30,976 results match your criteria filamentous


Long term follow-up of Maduromycosis treatment: A case review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 May 3;82:105956. Epub 2021 May 3.

Orthopedic and Traumatology Departement, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

Maduromycosis is a rare deep fungal infection characterized by painless progressive destruction of limb caused by either fungal or filamentous bacteria. Its presentation is usually initiated by trivial penetration injury in farmers or laborers, worsen by immunocompromised status. Due to its painless course, this infection will severely destruct and deform hence leading to high morbidity of patient. Read More

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Distinct axial and lateral interactions within homologous filaments dictate the signaling specificity and order of the AIM2-ASC inflammasome.

Nat Commun 2021 May 12;12(1):2735. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Inflammasomes are filamentous signaling platforms integral to innate immunity. Currently, little is known about how these structurally similar filaments recognize and distinguish one another. A cryo-EM structure of the AIM2 filament reveals that the architecture of the upstream filament is essentially identical to that of the adaptor ASC filament. Read More

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Physiological changes induced by sodium chloride stress in Aphanizomenon gracile, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Dolichospermum sp.

Harmful Algae 2021 Mar 8;103:102028. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

IFREMER-Phycotoxins Laboratory, F-44311 Nantes, France.

Due to anthropogenic activities, associated with climate change, many freshwater ecosystems are expected to experience an increase in salinity. This phenomenon is predicted to favor the development and expansion of freshwater cyanobacteria towards brackish waters due to their transfer along the estuarine freshwater-marine continuum. Since freshwater cyanobacteria are known to produce toxins, this represents a serious threat for animal and human health. Read More

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Towards fungal sensing skin.

Fungal Biol Biotechnol 2021 May 12;8(1). Epub 2021 May 12.

Unconventional Computing Laboratory, UWE, Bristol, UK.

A fungal skin is a thin flexible sheet of a living homogeneous mycelium made by a filamentous fungus. The skin could be used in future living architectures of adaptive buildings and as a sensing living skin for soft self-growing/adaptive robots. In experimental laboratory studies we demonstrate that the fungal skin is capable for recognising mechanical and optical stimulation. Read More

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Identification of a new species, Unicapsula aequilobata n. sp., and Unicapsula seriolae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in carangid fish from the South China Sea.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Joint Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, 753-8515, Japan.

An examination of 18 fishes caught in the South China Sea detected two Unicapsula spp. in the myofibers of the trunk muscles of carangid fishes: Unicapsula aequilobata n. sp. Read More

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Genetic Dissection of T-DNA Insertional Mutants Reveals Uncoupling of Dikaryotic Filamentation and Virulence in Sugarcane Smut Fungus.

Phytopathology 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Guangxi University, 12664, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources , Nanning, Guangxi, China.

The biotrophic basidiomycetous fungus causing smut disease in sugarcane is characterized by a life-cycle composed of a yeast-like nonpathogenic haploid basidiosporial stage outside the plant and filamentous pathogenic dikaryotic hyphae within the plant. Under field conditions, dikaryotic hyphae are formed after mating of two opposite mating-type strains. However, the mechanisms underlying genetic regulation of filamentation and its association with pathogenicity and development of teliospores are currently unclear. Read More

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A Simple Antifungal assay for Testing Actinomycetes and Other Microbial Extracts.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:217-225

Bacteriology Department, Biomar Microbial Technologies S.A., León, Spain.

Antifungal assay in vitro is a useful tool for the characterization of biological activity of microbial extracts. Here we describe a simple in vitro test at two final extract concentrations that allows long-term storage of the plates containing dry extracts before using. The assay protocol is described for two fungal strains, a unicellular yeast, with clinical interest (Candida albicans), and a sporulated and phytopathogenic filamentous fungus (Botrytis cinerea). Read More

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January 2021

Penicillium chrysogenum Fermentation and Analysis of Benzylpenicillin by Bioassay and HPLC.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:195-207

Instituto de Biotecnología de León (INBIOTEC), Parque Científico de León, León, Spain.

