8,825 results match your criteria filamentous growth

Identification of the pigment and its role in UV resistance in Paecilomyces variotii, a Chernobyl isolate, using genetic manipulation strategies.

Fungal Genet Biol 2021 May 11:103567. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Chemistry, Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Fungi produce secondary metabolites that are not directly involved in their growth, but often contribute to their adaptation to extreme environmental stimuli and enable their survival. Conidial pigment or melanin is one of the secondary metabolites produced naturally by a polyketide synthesis (PKS) gene cluster in several filamentous fungi and is known to protect these fungi from extreme radiation conditions. Several pigmented or melanized fungi have been shown to grow under extreme radiation conditions at the Chernobyl nuclear accident site. Read More

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Enhanced protein and amino acids of corn-ethanol co-product by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave, Saint Paul, MN, 55108-6005, USA.

Upcycle of co-products from corn-ethanol plant into protein-rich animal feed with balanced key amino acids via solid-state fermentation is a promising approach to economically support both biofuel and animal feed industries. However, there are multiple types of solid-state fermentation microorganisms and growth conditions that have not been tested. In this study, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae were used to ferment corn-based wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS). Read More

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Physiological changes induced by sodium chloride stress in Aphanizomenon gracile, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Dolichospermum sp.

Harmful Algae 2021 Mar 8;103:102028. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

IFREMER-Phycotoxins Laboratory, F-44311 Nantes, France.

Due to anthropogenic activities, associated with climate change, many freshwater ecosystems are expected to experience an increase in salinity. This phenomenon is predicted to favor the development and expansion of freshwater cyanobacteria towards brackish waters due to their transfer along the estuarine freshwater-marine continuum. Since freshwater cyanobacteria are known to produce toxins, this represents a serious threat for animal and human health. Read More

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A Simple Antifungal assay for Testing Actinomycetes and Other Microbial Extracts.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:217-225

Bacteriology Department, Biomar Microbial Technologies S.A., León, Spain.

Antifungal assay in vitro is a useful tool for the characterization of biological activity of microbial extracts. Here we describe a simple in vitro test at two final extract concentrations that allows long-term storage of the plates containing dry extracts before using. The assay protocol is described for two fungal strains, a unicellular yeast, with clinical interest (Candida albicans), and a sporulated and phytopathogenic filamentous fungus (Botrytis cinerea). Read More

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January 2021

Applicability of a single-use bioreactor compared to a glass bioreactor for the fermentation of filamentous fungi and evaluation of the reproducibility of growth in pellet form.

Eng Life Sci 2021 May 25;21(5):324-339. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute for Biotechnical Process Design Trier University of Applied Sciences, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld Hoppstädten-Weiersbach Germany.

The implementation of single-use technologies offers several major advantages, e.g. prevention of cross-contamination, especially when spore-forming microorganisms are present. Read More

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Dissecting Cellular Function and Distribution of β-Glucosidases in Trichoderma reesei.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

has 11 putative β-glucosidases in its genome, playing key parts in the induction and production of cellulase. Nevertheless, the reason why the genome encodes so many β-glucosidases and the distinct role each β-glucosidase plays in cellulase production remain unknown. In the present study, the cellular function and distribution of 10 known β-glucosidases (CEL3B, CEL3E, CEL3F, CEL3H, CEL3J, CEL1A, CEL3C, CEL1B, CEL3G, and CEL3D) were explored in , leaving out BGL1 (CEL3A), which has been well investigated. Read More

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Genetic Characterization of Mutations Related to Conidiophore Stalk Length Development in Laboratory Strain N402.

Front Genet 2021 20;12:666684. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Microbial Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

is an important filamentous fungus in industrial biotechnology for the production of citric acid and enzymes. In the late 1980s, the N400/NRRL3 strain was selected for both fundamental and applied studies in relation to several processes including gluconic acid and protein production. To facilitate handling of , the N400 wild-type strain was UV mutagenized in two consecutive rounds to generate N401 and N402. Read More

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Something old, something new: challenges and developments in Aspergillus niger biotechnology.

