expression is the basic way to regulate life activities, and identifying related characteristics in AD patients may aid the exploration of AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study developed a classifier that could accurately classify AD patients and healthy people, and then obtained 3 core genes that may be related to the pathogenesis of AD. Read More

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Long-Read Sequencing to Unravel Complex Structural Variants of Leading to Cone-Rod Dystrophy and Hearing Loss.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:664317. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center for Medical Genetics Ghent, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Inactivating variants as well as a missense variant in the centrosomal gene have been identified in autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy with hearing loss (CRDHL), a rare syndromic inherited retinal disease distinct from Usher syndrome. Apart from this, a complex structural variant (SV) implicating has been reported in CRDHL. Here we aimed to expand the genetic architecture of typical CRDHL by the identification of complex SVs of the region and characterization of their underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Propagation Model of Panic Buying Under the Sudden Epidemic.

Front Public Health 2021 22;9:675687. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Tourism and Urban-Rural Planning, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, China.

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 at the end of 2019 has had a huge impact on people's lives all over the world, and the overwhelmingly negative information about the epidemic has made people panic for the future. This kind of panic spreads and develops through online social networks, and further spreads to the offline environment, which triggers panic buying behavior and has a serious impact on social stability. In order to quantitatively study this behavior, a two-layer propagation model of panic buying behavior under the sudden epidemic is constructed. Read More

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Case Report: Stepwise Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Effects Following Convalescent Plasma Therapy With Full Clinical Recovery.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:613502. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Interregional Blood Transfusion SRC, Epalinges, Switzerland.

In these times of COVID-19 pandemic, concern has been raised about the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on immunocompromised patients, particularly on those receiving B-cell depleting agents and having therefore a severely depressed humoral response. Convalescent plasma can be a therapeutic option for these patients. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of convalescent plasma is crucial to optimize such therapeutic approach. Read More

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The Brain Alteration of Seafarer Revealed by Activated Functional Connectivity Mode in fMRI Data Analysis.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 22;15:656638. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Artificial Intelligence and Neuro-Informatics Engineering (ARINE) Laboratory, School of Computer Engineering, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang, China.

As a special occupational group, the working and living environments faced by seafarers are greatly different from those of land. It is easy to affect the psychological and physiological activities of seafarers, which inevitably lead to changes in the brain functional activities of seafarers. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the neural activity rules of seafarers' brain. Read More

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