30,150 results match your criteria field experiment


Free energy of micellization of dodecyl phosphocholine (DPC) from molecular simulation: Hybrid PEACH-BAR method.

J Comput Chem 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

A new method to extract the free energy of aggregation versus aggregate size from molecular simulation data is proposed and applied to a united atom model of the zwitterionic surfactant dodecyl phosphocholine in water. This system's slow dissociation rate and low critical micelle concentration (CMC of approximately 1-2 mM) make extraction of cluster free energies directly from simulation results using the "partition-enabled analysis of cluster histogram" (PEACH) method impractical. The new approach applies PEACH to a model with weakened attractions between aggregants, which allows sampling of a continuous range of cluster sizes, then recovers the free energy of aggregation under the original fully-attractive force field using the BAR free energy difference method. Read More

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September 2021

In-field degradation of soil-biodegradable plastic mulch films in a Mediterranean climate.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 9;806(Pt 1):150238. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371 and Pullman, WA 99164, United States of America.

Soil-biodegradable plastic mulch films are a promising alternative to polyethylene mulches, but adoption has been slow, in part because of uncertainties about in-field degradation. The international biodegradability standard EN-17033 requires 90% degradation within 2 years in an aerobic incubation at constant temperature (20-28 °C). However, in-laboratory biodegradability does not guarantee in-field degradation will follow the same timeframe. Read More

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September 2021

Nudging hand hygiene compliance: a large-scale field experiment on hospital visitors.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

iNudgeyou - The Applied Behavioural Science Group, Copenhagen 1208, Denmark.

Background: Hospital-care-associated infections (HCAIs) represent the most frequent adverse event during care delivery affecting hundreds of millions of patients around the world. Implementing and ensuring conformity to standard precautions, particularly best hand hygiene practices, is regarded as one of the most important and cheapest strategies for preventing HCAIs. However, despite consistent efforts at increasing conformity to standard hand hygiene practices at hospitals, research has repeatedly documented low conformity levels amongst staff, patients and visitors alike. Read More

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September 2021

Intolerance of uncertainty and decisions about delayed, probabilistic rewards: A replication and extension of Luhmann, C. C., Ishida, K., & Hajcak, G. (2011).

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0256210. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is thought to lead to maladaptive behaviours and dysfunctional decision making, both in the clinical and healthy population. The seminal study reported by Luhmann and collaborators in 2011 [1] showed that IU was negatively associated with choosing a delayed, but more probable and valuable, reward over choosing an immediate, but less probable and valuable, reward. These findings have been widely disseminated across the field of personality and individual differences because of their relevance for the understanding of the role of IU in the development and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Evolution and Shape of Two-Dimensional Stokesian Drops under the Action of Surface Tension and Electric Field: Linear and Nonlinear Theory and Experiment.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607-7022, United States.

The creeping-flow theory describing evolution and steady-state shape of two-dimensional ionic-conductor drops under the action of surface tension and the subcritical (in terms of the electric Bond number) electric field imposed in the substrate plane is developed. On the other hand, the experimental data are acquired for drops impacted or softly deposited on dielectric surfaces of different wettability and subjected to an in-plane subcritical electric field. Even though the experimental situation involves viscous friction of drops with the substrates and wettability-driven motion of the contact line, the comparison to the theory reveals that it can accurately describe the steady-state drop shape on a non-wettable substrate. Read More

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September 2021

Multipolar Force Fields for Amide-I Spectroscopy from Conformational Dynamics of the Alanine Trimer.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, Basel 4056, Switzerland.

The dynamics and spectroscopy of -methyl-acetamide (NMA) and trialanine in solution are characterized from molecular dynamics simulations using different energy functions, including a conventional point charge (PC)-based force field, one based on a multipolar (MTP) representation of the electrostatics, and a semiempirical DFT method. For the 1D infrared spectra, the frequency splitting between the two amide-I groups is 10 cm from the PC, 13 cm from the MTP, and 47 cm from self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) simulations, compared with 25 cm from experiment. The frequency trajectory required for the frequency fluctuation correlation function (FFCF) is determined from individual normal mode (INM) and full normal mode (FNM) analyses of the amide-I vibrations. Read More

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September 2021

Rapeseed Transformation with aroA Bacterial Gene Containing P101S Mutation Confers Glyphosate Resistance.