Penicillium chrysogenum, recently re-identified as Penicillium rubens, is the microorganism used for the industrial production of penicillin. This filamentous fungus (mold) probably represents the best example of adaptation of a microorganism to industrial production conditions and therefore, it can be considered as a model organism for the study of primary and secondary metabolism under a highly stressful environment. In this regard, biosynthesis and production of benzylpenicillin can be used as an interesting phenotypic trait for those studies. Read More

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January 2021

High-Efficiency Electroporation for Genetic Improvement of Fungal Strains.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:185-194

Department of Biotechnology, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City, Mexico.

Electroporation is a method for the introduction of molecules (usually nucleic acids) into a cell, consisting of submitting the cells to high-voltage and short electric pulses in the presence of the exogenous DNA/molecule. It is a versatile method, adaptable to different types of cells, from bacteria to cultured cells to higher eukaryotes, and thus has applications in many diverse fields, such as environmental biology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, and medicine. Electroporation has some advantages over other genetic transformation strategies, including the simplicity of the method, a wide range of adjustable parameters (possibility of optimization), high reproducibility and avoidance of the use of chemicals toxic to cells. Read More

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January 2021

Applicability of a single-use bioreactor compared to a glass bioreactor for the fermentation of filamentous fungi and evaluation of the reproducibility of growth in pellet form.

Eng Life Sci 2021 May 25;21(5):324-339. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute for Biotechnical Process Design Trier University of Applied Sciences, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld Hoppstädten-Weiersbach Germany.

The implementation of single-use technologies offers several major advantages, e.g. prevention of cross-contamination, especially when spore-forming microorganisms are present. Read More

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Dissecting Cellular Function and Distribution of β-Glucosidases in Trichoderma reesei.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

has 11 putative β-glucosidases in its genome, playing key parts in the induction and production of cellulase. Nevertheless, the reason why the genome encodes so many β-glucosidases and the distinct role each β-glucosidase plays in cellulase production remain unknown. In the present study, the cellular function and distribution of 10 known β-glucosidases (CEL3B, CEL3E, CEL3F, CEL3H, CEL3J, CEL1A, CEL3C, CEL1B, CEL3G, and CEL3D) were explored in , leaving out BGL1 (CEL3A), which has been well investigated. Read More

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Natural community of macroalgae from chromium-contaminated site for effective remediation of Cr(VI)-containing leachates.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 4;786:147501. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Geography, University of Wrocław, ul. W. Cybulskiego 34, 50-205 Wrocław, Poland.

The natural macroalgal community, which developed in the unique and extremely Cr(VI)-polluted aquatic reservoir situated near a historical chromium-waste landfill, was studied in order to recognize the main mechanisms of Cr(VI) detoxification by the algal species. The conducted taxonomic analysis revealed mixed composition of the filamentous forms of algae and showed that three species of Tribonema, namely T. vulgare, T. Read More

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Bioproduction process of natural products and biopharmaceuticals: Biotechnological aspects.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 May 8:107768. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories & Herbal Analysis Services UK, University of Greenwich, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom.

Decades of research have been put in place for developing sustainable routes of bioproduction of high commercial value natural products (NPs) on the global market. In the last few years alone, we have witnessed significant advances in the biotechnological production of NPs. The development of new methodologies has resulted in a better understanding of the metabolic flux within the organisms, which have driven manipulations to improve production of the target product. Read More

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The Interaction between Rice Genotype and Magnaporthe oryzae Regulates the Assembly of Rice Root-Associated Microbiota.

Rice (N Y) 2021 May 11;14(1):40. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Utilizating the plant microbiome to enhance pathogen resistance in crop production is an emerging alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. However, the diversity and structure of the microbiota, and the assembly mechanisms of root-associated microbial communities of plants are still poorly understood.

