3,922 results match your criteria field extending


Behavioral traits and territoriality in the symbiotic scaleworm Ophthalmonoe pettiboneae.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12408. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre D'Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes (Girona), Catalunya, Spain.

Among marine invertebrates, polychaete worms form symbiotic associations showing a wide variety of host use patterns. Most commonly, they live solitary on hosts, likely resulting from territorial behavior, yet little is known of the precise nature of the involved interactions. Based on field and laboratory observations, we described the symbiotic association between Ophthalmonoe pettibonae and Chaetopterus cf. Read More

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Self-Constructed Multiple Plasmonic Hotspots on an Individual Fractal to Amplify Broadband Hot Electron Generation.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P.R. China.

Plasmonic nanoparticles are ideal candidates for hot-electron-assisted applications, but their narrow resonance region and limited hotspot number hindered the energy utilization of broadband solar energy. Inspired by tree branches, we designed and chemically synthesized silver fractals, which enable self-constructed hotspots and multiple plasmonic resonances, extending the broadband generation of hot electrons for better matching with the solar radiation spectrum. We directly revealed the plasmonic origin, the spatial distribution, and the decay dynamics of hot electrons on the single-particle level by using simulation, dark-field spectroscopy, pump-probe measurements, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Read More

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Not very competent but connected: Leaders' use of employee social networks as prisms to make delegation decisions.

J Appl Psychol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Organization and HR, Renmin Business School, Renmin University of China.

Delegation is a critical tool for busy managers. Early delegation research suggests that managers are reluctant to delegate beyond a few highly competent employees or those with whom they have a strong relationship. Extending this line of research, we integrate signaling theory with a view of social networks as "prisms," to demonstrate the relevance of employees' network ties in the work unit for delegation. Read More

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Solidarity in Academia and its Relationship to Academic Integrity.

J Acad Ethics 2021 May 31:1-14. Epub 2021 May 31.

European Humanities University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

This paper provides the theoretical analysis of forms of solidarity in academia and its relationship to academic integrity. This analysis is inspired by the drawn up by the International Association of Universities and the Magna Charta Observatory. These Guidelines refer to the principle of solidarity in the context of international cooperation between higher education institutions. Read More

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A data-driven functional mapping of the anterior temporal lobes.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Section on Cognitive Neuropsychology, Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

Even though the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) comprises several anatomical and functional subdivisions, it is often reduced to a homogeneous theoretical entity, such as a domain-general convergence zone, or "hub", for semantic information. Methodological limitations are largely to blame for the imprecise mapping of function to structure in the ATL. There are two major obstacles to using fMRI to identify the precise functional organization of the ATL: the difficult choice of stimuli and tasks to activate, and dissociate, specific regions within the ATL and poor signal quality due to magnetic field distortions near the sinuses. Read More

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Extending nanoscale patterning with multipolar surface plasmon resonances.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Université de Paris, ITODYS, CNRS, UMR 7086, 15 rue J-A de Baïf, F-75013 Paris, France.

Plasmonic excitation of metallic nanoparticles can trigger chemical reactions at the nanoscale. Such optical effects can also be employed to selectively and locally graft photopolymer layers at the nanostructure surface, and, when combined with a surface functionalization agent, new pathways can be explored to modify the surface of a plasmonic nanoparticle. Among these approaches, diazonium salt chemistry is seen as an attractive strategy due to the high photoinduced reactivity of these salts. Read More

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MHD hybrid nanofluid flow comprising the medication through a blood artery.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11621. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Mathematics, City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

The current study focuses on the laminar flow of copper and copper oxide ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) hybrid nanoliquid, considering blood as a carrier fluid in a rectangular domain between two permeable channels. This study may manipulate for the purpose such as the drug delivery process, flow dynamic mechanism of the micro-circulatory system. In the proposed model, MHD and heat source/sink on the flow pattern have been studied. Read More

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Dielectric nanohole array metasurface for high-resolution near-field sensing and imaging.

Nat Commun 2021 06 2;12(1):3293. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Photonics Group, Department of Physics, University of York, York, UK.