Essays Biochem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Chair of Applied and Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany.

The filamentous ascomycete fungus Aspergillus niger is a prolific secretor of organic acids, proteins, enzymes and secondary metabolites. Throughout the last century, biotechnologists have developed A. niger into a multipurpose cell factory with a product portfolio worth billions of dollars each year. Read More

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Genetic Analysis of Sirtuin Deacetylases in Hyphal Growth of .

mSphere 2021 May 5;6(3). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA

is a major human fungal pathogen that encounters varied host environments during infection. In response to environmental cues, switches between ovoid yeast and elongated hyphal growth forms, and this morphological plasticity contributes to virulence. Environmental changes that alter the cell's metabolic state could be sensed by sirtuins, which are NAD-dependent deacetylases. Read More

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Targeted Quantification of Phosphorylation Sites Identifies STRIPAK-Dependent Phosphorylation of the Hippo Pathway-Related Kinase SmKIN3.

mBio 2021 05 4;12(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Allgemeine und Molekulare Botanik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, Germany

We showed recently that the erminal enter inase III (GCKIII) SmKIN3 from the fungus is involved in sexual development and hyphal septation. Our recent extensive global proteome and phosphoproteome analysis revealed that SmKIN3 is a target of the iatin-nteracting hosphatase nd inase (STRIPAK) multisubunit complex. Here, using protein samples from the wild type and three STRIPAK mutants, we applied absolute quantification by arallel-eaction onitoring (PRM) to analyze phosphorylation site occupancy in SmKIN3 and other eptation nitiation etwork (SIN) components, such as CDC7 and DBF2, as well as BUD4, acting downstream of SIN. Read More

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β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) Causes Severe Stress in sp. PCC 7120 Cells under Diazotrophic Conditions: A Proteomic Study.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Scientific-Research Institute of Physical-Chemical Medicine, 119435 Moscow, Russia.

Non-proteinogenic neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is synthesized by cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates, and is known to be a causative agent of human neurodegenerative diseases. Different phytoplankton organisms' ability to synthesize BMAA could indicate the importance of this molecule in the interactions between microalgae in nature. We were interested in the following: what kinds of mechanisms underline BMAA's action on cyanobacterial cells in different nitrogen supply conditions. Read More

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Integrative analysis reveals unique structural and functional features of the Smc5/6 complex.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065;

Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are critical chromatin modulators. In eukaryotes, the cohesin and condensin SMC complexes organize chromatin, while the Smc5/6 complex directly regulates DNA replication and repair. The molecular basis for the distinct functions of Smc5/6 is poorly understood. Read More

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Changes in growth kinetic parameters, morphology and mitotic activity of yeasts Candida guilliermondii exposed to the low-intensity waves of 51.8-GHz frequency.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoogyan Str, 0025, Yerevan, Armenia.

Under the influence of electromagnetic waves of millimeter range with the frequency of 51.8 GHz, changes in the morphology, growth parameters and mitotic activity of yeasts C. guilliermondii NP-4 are revealed. Read More

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Microbial biomodification of clay minerals.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 26;114:111-139. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Clay minerals are important reactive centers in the soil system. Their interactions with microorganisms are ubiquitous and wide-ranging, affecting growth and function, interactions with other organisms, including plants, biogeochemical processes and the fate of organic and inorganic pollutants. Clay minerals have a large specific surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) per unit mass, and are abundant in many soil systems, especially those of agricultural significance. Read More

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September 2020

Transformation of 15-ene steviol by Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella bainieri, and Mortierella isabellina.

Phytochemistry 2021 Apr 29;187:112776. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; PhD Program in Clinical Drug Development of Herbal Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Transformation of 15-ene steviol (ent-13-hydroxy-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid) by growth cultures of Aspergillus niger BCRC 32720, Cunninghamella bainieri ATCC 9244, and Mortierella isabellina ATCC 38063 was conducted to generate various derivatives for the development of bioactive compounds. Four previously undescribed compounds along with six known compounds were obtained. The newly identified isolates were characterized using 1D and 2D NMR, IR, and HRESIMS, and three compounds were further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Read More

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Method for the Production and Purification of Plant Immuno-Active Xylanase from .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Plant Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Institute, Rishon LeZion 50250, Israel.