Results: We invstigated the microbiota of the root endosphere and rhizosphere soils of the rice cultivar Nipponbare (NPB) and its Piz-t-transgenic line (NPB-Piz-t) when infected with the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. Read More

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Inner hair cell stereocilia are embedded in the tectorial membrane.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2604. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (BKV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Mammalian hearing depends on sound-evoked displacements of the stereocilia of inner hair cells (IHCs), which cause the endogenous mechanoelectrical transducer channels to conduct inward currents of cations including Ca. Due to their presumed lack of contacts with the overlaying tectorial membrane (TM), the putative stimulation mechanism for these stereocilia is by means of the viscous drag of the surrounding endolymph. However, despite numerous efforts to characterize the TM by electron microscopy and other techniques, the exact IHC stereocilia-TM relationship remains elusive. Read More

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Synergistic mechanism of GH11 xylanases with different action modes from Aspergillus niger An76.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 May 10;14(1):118. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Institute of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, Shandong, China.

Background: Xylan is the most abundant hemicellulose polysaccharide in nature, which can be converted into high value-added products. However, its recalcitrance to breakdown requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes. Aspergillus niger, possessing numerous xylan degrading isozyme-encoding genes, are highly effective xylan degraders in xylan-rich habitats. Read More

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Dual-axis Volta phase plate cryo-electron tomography of Ebola virus-like particles reveals actin-VP40 interactions.

J Struct Biol 2021 May 7:107742. Epub 2021 May 7.

Schaller Research Groups, Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Research Group "Membrane Biology of Viral Infection", Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a pivotal imaging technique for studying the structure of pleomorphic enveloped viruses and their interactions with the host at native conditions. Owing to the limited tilting range of samples with a slab geometry, electron tomograms suffer from so-called missing wedge information in Fourier space. In dual-axis cryo-ET, two tomograms reconstructed from orthogonally oriented tilt series are combined into a tomogram with improved resolution as the missing wedge information is reduced to a pyramid. Read More

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Distinct Brain-derived TDP-43 Strains from FTLD-TDP Subtypes Induce Diverse Morphological TDP-43 Aggregates and Spreading Patterns in vitro and in vivo.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research (CNDR), Institute on Aging, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Aim: The heterogeneity in the distribution and morphological features of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) pathology in the brains of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) patients and their different clinical manifestations suggest that distinct pathological TDP-43 strains could play a role in this heterogeneity between different FTLD-TDP subtypes (A-E). Our aim was to evaluate the existence of distinct TDP-43 strains in the brains of different FTLD-TDP subtypes and characterize their specific seeding properties in vitro and in vivo.

Methods And Results: We used an inducible stable cell line expressing a mutant cytoplasmic TDP-43 (iGFP-NLSm) to evaluate the seeding properties of distinct pathological TDP-43 strains. Read More

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Molecular and biological characterization of Potato virus Y detected in zucchini in China.

Virusdisease 2021 Mar 18;32(1):117-122. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Hortculture and Plant Protection, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010019 Inner Mongolia China.

Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important viral pathogen of the plant family . However, it has not been reported that PVY infects zucchini ( L). Zucchini plants showing symptoms of leaf mosaic and fruit ringspot were collected from Inner Mongolia, China. Read More

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The Type II Secretory System Mediates Phage Infection in .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 16;11:662344. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Attachment and specific binding to the receptor on the host cell surface is the first step in the process of bacteriophage infection. The lytic phage VP2 is used in phage subtyping of the biotype El Tor of the O1 serogroup; however, its infection mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to identify its receptor on . Read More

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Accessory Chromosome-Acquired Secondary Metabolism in Plant Pathogenic Fungi: The Evolution of Biotrophs Into Host-Specific Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:664276. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Accessory chromosomes are strain- or pathotype-specific chromosomes that exist in addition to the core chromosomes of a species and are generally not considered essential to the survival of the organism. Among pathogenic fungal species, accessory chromosomes harbor pathogenicity or virulence factor genes, several of which are known to encode for secondary metabolites that are involved in plant tissue invasion. Accessory chromosomes are of particular interest due to their capacity for horizontal transfer between strains and their dynamic "crosstalk" with core chromosomes. Read More