Dielectric metasurfaces support resonances that are widely explored both for far-field wavefront shaping and for near-field sensing and imaging. Their design explores the interplay between localised and extended resonances, with a typical trade-off between Q-factor and light localisation; high Q-factors are desirable for refractive index sensing while localisation is desirable for imaging resolution. Here, we show that a dielectric metasurface consisting of a nanohole array in amorphous silicon provides a favourable trade-off between these requirements. Read More

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Nonequilibrium Dynamics of a Magnetic Nanocapsule in a Nematic Liquid Crystal.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 27;14(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Engineering of School, La Salle University Mexico, Benjamin Franklin 45, Mexico City 06140, Mexico.

Colloidal particles in nematic liquid crystals show a beautiful variety of complex phenomena with promising applications. Their dynamical behaviour is determined by topology and interactions with the liquid crystal and external fields. Here, a nematic magnetic nanocapsule reoriented periodically by time-varying magnetic fields is studied using numerical simulations. Read More

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Electrophysiological Properties from Computations at a Single Voltage: Testing Theory with Stochastic Simulations.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 May 6;23(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Exobiology Branch, MS 239-4, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA.

We use stochastic simulations to investigate the performance of two recently developed methods for calculating the free energy profiles of ion channels and their electrophysiological properties, such as current-voltage dependence and reversal potential, from molecular dynamics simulations at a single applied voltage. These methods require neither knowledge of the diffusivity nor simulations at multiple voltages, which greatly reduces the computational effort required to probe the electrophysiological properties of ion channels. They can be used to determine the free energy profiles from either forward or backward one-sided properties of ions in the channel, such as ion fluxes, density profiles, committor probabilities, or from their two-sided combination. Read More

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Global Warming, Advancing Bloom and Evidence for Pollinator Plasticity from Long-Term Bee Emergence Monitoring.

Authors:
James Cane

Insects 2021 May 16;12(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

Emeritus, USDA-ARS Pollinating Insect Research Unit, Utah State University, Logan, UT 8432, USA.

Global warming is extending growing seasons in temperate zones, yielding earlier wildflower blooms. Short-term field experiments with non-social bees showed that adult emergence is responsive to nest substrate temperatures. Nonetheless, some posit that global warming will decouple bee flight and host bloom periods, leading to pollination shortfalls and bee declines. Read More

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Open Reduction and Suture Fixation of Acute Sternoclavicular Fracture-Dislocations in Children.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2020 Jul-Sep;10(3). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Acute sternoclavicular fracture-dislocation is associated with high-energy trauma and is being increasingly recognized in children. These injuries are associated with compression of mediastinal structures and can be life-threatening. The management of acute sternoclavicular fracture-dislocation includes closed reduction or open surgical stabilization; however, limited success is reported with closed reduction. Read More

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September 2020

Myopic Peripapillary Pits with Spatially Corresponding Localized Visual Field Defects: A Progressive Japanese and a Cross-Sectional European Case.

Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021 May-Aug;12(2):350-355. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

We report 2 peripapillary pit cases, in which the isolated visual field defects spatially correspond to the pit-related retinal nerve fiber layer and optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) perfusion damage areas. A high myopic eye of a 39-year-old Japanese male patient, and a moderate myopic eye of a 47-years old Caucasian female patient were evaluated with OCT, OCTA, and visual field testing for peripapillary pits and spatially corresponding localized visual field defects. In the Japanese patient a temporal and in the Caucasian patient an inferotemporal peripapillary pit was confirmed, both spatially associated with a myopic peripapillary atrophy area. Read More

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Observation of Coherent Spin Waves in a Three-Dimensional Artificial Spin Ice Structure.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 28;21(11):4629-4635. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 106, India.

Harnessing high-frequency spin dynamics in three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures may lead to paradigm-shifting, next-generation devices including high density spintronics and neuromorphic systems. Despite remarkable progress in fabrication, the measurement and interpretation of spin dynamics in complex 3D structures remain exceptionally challenging. Here, we take a first step and measure coherent spin waves within a 3D artificial spin ice (ASI) structure using Brillouin light scattering. Read More

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Mortality from Parkinson's disease and other causes among a workforce manufacturing paraquat: an updated retrospective cohort study.

J Occup Med Toxicol 2021 May 27;16(1):20. Epub 2021 May 27.

Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Epidemiological studies of the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and paraquat (PQ) exposure have given inconsistent findings. The aim of the study was to update information on the risk of PD and mortality from major causes of death among a UK workforce who manufactured PQ by extending the follow-up by seven and a half years.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all employees who had ever worked on any of the four plants at Widnes, UK where PQ was manufactured between 1961 and 1995. Read More

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Lessons learned from contemporary glioblastoma randomized clinical trials through systematic review and network meta-analysis: part 2 recurrent glioblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab029. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: There exists no consensus standard of treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB). Here we used a network meta-analysis on treatments from randomized control trials (RCTs) to assess the effect on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) to determine if any consensus treatment can be determined for recurrent GB.

Methods: We included all recurrent GB RCTs with at least 20 patients in each arm, and for whom patients underwent standard of care at the time of their GB initial diagnosis. Read More

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February 2021

Synthetic living machines: A new window on life.

iScience 2021 May 4;24(5):102505. Epub 2021 May 4.

Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, 200 Boston Avenue, Suite 4600, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

Increased control of biological growth and form is an essential gateway to transformative medical advances. Repairing of birth defects, restoring lost or damaged organs, normalizing tumors, all depend on understanding how cells cooperate to make specific, functional large-scale structures. Despite advances in molecular genetics, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the meso-scale rules of morphogenesis. Read More

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Chronic cranial window for photoacoustic imaging: a mini review.

Vis Comput Ind Biomed Art 2021 May 26;4(1):15. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong, China.

Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy is being increasingly used to visualize the microcirculation of the brain cortex at the micron level in living rodents. By combining it with long-term cranial window techniques, vasculature can be monitored over a period of days extending to months through a field of view. To fulfill the requirements of long-term in vivo PA imaging, the cranial window must involve a simple and rapid surgical procedure, biological compatibility, and sufficient optical-acoustic transparency, which are major challenges. Read More

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Musical Hallucinations in Chronic Pain: The Anterior Cingulate Cortex Regulates Internally Generated Percepts.

Front Neurol 2021 4;12:669172. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been extensively implicated in the functional brain network underlying chronic pain. Electrical stimulation of the ACC has been proposed as a therapy for refractory chronic pain, although, mechanisms of therapeutic action are still unclear. As stimulation of the ACC has been reported to produce many different behavioral and perceptual responses, this region likely plays a varied role in sensory and emotional integration as well as modulating internally generated perceptual states. Read More

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Prismatic Ge-rich inclusions in the hexagonal SiGe shell of GaP-Si-SiGe nanowires by controlled faceting.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(20):9436-9445

L-NESS and Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, 20125 Milano, Italy.

Formation of Ge-rich prismatic inclusions in the hexagonal SiGe shell of GaP-Si-SiGe nanowires is reported and discussed in relation to a growth model that explains their origin. An accurate TEM/EDX analysis shows that such prisms develop right on top of any {112[combining macron]0} facet present on the inner GaP-Si surface, with the base matching the whole facet extension, as large as tens of nanometers, and extending within the SiGe shell up to a thickness of comparable size. An enrichment in Ge by around 5% is recognized within such regions. Read More

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Flexible online in-droplet cell/synthetic particle concentration utilizing alternating current electrothermal-flow field-effect transistor.

Lab Chip 2021 05;21(10):1987-1997

School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, West Da-zhi Street 92, Harbin, Heilongjiang, PR China 150001.

Cell/particle concentration inside droplets holds great potential in extending lab-in-a-droplet applications, typically ranging from biological and chemical assays. Herein, we present a universal, massive and versatile technique, namely, alternating current electrothermal-flow field-effect transistor (ACET-FFET) to accomplish in-droplet cell/synthetic particle concentration on demand. Three parallel planar electrodes are utilized to generate an artificially reorderable electric field inside droplets by tuning the gate voltage through field-effect control, which results in a reshapable ACET-based microvortices pattern for in-droplet concentration. Read More

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ISOLATED MACULOPATHY AND MODERATE ROD-CONE DYSTROPHY REPRESENT THE MILDER END OF THE RDH12-RELATED RETINAL DYSTROPHY SPECTRUM.

Retina 2021 Jun;41(6):1346-1355

Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: To describe an isolated maculopathy and an intermediate rod-cone dystrophy phenotype as the milder end of the RDH12-related retinal dystrophy spectrum.

