5,829 results match your criteria filament reorganization

The functional cross talk between cancer cells and cancer associated fibroblasts from a cancer mechanics perspective.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jul 19:119103. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The function of biological tissues in health and disease is regulated at cellular level and is highly influenced by the physical microenvironment, through the interaction of forces between cells and ECM, which are perceived through mechanosensing pathways. In cancer, both chemical and physical signaling cascades and their interactions are involved during cell-cell and cell-ECM communications to meet requirements of tumor growth. Among stroma cells, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play key role in tumor growth and pave the way for cancer cells to initiate metastasis and invasion to other tissues, and without recruitment of CAFs, the process of cancer invasion is dysfunctional. Read More

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STAT5 as a Key Protein of Erythropoietin Signalization.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Institute of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, 04011 Košice, Slovakia.

Erythropoietin (EPO) acts on multiple tissues through its receptor EPOR, a member of a cytokine class I receptor superfamily with pleiotropic effects. The interaction of EPO and EPOR triggers the activation of several signaling pathways that induce erythropoiesis, including JAK2/STAT5, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK. The canonical EPOR/JAK2/STAT5 pathway is a known regulator of differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival of erythroid progenitors. Read More

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Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Novel -1 Heterocyclic DAG-Lactones as PKC Activators.

J Med Chem 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Departamento de Ingredientes Activos y Biorrefinerías, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial, Av. General Paz 5445, San Martín, Buenos Aires B1650WAB, Argentina.

DAG-lactones represent useful templates for the design of potent and selective C1 domain ligands for PKC isozymes. The ester moiety at the -1 position, a common feature in this template, is relevant for C1 domain interactions, but it represents a labile group susceptible to endogenous esterases. An interesting challenge involves replacing the ester group of these ligands while still maintaining biological activity. Read More

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A novel method for successful induction of interdigitating process formation in conditionally immortalized podocytes from mice, rats, and humans.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 13;570:47-52. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 153-8503, Japan. Electronic address:

Formation of processes in podocytes is regarded as the hallmark of maturity and normal physical condition for the cell. There are many accumulated findings about molecular mechanisms that cause retraction of podocyte processes; however, there is little knowledge of the positive mechanisms that promote process formation in vitro, and most previous reports about this topic have been limited to low-density cultures. Here, we found that process formation can be induced in 100% confluent cultures of conditionally immortalized podocytes in mouse, rat, and human species by combining serum depletion and Y-27632 ROCK inhibitor supplementation on the scaffold of laminin-521(L521). Read More

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Engrailed 1 coordinates cytoskeletal reorganization to induce myofibroblast differentiation.

J Exp Med 2021 Sep 14;218(9). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a key mediator of fibroblast activation in fibrotic diseases, including systemic sclerosis. Here we show that Engrailed 1 (EN1) is reexpressed in multiple fibroblast subpopulations in the skin of SSc patients. We characterize EN1 as a molecular amplifier of TGFβ signaling in myofibroblast differentiation: TGFβ induces EN1 expression in a SMAD3-dependent manner, and in turn, EN1 mediates the profibrotic effects of TGFβ. Read More

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September 2021

The Mechanical Interplay Between Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Gelatin-Based Substrates Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:697525. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Traditional methods to assess hMSCs differentiation typically require long-term culture until cells show marked expression of histological markers such as lipid accumulation inside the cytoplasm or mineral deposition onto the surrounding matrix. In parallel, stem cell differentiation has been shown to involve the reorganization of the cell's cytoskeleton shortly after differentiation induced by soluble factors. Given the cytoskeleton's role in determining the mechanical properties of adherent cells, the mechanical characterization of stem cells could thus be a potential tool to assess cellular commitment at much earlier time points. Read More

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Surface model of the human red blood cell simulating changes in membrane curvature under strain.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 1;11(1):13712. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

We present mathematical simulations of shapes of red blood cells (RBCs) and their cytoskeleton when they are subjected to linear strain. The cell surface is described by a previously reported quartic equation in three dimensional (3D) Cartesian space. Using recently available functions in Mathematica to triangularize the surfaces we computed four types of curvature of the membrane. Read More

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, , : A Novel -Dependent Biomarker Triad of Glioblastoma at the Crossroads of Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Metabolism Alterations.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 12;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Medical University of Lodz, 90-752 Lodz, Poland.

Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest human cancers. Its malignancy depends on cytoskeleton reorganization, which is related to, e.g. Read More

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Immortalization and Characterization of Rat Lingual Keratinocytes in a High-Calcium and Feeder-Free Culture System Using ROCK Inhibitor Y-27632.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 24;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Cultured keratinocytes are desirable models for biological and medical studies. However, primary keratinocytes are difficult to maintain, and there has been little research on lingual keratinocyte culture. Here, we investigated the effect of Y-27632, a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, on the immortalization and characterization of cultured rat lingual keratinocyte (RLKs). Read More

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Role of Intermediate Filaments in Blood-Brain Barrier in Health and Disease.

Cells 2021 Jun 5;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective cellular monolayer unique to the microvasculature of the central nervous system (CNS), and it mediates the communication of the CNS with the rest of the body by regulating the passage of molecules into the CNS microenvironment. Limitation of passage of substances through the BBB is mainly due to tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) between brain microvascular endothelial cells. The importance of actin filaments and microtubules in establishing and maintaining TJs and AJs has been indicated; however, recent studies have shown that intermediate filaments are also important in the formation and function of cell-cell junctions. Read More

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Simulations of increased glomerular capillary wall strain in the 5/6-nephrectomized rat.

Microcirculation 2021 Jun 30:e12721. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Physiology, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Objective: Chronic glomerular hypertension is associated with glomerular injury and sclerosis; however, the mechanism by which increases in pressure damage glomerular podocytes remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that increases in glomerular pressure may deleteriously affect podocyte structural integrity by increasing the strain of the glomerular capillary walls, and that glomerular capillary wall strain may play a significant role in the perpetuation of glomerular injury in disease states that are associated with glomerular hypertension.

Methods: We developed an anatomically accurate mathematical model of a compliant, filtering rat glomerulus to quantify the strain of the glomerular capillary walls in a remnant glomerulus of the 5/6-nephrectomized rat model of chronic kidney disease. Read More

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ARHGAP10 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of non-small cell lung cancer by inactivating PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jun 26;21(1):320. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, 350001, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Background: Rho GTPase activating protein 10 (ARHGAP10) has been implicated as an essential element in multiple cellular process, including cell migration, adhesion and actin cytoskeleton dynamic reorganization. However, the correlation of ARHGAP10 expression with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells is unclear and remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the relationship between the trait of ARHGAP10 and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathological process. Read More

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Biophysical interactions between components of the tumor microenvironment promote metastasis.

Biophys Rev 2021 Jun 4;13(3):339-357. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

During metastasis, tumor cells need to adapt to their dynamic microenvironment and modify their mechanical properties in response to both chemical and mechanical stimulation. Physical interactions occur between cancer cells and the surrounding matrix including cell movements and cell shape alterations through the process of mechanotransduction. The latter describes the translation of external mechanical cues into intracellular biochemical signaling. Read More

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RNA-Seq analysis and WGCNA reveal dynamic molecular responses to air exposure in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria.

Genomics 2021 Jul 18;113(4):2847-2859. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Engineering Laboratory for Marine Ranching, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Intertidal bivalves are constantly exposed to air due to daily and seasonal tidal cycles. The hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria is an economically important bivalve species and often subjected to air exposure for more than 10 days during long-distance transportation. Hard clam exhibits remarkable tolerance to air exposure. Read More

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Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal disrupts tight junction via F-actin reorganization.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Aug 17;345:109557. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Medical Proteomics Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand. Electronic address:

Tight junction is an intercellular protein complex that regulates paracellular permeability and epithelial cell polarization. This intercellular barrier is associated with actin filament. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the major crystalline composition in kidney stones, has been shown to disrupt tight junction but with an unclear mechanism. Read More

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Multi-scale hierarchical scaffolds with aligned micro-fibers for promoting cell alignment.