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p-Coumaric acid loaded into liquid crystalline systems as a novel strategy to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 5:120658. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common type of vaginal infection, which is mainly caused by Candida albicans. However, non-albicans Candida species are frequently more resistant to conventional antifungal agents and can represent up to 30% of cases. Due to side effects and increasing antifungal resistance presented by standard therapies, phenolic compounds, such as p-coumaric acid (p-CA), have been studied as molecules from natural sources with potential antifungal activity. Read More

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Structural determination of the sheath-forming polysaccharide of Sphaerotilus montanus using thiopeptidoglycan lyase which recognizes the 1,4 linkage between α-d-GalN and β-d-GlcA.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Sphaerotilus natans is a filamentous sheath-forming bacterium commonly found in activated sludge. Its sheath is assembled from a thiolic glycoconjugate called thiopeptidoglycan. S. Read More

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Immunoglobulin A-specific deficiency induces spontaneous inflammation specifically in the ileum.

Gut 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Immunology, Medical Research Institute, TMDU, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Objective: Although immunoglobulin A (IgA) is abundantly expressed in the gut and known to be an important component of mucosal barriers against luminal pathogens, its precise function remains unclear. Therefore, we tried to elucidate the effect of IgA on gut homeostasis maintenance and its mechanism.

Design: We generated various IgA mutant mouse lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Read More

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Characterization of the asexual developmental genes brlA and wetA in Monascus ruber M7.

Fungal Genet Biol 2021 May 4:103564. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hubei International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Base of Traditional Fermented Foods, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Monascus spp. are widely used in the production of monacolin K and food- grade pigments in East Asia. In Aspergillus species, the three transcription factors BrlA→AbaA→WetA sequentially function as the central activators of asexual development (conidiation), leading to the formation of conidiophores. Read More

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Fermentation transforms the phenolic profiles and bioactivities of plant-based foods.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 May 4;49:107763. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Agriculture and Food, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Phenolics are a group of compounds derived from plants that have displayed potent biological activities and health-promoting effects. Fermentation is one of the most conventional but still prevalent bioprocessing methods in the food industry, with the potential to increase phenolic content and enhance its nutritive value. This review details the biotransformation of different classes of phenolics (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenoids, lignans, alkylresorcinols) by various microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi) throughout the fermentation process in plant-based foods. Read More

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Basidiobolomycosis: Case Report and Literature Overview.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):307-311. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Basidiobolomycosis or subcutaneous zygomycosis or subcutaneous phycomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by a saprophytic filamentous fungus, , clinically characterized by firm, painless subcutaneous swelling with smooth and rounded edges. Histopathological features include the peculiar Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar shows creamy white, heaped up, and furrowed colonies. Read More

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Mycetoma due to Treated Successfully with Cotrimoxazole and Moxifloxacin.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):298-301. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Microbiology, Safdarjung Hospital and Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

is a recently identified organism and has rarely been reported to cause mycetoma. Here we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who presented with discharging sinuses and nodules for the past 7 years along with few discrete axillary lymph nodes. Cultures and Maldi-TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) method identified the causative organism as The organism was acid-fast positive on modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Gram's stain revealed branched filamentous beaded gram-positive bacilli, while histopathology showed granulation tissue along with few ill-defined epithelioid cell granulomas, with giant cells. Read More

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February 2021

Actinomycetoma by : Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of 47 Cases.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):285-289. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Ecology of Pathogen Agents, Hospital Manuel Gea González, Mexico City, Mexico.

Context: Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease caused by fungi (eumycetoma) or aerobic filamentous actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). is one of the most frequent actinomycetes.

Aim: The study aims to provide an update on clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and outcome data for patients with actinomycetoma in a single center in Mexico. Read More

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February 2021

Genetic Characterization of Mutations Related to Conidiophore Stalk Length Development in Laboratory Strain N402.

Front Genet 2021 20;12:666684. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Microbial Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

is an important filamentous fungus in industrial biotechnology for the production of citric acid and enzymes. In the late 1980s, the N400/NRRL3 strain was selected for both fundamental and applied studies in relation to several processes including gluconic acid and protein production. To facilitate handling of , the N400 wild-type strain was UV mutagenized in two consecutive rounds to generate N401 and N402. Read More

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