Biochem Genet 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Field weed infestations can cause serious problems and require regular and planned programs to control them. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that inactivates the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme and causes plant death. It has been reported that the mutation of proline 101 to serine in EPSPS is one of the effective mutations to reduce the affinity of glyphosate to EPSPS enzyme. Read More

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September 2021

Induced Quantized Spin Current in Vacuum.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(11):111601

Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan and Center for Theory and Computation, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

We uncover a fundamental effect of the QED vacuum in an external electromagnetic (EM) field. We show that the quantized vacuum of electrons is spin polarized by the EM field and manifests as a vacuum spin current. An experiment is proposed to measure the spin torque exerted by the spin current by measuring the twisted angle of the director axis of a nematic liquid crystal. Read More

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September 2021

Spontaneous Valley Polarization of Itinerant Electrons.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(11):116601

Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.

Memory or transistor devices based on an electron's spin rather than its charge degree of freedom offer certain distinct advantages and comprise a cornerstone of spintronics. Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new field, valleytronics, which seeks to exploit an electron's valley index rather than its spin. An important component in this quest would be the ability to control the valley index in a convenient fashion. Read More

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September 2021

Behavioral and anatomical evidence for electroreception in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Sensory & Cognitive Ecology, University of Rostock, Institute for Biosciences, Rostock, Germany.

In the order of cetacean, the ability to detect bioelectric fields has, up to now, only been demonstrated in the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) and is suggested to facilitate benthic feeding. As this foraging strategy has also been reported for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), we studied electroreception in this species by combining an anatomical analysis of "vibrissal crypts" as potential electroreceptors from neonate and adult animals with a behavioral experiment. In the latter, four bottlenose dolphins were trained on a go/no-go paradigm with acoustic stimuli and afterward tested for stimulus generalization within and across modalities using acoustic, optical, mechanical, and electric stimuli. Read More

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September 2021

Organic soil amendments using vermicomposts under inoculation of N-fixing bacteria for sustainable rice production.

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e10833. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Sistan-o-Baluchestan, Iran.

Organic and biological fertilizers are considered as a very important source of plant nutrients. A field experiment was conducted during 2017-2018 in paddy soil to investigate the effect of vermicomposting of cattle manure mixture with and rice straw on soil microbial activity, nutrient uptake, and grain yield under inoculation of N-fixing bacteria. Experimental factors consisted of organic amendments at six levels (vermicomposts prepared from manure (VM); manure + rice straw (VRM); manure + mixture (VAM); manure + rice straw + mixture (VRAM); raw manure without vermicomposting (M), and a control) and N-fixing bacteria at three levels (, , and non-inoculation). Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Genomic Analysis Uncovered Evolution of Pathogenicity Factors, Horizontal Gene Transfer Events, and Heavy Metal Resistance Traits in Citrus Canker Bacterium subsp. .

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:731711. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Biotechnology Center in Southern Taiwan, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Tainan, Taiwan.

Worldwide citrus production is severely threatened by Asiatic citrus canker which is caused by the proteobacterium subsp. . Foliar sprays of copper-based bactericides are frequently used to control plant bacterial diseases. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of fertilizer under different dripline spacings on summer maize in northern China.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18922. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/ Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 South Road, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.

Maximizing grain yields with effective fertilization technologies and minimizing nitrogen losses is essential in agroecosystems. In this research, we conducted a two-year field experiment to explore whether dripline spacing and fertilization rate would affect maize grain yield. Two dripline spacings (i. Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of droplet size uniformity and selection of spray parameters based on the biological optimum particle size theory.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 20:112076. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Key Lab of State Forestry Administration for Forestry Equipment and Automation, Beijing, 10083, China.

Based on the theory of biological optimal particle size, the most easily attached droplets for different organisms have different particle sizes. To achieve the best average particle size, the droplet size in the atomization field must be more uniform and attain a high the adhesion rate. Therefore, during the application process, not only the average particle size of the droplets but also the influence of the uniformity of the droplets in the spray field must be considered. Read More

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September 2021

Cropping systems impact changes in soil fungal, but not prokaryote, alpha-diversity and community composition stability over a growing season in a long-term field trial.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Environmental Microbial Genomics, Laboratoire Ampère, École Centrale de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Écully, France 69134.

Crop harvest followed by a fallow period can act as a disturbance on soil microbial communities. Cropping systems intended to improve alpha-diversity of communities may also confer increased compositional stability during succeeding growing seasons. Over a single growing season in a long-term (18 year) agricultural field experiment incorporating conventional (CON), conservation (CA), organic (ORG) and integrated (INT) cropping systems, temporal changes in prokaryote, fungal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities were investigated overwinter, during crop growth and at harvest. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of potassium fertilizer on the growth, physiological parameters, and water status of Brassica juncea cultivars under different irrigation regimes.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257023. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Abiotic stress, especially a lack of water, can significantly reduce crop yields. In this study, we evaluated the physiological and biochemical effects of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) fertilizer and varied irrigation regimes on the economically significant oilseed crop, Brassica juncea L, under open field conditions. Two cultivars (RH-725 and RH-749) of B. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in antioxidants and leaf pigments of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) affected by exogenous spermine under water deficit.