Methods: Seven patients (17-34 years of age) underwent an extensive ophthalmic workup including psychophysical and electrophysiological testing and multimodal imaging.

Results: Three patients have isolated macular disease. Read More

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Low-cost laser-cut patterned chips for acoustic concentration of micro- to nanoparticles and cells by operating over a wide frequency range.

Analyst 2021 May 13;146(10):3280-3288. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Acoustofluidic platforms for cell manipulation benefit from being contactless and label-free at potentially low cost. Particle concentration in a droplet relies on augmenting spatial asymmetry in the acoustic field, which is difficult to reproduce reliably. Etching periodic patterns into a chip to create acoustic band gaps is an attractive approach to spatially modify the acoustic field. Read More

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Is the study of memory unduly preoccupied with its sins?

Authors:
Alan D Baddeley

Memory 2021 May 17:1-5. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

A broad functional approach is taken to the analysis of human memory. The overall importance of episodic memory, the capacity to remember specific events, is illustrated by the devastating effect that loss of this aspect of memory has on the capacity to cope in the case of densely amnesic patients. Recent applied research has however focussed heavily on factors compromising the reliability of eyewitness testimony in the forensic field and on the creation of false memories. Read More

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Nucleic Acid-Based Therapeutics in Orphan Neurological Disorders: Recent Developments.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 28;8:643681. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Center for Therapeutic Innovation and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States.

The possibility of rational design and the resulting faster and more cost-efficient development cycles of nucleic acid-based therapeutics (NBTs), such as antisense oligonucleotides, siRNAs, and gene therapy vectors, have fueled increased activity in developing therapies for orphan diseases. Despite the difficulty of delivering NBTs beyond the blood-brain barrier, neurological diseases are significantly represented among the first targets for NBTs. As orphan disease NBTs are now entering the clinical stage, substantial efforts are required to develop the scientific background and infrastructure for NBT design and mechanistic studies, genetic testing, understanding natural history of orphan disorders, data sharing, NBT manufacturing, and regulatory support. Read More

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Fabrication of uniform-aperture multi-focus microlens array by curving microfluid in the microholes with inclined walls.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):12763-12771

A variety of techniques have been proposed for fabricating high-density, high-numerical-aperture microlens arrays. However, a microlens array with a uniform focal length has a narrow depth of field, limiting the ability of depth perception. In this paper, we report on a fabrication method of multi-focus microlens arrays. Read More

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Extending eyebox with tunable viewpoints for see-through near-eye display.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):11613-11626

The Maxwellian display presents always-focused images to the viewer, alleviating the vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC) in near-eye displays (NEDs). However, the limited eyebox of the typical Maxwellian display prevents it from wider applications. We propose a Maxwellian see-through NED based on a multiplexed holographic optical element (HOE) and polarization gratings (PGs) to extend the eyebox by viewpoint multiplication. Read More

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Systematic analysis of leisler's bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817) captured from FATA region, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e238337. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Swat, Centre for Animal Science & Fisheries, Saidu Sharif, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70. Read More

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Extending photocatalysis to the visible and NIR: the molecular strategy.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(20):9147-9159

Department of Chemistry "Giacomo Ciamician", Via Selmi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Photocatalysis exploits light to perform important processes as solar fuel production by water splitting, and CO2 reduction or water and air decontamination. Therefore, photocatalysis contributes to the satisfaction of the increasing needs for clean energy, environmental remediation and, most recently, sanification. Most of the efficient semiconductor nanoparticles (NP), developed as photocatalysts, work in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region and they are not able to exploit either visible (Vis) or near infrared (NIR) radiation. Read More

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An Ellipsoidal Focused Ultrasound Transducer for Extend-focus Photoacoustic Microscopy.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 May 11;PP. Epub 2021 May 11.

Objective: Limited by spherical focused ultrasound transducer (SUT) with a high acoustic numerical aperture, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers a rapidly degrading sensitivity and lateral resolution as increased depth. In this study, an ellipsoidal focused ultrasound transducer (EUT) was developed to address the above restriction via providing high sensitivity and lateral resolution over a large depth of field (DOF).

Methods: To fabricate the EUT, the piezoelectric element was laminated onto a curved steel surface for self-focusing (the ellipsoidal continuous-focus geometry was employed instead of the spherical single-focus one). Read More

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