Plants lack a circulating adaptive immune system to protect themselves against pathogens. Therefore, they have evolved an innate immune system based upon complicated and efficient defense mechanisms, either constitutive or inducible. Plant defense responses are triggered by elicitors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Read More

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Growth Forms and Functional Guilds Distribution of Soil Fungi in Coastal Versus Inland Sites of Victoria Land, Antarctica.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.

In Victoria Land, Antarctica, ice-free areas are restricted to coastal regions and dominate the landscape of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. These two environments are subjected to different pressures that determine the establishment of highly adapted fungal communities. Within the kingdom of fungi, filamentous, yeasts and meristematic/microcolonial growth forms on one side and different lifestyles on the other side may be considered adaptive strategies of particular interest in the frame of Antarctic constraints. Read More

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Distribution of a novel enzyme of sialidase family among native filamentous fungi.

Fungal Biol 2021 May 5;125(5):412-425. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Academician G. Bonchev 26, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria. Electronic address:

Sialidases (neuraminidases, EC 3.2.1. Read More

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Regulation of spp. biofilm growth by tryptophol and tyrosol.

Biofilm 2021 Dec 26;3:100046. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Fungi belonging to the genus are often used as microbial models of mammalian metabolism owing to their ability to transform a range of xenobiotic compounds. Furthermore, under specific growth conditions species such as and grow as biofilms enabling a convenient semi-continuous production of valuable drug metabolites. However, the molecular mechanism of biofilm regulation is not understood, thus controlling biofilm thickness limits the productive applications of it. Read More

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December 2021

Integration of Proteomics and Metabolomics Into the Design, Build, Test, Learn Cycle to Improve 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid Production in .

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 7;9:603832. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.

Biological engineering of microorganisms to produce value-added chemicals is a promising route to sustainable manufacturing. However, overproduction of metabolic intermediates at high titer, rate, and yield from inexpensive substrates is challenging in non-model systems where limited information is available regarding metabolic flux and its control in production conditions. Integrated multi-omic analyses of engineered strains offers an in-depth look at metabolites and proteins directly involved in growth and production of target and non-target bioproducts. Read More

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Accelerated glucose metabolism in hyphae-dispersed Aspergillus oryzae is suitable for biological production.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Graduate School of Science, Technology, and Innovation, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan; Engineering Biology Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan; Biomass Engineering Program, RIKEN, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.

Recently, a hyphae-dispersed type of filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was constructed via genetic engineering, and industrial applications are expected due to the ease of handling and to the level of protein production properties. In this study, we constructed cellulase-expressing strains using wild-type and hyphae-dispersed strains to investigate the correlation between protein productivity and metabolism. Compared with the original strain, the hyphae-dispersed cellulase-expressing strain showed elevated cellulase activity, rapid glucose consumption, increased mycelial dry weight, an increased expression of cellulase genes, and activated respiration activity. Read More

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A compartmentalized microsystem helps understanding the uptake of benzo[a]pyrene by fungi during soil bioremediation processes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 17;784:147151. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Université de technologie de Compiègne, ESCOM, TIMR (Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter), Centre de Recherche Royallieu - CS 60 319 - 60 203 Compiègne Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Hydrophobic organic soil contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are poorly mobile in the aqueous phase and tend to sorb to the soil matrix, resulting in low bioavailability. Some filamentous fungi are efficient in degrading this kind of pollutants. However, the mechanism of mobilization of hydrophobic compounds by non-motile microorganisms such as filamentous fungi needs investigations to improve pollutant bioavailability and bioremediation efficiency. Read More

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Spatial and temporal localization of SPIRRIG and WAVE/SCAR reveal roles for these proteins in actin-mediated root hair development.

Plant Cell 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Utililization and Life Sciences Office, NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL.

