22,094 results match your criteria field liquid

High-field solution state DNP using cross-correlations.

J Magn Reson 2021 Feb 18;326:106940. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

At the magnetic fields of common NMR instruments, electron Zeeman frequencies are too high for efficient electron-nuclear dipolar cross-relaxation to occur in solution. The rate of that process fades with the electron Zeeman frequency as ω - in the absence of isotropic hyperfine couplings, liquid state dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) in high-field magnets is therefore impractical. However, contact coupling and dipolar cross-relaxation are not the only mechanisms that can move electron magnetisation to nuclei in liquids: multiple cross-correlated (CC) relaxation processes also exist, involving various combinations of interaction tensor anisotropies. Read More

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February 2021

Review on characteristics of biomaterial and nanomaterials based polymeric nanocomposite membranes for seawater treatment application.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 14:111177. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. Read More

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Electrically turning periodic structures in cholesteric layer with conical-planar boundary conditions.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8409. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660036.

Electro-optical cell based on the cholesteric liquid crystal is studied with unique combination of the boundary conditions: conical anchoring on the one substrate and planar anchoring on another one. Periodic structures in cholesteric layer and their transformation under applied electric field are considered by polarizing optical microscopy, the experimental findings are supported by the data of the calculations performed using the extended Frank elastic continuum approach. Such structures are the set of alternating over- and under-twisted defect lines whose azimuthal director angles differ by [Formula: see text]. Read More

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Poisson-bracket formulation of the dynamics of fluids of deformable particles.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032612

Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

Using the Poisson-bracket method, we derive continuum equations for a fluid of deformable particles in two dimensions. Particle shape is quantified in terms of two continuum fields: an anisotropy density field that captures the deformations of individual particles from regular shapes and a shape tensor density field that quantifies both particle elongation and nematic alignment of elongated shapes. We explicitly consider the example of a dense biological tissue as described by the Vertex model energy, where cell shape has been proposed as a structural order parameter for a liquid-solid transition. Read More

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Real-space renormalization-group treatment of the Maier-Saupe-Zwanzig model for biaxial nematic structures.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032111

Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, Brazil.

The Maier-Saupe-Zwanzig model for the nematic phase transitions in liquid crystals is investigated in a diamond hierarchical lattice. The model takes into account a parameter to describe the biaxiality of the microscopic units. Also, a suitably chosen external field is added to the Hamiltonian to allow the determination of critical parameters associated with the nematic phase transitions. Read More

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Dielectrowetting of a thin nematic liquid crystal layer.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032702

Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA.

We consider a mathematical model that describes the flow of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) film placed on a flat substrate, across which a spatially varying electric potential is applied. Due to their polar nature, NLC molecules interact with the (nonuniform) electric field generated, leading to instability of a flat film. Implementation of the long wave scaling leads to a partial differential equation that predicts the subsequent time evolution of the thin film. Read More

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Enhanced Fenton-like degradation of sulfadiazine by single atom iron materials fixed on nitrogen-doped porous carbon.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 1;597:56-65. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, PR China; Environmental Materials and Pollution Control Laboratory, Institute of Solid State Physics, HFIPS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, PR China. Electronic address:

The use of single-atom iron catalysts in heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions has demonstrated tremendous potential for antibiotic wastewater treatment. In this study, single-atom iron fixed on nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials (Fe-ISAs@CN) was synthesised using a metal organic framework (MOF) as a precursor. Fe-ISAs@CN was applied as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst to activate HO for the degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in an aqueous solution. Read More

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Impacts of low-disturbance dairy manure incorporation on ammonia and greenhouse gas fluxes in a corn silage-winter rye cover crop system.

J Environ Qual 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Wisconsin, Marshfield Agricultural Research Station, M605 Drake Ave., Stratford, WI, 54484.

Manure and fertilizer applications contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH ) emissions. Losses of NH and nitrous oxide (N O) are an economic loss of nitrogen (N) to farms, while methane (CH ), N O, and carbon dioxide (CO ) are important GHGs. Few studies have examined the effects of low-disturbance manure incorporation (LDMI) on both NH and GHG fluxes. Read More

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Thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties of hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents composed of tetraalkylammonium chloride and decanoic acid.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(14):144502

Engineering Thermodynamics, Process and Energy Department, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 39, 2628CB Delft, The Netherlands.