Biomed Mater 2021 Jun 28;16(4). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Biomanufacturing Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

Cell alignment plays an essential role in cytoskeleton reorganization, extracellular matrix remodeling, and biomechanical properties regulation of tissues such as vascular tissues, cardiac muscles, and tendons. Based on the natural-oriented features of cells in native tissues, various biomimetic scaffolds have been reported with the introduction of well-arranged ultrafine fibers to induce cell alignment. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties, biomimetic microenvironment, and ability to promote cell alignment. Read More

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mTORC2 regulates hierarchical micro/nano topography-induced osteogenic differentiation via promoting cell adhesion and cytoskeletal polymerization.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 10;25(14):6695-6708. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Prosthodontics, Tianjin Medical University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin, China.

Surface topography acts as an irreplaceable role in the long-term success of intraosseous implants. In this study, we prepared the hierarchical micro/nano topography using selective laser melting combined with alkali heat treatment (SLM-AHT) and explored the underlying mechanism of SLM-AHT surface-elicited osteogenesis. Our results show that cells cultured on SLM-AHT surface possess the largest number of mature FAs and exhibit a cytoskeleton reorganization compared with control groups. Read More

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Mutation in Bombyx mori fibrohexamerin (P25) gene causes reorganization of rough endoplasmic reticulum in posterior silk gland cells and alters morphology of fibroin secretory globules in the silk gland lumen.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Aug 5;135:103607. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Sericulture, Iikura 1053, 300-0324, Ami-machi, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address:

Larvae of many lepidopteran species produce a mixture of secretory proteins, known as silk, for building protective shelters and cocoons. Silk consists of a water-insoluble silk filament core produced in the posterior silk gland (PSG) and a sticky hydrophilic coating produced by the middle silk gland (MSG). In Bombyx mori, the fiber core comprises three proteins: heavy chain fibroin (Fib-H), light chain fibroin (Fib-L) and fibrohexamerin (Fhx, previously referred to as P25). Read More

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Arabidopsis ADF1 Regulated by MYB73 is Involved in Response to Salt Stress via Affecting Actin Filaments Organization.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China.

Actin cytoskeleton and transcription factor play key roles in plant response to salt stress, however, little is known about the link between the two regulators in response to salt stress. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are conserved actin binding proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we revealed the expression level of ADF1 was induced by salt stress. Read More

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The enzyme L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) methyltransferase promotes migration and invasion in human U-87 MG and U-251 MG glioblastoma cell lines.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 31;140:111766. Epub 2021 May 31.

Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de chimie, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, Canada. Electronic address:

The protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) methyltransferase (PIMT) recognizes abnormal L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartyl residues in proteins. Among examined tissues, PIMT shows the highest level in the brain. The U-87 MG cell line is a commonly used cellular model to study the most frequent brain tumor, glioblastoma. Read More

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EFA6 in Axon Regeneration, as a Microtubule Regulator and as a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor.

Cells 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Axon regeneration after injury is a conserved biological process that involves a large number of molecular pathways, including rapid calcium influx at injury sites, retrograde injury signaling, epigenetic transition, transcriptional reprogramming, polarized transport, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Despite the numerous efforts devoted to understanding the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of axon regeneration, the search continues for effective target molecules for improving axon regeneration. Although there have been significant historical efforts towards characterizing pro-regenerative factors involved in axon regeneration, the pursuit of intrinsic inhibitors is relatively recent. Read More

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Sprouty4 negatively regulates ERK/MAPK signaling and the transition from in situ to invasive breast ductal carcinoma.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(5):e0252314. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United states of America.

Breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). It is still unclear which DCIS will become invasive and which will remain indolent. Patients often receive surgery and radiotherapy, but this early intervention has not produced substantial decreases in late-stage disease. Read More

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Imaging GPCR-Mediated Signal Events Leading to Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis.