Root hairs are single cell protrusions that enable roots to optimize nutrient and water acquisition. These structures attain their tubular shapes by confining growth to the cell apex, a process called tip growth. The actin cytoskeleton and endomembrane systems are essential for tip growth; however, little is known about how these cellular components coordinate their activities during this process. Read More

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Comparative phenotypic analysis of sp. PCC 7120 mutants of porin-like genes.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 9;31(5). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main.

Porins are essential for the viability of Gram-negative bacteria. They ensure the uptake of nutrients, can be involved in the maintenance of outer membrane integrity and define the antibiotic or drug resistance of organisms. The function and structure of porins in proteobacteria is well described, while their function in photoautotrophic cyanobacteria has not been systematically explored. Read More

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Spatial and temporal localization of SPIRRIG and WAVE/SCAR reveal roles for these proteins in actin-mediated root hair development.

Plant Cell 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Noble Research Institute LLC, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401.

Root hairs are single cell protrusions that enable roots to optimize nutrient and water acquisition. These structures attain their tubular shapes by confining growth to the cell apex, a process called tip growth. The actin cytoskeleton and endomembrane systems are essential for tip growth; however, little is known about how these cellular components coordinate their activities during this process. Read More

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Dsk2 involves in conidiation, multi-stress tolerance and thermal adaptation in Beauveria bassiana.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-Geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education, School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China.

Dsk2 is a nuclear-enriched ubiquitin-like polyubiquitin-binding protein that regulates protein degradation in yeast but has not been explored yet in filamentous fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana. Here, we report Beauveria bassiana Dsk2 located both in the nucleus and in cytoplasm of hyphal cells. Deletion of Dsk2 resulted in mild growth defect on scant media with various carbon/nitrogen sources and dramatic attenuation in conidiation capability at optimal condition. Read More

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Vital roles of Pks11, a highly reducing polyketide synthase, in fungal conidiation, antioxidant activity, conidial cell wall integrity, and UV tolerance of Beauveria bassiana.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 May 20;181:107588. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Lingnan Guangdong Laboratory of Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Fungal polyketide synthases play important and differential roles in synthesizing secondary metabolites and regulating several cell events, including asexual development, environmental adaptation, and pathogenicity. This study shows the important functions of a highly reducing polyketide synthase, Pks11, in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen used worldwide for pest biocontrol. The deletion of pks11 led to severe defects in conidial yields on different media and a decrease of 36. Read More

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The zinc cluster transcription factor Czf1 regulates cell wall architecture and integrity in Candida albicans.

Mol Microbiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

The fungal cell wall is essential for the maintenance of cellular integrity and mediates interactions of the cells with the environment. It is a highly flexible organelle whose composition and organization is modulated in response to changing growth conditions. In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, a network of signaling pathways regulates the structure of the cell wall, and mutants with defects in these pathways are hypersensitive to cell wall stress. Read More

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pH-dependent disintegration of insulin amyloid fibrils monitored with atomic force microscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 8;256:119672. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena, Germany; Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena, Germany; Institute of Quantum Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242, USA. Electronic address:

Aggregation of insulin into amyloid fibrils is characterized by the conversion of the native secondary structure of the peptide into an enriched ß-sheet conformation. In vitro, the growth or disintegration of amyloid fibrils can be influenced by various external factors such as pH, temperature etc. While current studies mainly focus on the influence of environmental conditions on the growth process of insulin fibrils, the present study investigates the effect of pH changes on the morphology and secondary structure of mature fibrils. Read More

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Heterocyst septa contain large nanopores that are influenced by the Fra proteins in the filamentous cyanobacterium .

J Bacteriol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, CSIC and Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Seville, Spain

Multicellular heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria such as grow as chains of cells forming filaments that, under diazotrophic conditions, contain two cell types: vegetative cells that perform oxygenic photosynthesis and N-fixing heterocysts. Along the filament, the intercellular septa contain a thick peptidoglycan layer that forms septal disks. Proteinaceous septal junctions connect the cells in the filament traversing the septal disks through nanopores. Read More

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