With the emergence of hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents (DESs), the scope of applications of DESs has been expanded to include situations in which miscibility with water is undesirable. Whereas most studies have focused on the applications of hydrophobic DESs from a practical standpoint, few theoretical works exist that investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties at the nanoscale. In this study, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to model DESs composed of tetraalkylammonium chloride hydrogen bond acceptor and decanoic acid hydrogen bond donor (HBD) at a molar ratio of 1:2, with three different cation chain lengths (4, 7, and 8). Read More

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Regularities of non-stationary diffusion growth of overcritical gas bubbles and kinetics of bubble distribution in presence of capillary and viscous forces.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(14):144101

St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.

The regularities of non-stationary diffusion growth of overcritical gas bubbles and kinetics of their distribution in sizes in a supersaturated-by-gas liquid solution on the nucleation stage have been analytically described by taking into account the full-scale influence of viscous and capillary forces on pressure in the overcritical bubbles. The results are general and not limited by values of gas supersaturation and gas solubility in the surrounding liquid solution. It is shown how the nonuniform concentration profile of the dissolved gas in supersaturated solution around the growing bubble changes with time and distance from the center of the overcritical bubble and gradually transforms into a stationary (at low solubility and moderate supersaturation of the dissolved gas) or self-similar profile (at large solubility and supersaturation of the dissolved gas). Read More

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Photogenerated Radical Pair between Flavin and a Tryptophan-Containing Transmembrane-Type Peptide in a Large Unilamellar Vesicle.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

Electron-transfer (ET) reactions in biological systems, such as those with magnetic sensors based on flavoproteins and electron transport at biomembrane interfaces, are interesting and important issues that require understanding. As a model system of flavoproteins in biomimetic environments, we report the dynamics of the radical pair generated by photoinduced ET between riboflavin tetrabutylate (RFTB) and tryptophan (Trp) residues in a transmembrane-type polypeptide, both of which are distributed in a large unilamellar vesicle of 1,2-dimyristoyl--glycero-3-phosphocholine. The Trp residues locate near the hydrophilic membrane interface, as confirmed by a dual-fluorescence quenching assay. Read More

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Axisymmetric bare freestanding films of highly viscous liquids: Preparation and real-time investigation of capillary leveling.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 27;596:493-499. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy; NEAPoLIS, Numerical and Experimental Advanced Program on Liquids and Interface Systems, Joint Research Center CNR - Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Thin liquid films are important in many scientific fields. In particular, films with both the surface layers exposed to a different fluid phase, known as freestanding films, are relevant in the ambit of foams and emulsions. Hence, there is a great interest in developing novel techniques allowing to form large and stable freestanding liquid films and to follow their dynamics. Read More

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Diluted Luria-Bertani medium vs. sewage sludge as growth media: comparison of community structure and diversity in the culturable bacteria.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-Ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Because colony formation is essential to seek bacterial functions by the direct observation of phenotype, the diversification of colony formation for culturable bacteria is a big challenge in the research field of Environmental Biotechnology. In this study, the biodiversity of cultivable bacteria (colony or liquid culture) was compared by using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium and waste sewage sludge (WSS) under different dilutions and temperatures. When WSS was used as a bacterial source, whereas the highest number of colonies was found at the concentration of WSS (5%), a particular concentration of LB (10%) or WSS (1%) as a growth medium showed the best number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of colonies. Read More

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Development, deployment and in-field demonstration of mobile coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Nucleic acid amplification test.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr;70(4)

Schools of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, the University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 WA, Australia.

The evolving SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic presents a series of challenges to clinical diagnostic services. Many proprietary PCR platforms deployed outside centralised laboratories have limited capacity to upscale when public health demands increase. We set out to develop and validate an open-platform mobile laboratory for remote area COVID-19 diagnosis, with a subsequent field trial. Read More

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Pumpless, modular, microphysiological systems enabling tunable perfusion for long-term cultivation of endothelialized lumens.

Biomed Microdevices 2021 Apr 14;23(2):25. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, Maryland, 20993-0002, USA.

Given the increased recognition of the importance of physiologically relevant microenvironments when designing in vitro assays, microphysiological systems (MPS) that mimic the critical function and structure of tissues and organs have gained considerable attention as alternatives to traditional experimental models. Accordingly, the field is growing rapidly, and some promising MPS are being tested for use in pharmaceutical development and toxicological testing. However, most MPS are complex and require additional infrastructure, which limits their successful translation. Read More

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A quantum magnetic analogue to the critical point of water.