Miao Pan Tian Jin

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2304:207-220

Chemotaxis Signal Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, NIH, Rockville, MD, USA.

Eukaryotic phagocytes locate microorganisms via chemotaxis and consume them through phagocytosis. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a stereotypical phagocyte and a well-established model to study both processes. Recent studies show that a G-protein-coupled receptor (fAR1) mediate a signaling network to control reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton leading both the directional cell movement and the engulfment of bacteria. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of vimentin on cell migration in collagen-coated microchannels: A mimetic physiological confined environment.

Biomicrofluidics 2021 May 18;15(3):034105. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609, USA.

Cancer cell migration through tissue pores and tracks into the bloodstream is a critical biological step for cancer metastasis. Although studies have shown that expression of vimentin can induce invasive cell lines, its role in cell cytoskeleton reorganization and cell motility under physical confinement remains unknown. Here, a microfluidic device with cell culture chamber and collagen-coated microchannels was developed as an model for physiological confinement environments. Read More

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Cell orientation under stretch: Stability of a linear viscoelastic model.

Math Biosci 2021 07 17;337:108630. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Mathematical Sciences "G.L. Lagrange" Dipartimento di Eccellenza 2018-2022, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

The sensitivity of cells to alterations in the microenvironment and in particular to external mechanical stimuli is significant in many biological and physiological circumstances. In this regard, experimental assays demonstrated that, when a monolayer of cells cultured on an elastic substrate is subject to an external cyclic stretch with a sufficiently high frequency, a reorganization of actin stress fibres and focal adhesions happens in order to reach a stable equilibrium orientation, characterized by a precise angle between the cell major axis and the largest strain direction. To examine the frequency effect on the orientation dynamics, we propose a linear viscoelastic model that describes the coupled evolution of the cellular stress and the orientation angle. Read More

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Dynamic intracellular mechanical cues facilitate collective signaling responses.

iScience 2021 May 3;24(5):102396. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Photon-Technology in Western China Energy, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

Collective behavior emerges in diverse life machineries, e.g., the immune responses to dynamic stimulations. Read More

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NDRG1 regulates Filopodia-induced Colorectal Cancer invasiveness via modulating CDC42 activity.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 17;17(7):1716-1730. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) has been identified as a putative metastasis suppressor gene and proved to be a key player in cancer spreading and proliferation in our previous work. However, the effects of NDRG1 on tumor invasion and the mechanisms behind it are rarely understood. Here we provided evidence that NDRG1 plays a crucial role in actin reorganization in colorectal cancer (CRC). Read More

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The Ste20-like kinase - a Jack of all trades?

J Cell Sci 2021 05 7;134(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8L1, Canada.

Over the past 20 years, the Ste20-like kinase (SLK; also known as STK2) has emerged as a central regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is necessary for a plethora of biological processes including apoptosis, proliferation, migration, tissue repair and signaling. Several studies have also uncovered a role for SLK in disease progression and cancer. Read More

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Formation of Large Intracellular Actin Networks Following Plasmonic Cell Fusion.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2021 Jul 30;20(3):271-277. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Following fusion between two or more individual cells, the resulting cellular entity must undergo extensive restructuring of its plasma membrane and cytoskeleton in order to maintain its mechanical and physiological function. In artificial cell fusion that is executed by external triggering, such restructuring could be problematic due to the absence of preconditioning biological signals. In this work we study the reorganization of the actin filaments in adenocarcinoma cells that were fused using plasmonic triggering, i. Read More

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Chiral self-sorting of active semiflexible filaments with intrinsic curvature.

Soft Matter 2021 May;17(17):4559-4565

Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. and Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.

Many-body interactions in systems of active matter can cause particles to move collectively and self-organize into dynamic structures with long-range order. In cells, the self-assembly of cytoskeletal filaments is critical for cellular motility, structure, intracellular transport, and division. Semiflexible cytoskeletal filaments driven by polymerization or motor-protein interactions on a two-dimensional substrate, such as the cell cortex, can induce filament bending and curvature leading to interesting collective behavior. Read More

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