Nature 2021 Apr 14;592(7854):370-375. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

At the liquid-gas phase transition in water, the density has a discontinuity at atmospheric pressure; however, the line of these first-order transitions defined by increasing the applied pressure terminates at the critical point, a concept ubiquitous in statistical thermodynamics. In correlated quantum materials, it was predicted and then confirmed experimentally that a critical point terminates the line of Mott metal-insulator transitions, which are also first-order with a discontinuous charge carrier density. In quantum spin systems, continuous quantum phase transitions have been controlled by pressure, applied magnetic field and disorder, but discontinuous quantum phase transitions have received less attention. Read More

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Optical vector field rotation and switching with near-unity transmission by fully developed chiral photonic crystals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

State-of-the-art nanostructured chiral photonic crystals (CPCs), metamaterials, and metasurfaces have shown giant optical rotatory power but are generally passive and beset with large optical losses and with inadequate performance due to limited size/interaction length and narrow operation bandwidth. In this work, we demonstrate by detailed theoretical modeling and experiments that a fully developed CPC, one for which the number of unit cells is high enough that it acquires the full potentials of an ideal ( → ∞) crystal, will overcome the aforementioned limitations, leading to a new generation of versatile high-performance polarization manipulation optics. Such high- CPCs are realized by field-assisted self-assembly of cholesteric liquid crystals to unprecedented thicknesses not possible with any other means. Read More

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A Superstretchable and Ultrastable Liquid Metal-Elastomer Wire for Soft Electronic Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Sino-German College of Intelligent Manufacturing, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen 518118, China.

One-dimensional (1D) elastic conductors are an important component for constructing a wide range of soft electronic devices due to their small footprint, light weight, and integration ability. Here, we report the fabrication of an elastic conductive wire by employing a liquid metal (LM) and a porous thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) as building blocks. Such an LM-TPE composite wire was prepared by electrospinning of TPE microfibers and coating of a liquid metal. Read More

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LC-MALDI-TOF ISD MS analysis is an effective, simple and rapid method of investigation for histones characterization: Application to EBV lymphoblastoid cell lines.

J Mass Spectrom 2021 Feb 20;56(5):e4712. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

National Research Council, Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation (IRIB), Cosenza, Italy.

This contribution is the result of our progressive engagement to develop and to apply a top-down liquid chromatography (LC) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) (LC-MALDI-TOF) analysis for the histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and variants characterization, mainly in order to provide comprehensive and fast results. The histone post-translational modifications and the differential expression of the histone variants play an essential role both in the DNA packaging mechanism in chromosomes and in the regulation of gene expression in different cellular processes, also in response to molecular agents of environmental origin. This epigenetic mechanism is widely studied in different field such as cellular differentiation, development and in the understanding of mechanisms underlying diseases. Read More

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February 2021

Kinematics and Kinetics of Alternating Electric Field Induced Liquid Mass Transport on Chromium Thin Films.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Electrical Engg. & Computer Science, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhopal, INDIA.

Long range mass transport, driven by electric field, has myriad applications in the field of nano science and technology. On Chromium (Cr) thin film, liquid phase mass transport ranging from micrometer to millimeter scale and its application to nanopatterning have been demonstrated using DC electric field. Under the influence of electric field, the metal seems to undergo a chemical reaction and the resulting liquid material flows out radially in all directions. Read More

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MoS2/WSe2 Nanohybrids for flexible paper-based photodetectors.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physics, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, Anand, 388 421, changa, INDIA.

Flexible photodetectors functionalised by transition metal dichalcogenides have captivated intensive attention due their excellent photo-harvesting efficiency. However, field of opto-electronics still needs advancement in production of large area, broad band and flexible photodetectors. Herein, we reported the flexible, stable, broad band and fast photodetector based on MoS2/WSe2 heterostructure on ordinary photocopy paper with pencil drawn graphite electrodes. Read More

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Doping control analysis of small peptides: A decade of progress.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jan 15;1173:122551. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Doping Control Laboratory, Ghent University, Zwijnaarde, Belgium.

Small peptides are handled in the field of sports drug testing analysis as a separate group doping substances. It is a diverse group, which includes but is not limited to growth hormone releasing-factors and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues. Significant progress has been achieved during the past decade in the doping control analysis of these peptides. Read More

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January 2021

Liquid-Liquid Chromatography: Current Design Approaches and Future Pathways.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Biothermodynamics, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany; email:

Since its first appearance in the 1960s, solid support-free liquid-liquid chromatography has played an ever-growing role in the field of natural products research. The use of the two phases of a liquid biphasic system, the mobile and stationary phases, renders the technique highly versatile and adaptable to a wide spectrum of target molecules, from hydrophobic to highly polar small molecules to proteins. Generally considered a niche technique used only for small-scale preparative separations, liquid-liquid chromatography currently lags far behind conventional liquid-solid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction in process modeling and industrial acceptance. Read More

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Ionic Liquid-Controlled Shape Transformation of Spherical to Nonspherical Polymersomes via Hierarchical Self-Assembly of a Diblock Copolymer.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India.

Here, we report the self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG--PCL) copolymer in three ionic liquids (ILs) possessing different cations with common (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion. The observed polymeric nanostructures in ILs were directly visualized by room temperature conventional transmission and field emission scanning electron microscopy and were further examined for their size and shape by dynamic light scattering technique. The results show that through changes in the concentration of PEG--PCL and/or changing the solvent by using a different IL, we can effectively induce shape transformation of self-assembled PEG--PCL nanostructures in order to generate nonspherical polymersomes, such as worm-like aggregates, stomatocytes, nanotubes, large hexagonal and tubular-shaped polymersomes. Read More

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Novel interventional radiological management for lymphatic leakages after gynecologic surgery: lymphangiography and embolization.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):1260-1267

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Post-operative lymphatic leakage is a common complication of a radical gynecologic surgery involving aggressive lymph node dissection. Its manifestation varies from asymptomatic lymphoceles to life-threatening chylous ascites. In the past, nuclear medicine lymphoscintigraphy was the sole imaging modality for the confirmation of the leakage, of which application is limited due to its poor spatial resolution. Read More

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High-conductivity, stable Ag/cellulose paper prepared via in situ reduction of fractal-structured silver particles.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 12;262:117923. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Papermaking Technology and Specialty Paper Development, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Light Chemistry Engineering Education, Key Laboratory of Paper Based Functional Materials of China National Light Industry, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xian, 710021, China.

Flexible electronics products have attracted wide attention because of their excellent flexibility, conductivity and stability. In this study, the liquid phase reduction method was used to in situ reduce fractal-structured silver particles (FSSPs) on cellulose surface to prepare conductive paper with excellent conductivity, and good stability and flexibility. The experimental results show that when the mass ratio of silver to cellulose was 1. Read More

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Refinement of the gradient method for the estimation of natural source zone depletion at petroleum contaminated sites.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Mar 27;241:103807. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Rates of natural source zone depletion (NSZD) are increasingly being used to aid remedial decision making and light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) longevity estimates at petroleum release sites. Current NSZD estimate methods, based on analyses of carbon dioxide (CO) and oxygen (O) soil-gas concentration gradients ("gradient method") assume linear concentration profiles with depth. This assumption can underestimate the concentration gradients especially above LNAPL sources that are typically characterized by curvilinear or semi-curvilinear O and CO concentration profiles. Read More

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Gel properties and network structure of the hydrogel constructed by iota-carrageenan and Ala-Lys dipeptide.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7;182:244-251. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, PR China; National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Dalian 116034, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, Dalian 116034, PR China. Electronic address:

Gel properties of hydrogel-forming by Ala-Lys dipeptide (AK) and iota-carrageenan (ι-C) were investigated by rheological behavior, fourier transform infrared analysis, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, low field-NMR relaxometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Iota-carrageenan was changed from a liquid to a gel with the addition of AK, and the existence of AK significantly increased the storage modulus (G') of ι-C from 590.4 to 1077. Read More

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Analysis of the effect of air temperature on ammonia emission from band application of slurry.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 1;282:117055. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Aarhus University, Dept. of Mathematics, Denmark. Electronic address:

Field application of liquid animal manure (slurry) is a significant source of ammonia (NH) emission to the atmosphere. It is well supported by theory and previous studies that air temperature effects NH flux from field applied slurry. The objectives of this study was to statistically model the response of temperature at the time of application on cumulative NH emission. Read More

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Cold stress triggers premature fruit abscission through ABA-dependent signal transduction in early developing apple.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249975. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Fruit abscission is a complex physiological process that is regulated by internal and environmental factors. During early development, apple fruit are exposed to extreme temperature fluctuations that are associated with premature fruit drop; however, their effect on fruit abscission is largely unknown. We hypothesized that fruit abscission is triggered by cold stress and investigated the molecular basis of premature fruit drop using RNA-Seq and metabolomics data from apple fruit undergoing abscission following cold stress in the field. Read More

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