Biol Futur 2020 Sep;71(3):313-321

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Water deficit is one of the most limiting factors for plant growth and production. Polyamines are osmo-active compounds and have important roles in plant resistance to water limitation. A pot experiment was undertaken in a greenhouse as factorial based on complete randomized block design with three replications to assess the physiological and biochemical responses of safflower to different levels of water supply (100% and 40% field capacity) and spermine (0, 40 and 60 µM). Read More

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September 2020

Salicylic acid affects mycorrhizal features, antioxidant enzyme activities and seed yield of linseed under water-deficit stress in open-field conditions.

Biol Futur 2021 Jun 5;72(2):211-227. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.

The research aims were to study salicylic acid (SA) effects on mycorrhiza [hyphal width (HW), vesicle diameter (VD) and mycorrhizal colonization (MC)] and interaction between them on greenness index (GI), drought tolerance index (DTI), antioxidant enzymes activities, and seed yield of linseed under drought. A factorial experiment was conducted in an open-field place with mycorrhiza [non-inoculation, Funneliformis mosseae (FM), and Rhizoglomus intraradices (RI)], SA (250 μM and non-SA), and irrigation levels [100%, 70%, and 40% field capacity (FC)] as treatments. Severe drought increased VD, MC, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase activities while decreased GI, DTI, and yield. Read More

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Polyamines protect mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] plants against drought stress.

Authors:
Omid Sadeghipour

Biol Futur 2019 Jan 16;70(1):71-78. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Agronomy, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 18155/144, Iran.

Introduction: Drought is a major environmental factor that limits crops productivity. To cope with the adverse effects of drought, plants have evolved various adaptive mechanisms, such as accumulation of osmolytes. Polyamines (PAs) play an important role in the plant growth and development and response to abiotic stresses. Read More

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January 2019

ZoomQA: residue-level protein model accuracy estimation with machine learning on sequential and 3D structural features.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Computer Science, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447, USA.

Motivation: The Estimation of Model Accuracy problem is a cornerstone problem in the field of Bioinformatics. As of CASP14, there are 79 global QA methods, and a minority of 39 residue-level QA methods with very few of them working on protein complexes. Here, we introduce ZoomQA, a novel, single-model method for assessing the accuracy of a tertiary protein structure/complex prediction at residue level, which have many applications such as drug discovery. Read More

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September 2021

Integration of host resistance, fungicides, and spray frequencies for managing Fusarium head blight of bread wheat under field conditions in southern Ethiopia.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 8;7(9):e07938. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Southern Agricultural Research Institute, SARI, P.O.Box 06, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

A field experiment was carried out in Adiyo, Bonke, Chencha, Sodo zuriya, and North Ari districts, they are found in Southern Ethiopia, during the 2019 main production season. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrations of host resistance and application of fungicides with designated spray frequency on Fusarium head blight under natural epiphytotic conditions and to determine the management effects on yield and yield components of wheat. The treatments consisted of wheat cultivars (Shorima and Hidase) and fungicides (Propiconazole and Tebuconazole) with four spray frequencies, including an unsprayed one. Read More

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September 2021

Application of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) Model Combined with Pyramid Algorithm in Aerobics Action Recognition.

Authors:
Qi Liang

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 11;2021:6170070. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Guangdong University of Finance & Economics, Guangzhou, China.

In order to realize high-accuracy recognition of aerobics actions, a highly applicable deep learning model and faster data processing methods are required. Therefore, it is a major difficulty in the field of research on aerobics action recognition. Based on this, this paper studies the application of the convolution neural network (CNN) model combined with the pyramid algorithm in aerobics action recognition. Read More

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September 2021

Gravity Reduced Nitrogen Uptake the Regulation of Brace Unilateral Root Growth in Maize Intercropping.

Front Plant Sci 2021 6;12:724909. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Water, nutrient, light, and interspecific facilitation regulation of soil physicochemical properties and root morphology modulate nitrogen (N) uptake in cereal and legume intercropping systems. However, maize root morphological plasticity and N uptake capability response to gravity in the intercropping system remains to be determined. In this study, maize was grown under 20 cm (I), 40 cm (I), and 60 cm (I) of narrow row spacing in an intercropping system (maize-soybean strip relay intercropping) and equal row spacing of monoculture (M) in a 2-year field experiment. Read More

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September 2021

Do Financial Incentives Aimed at Decreasing household Inequality Increase household Inequality?

J Public Econ 2021 Apr 17;196. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Rady School of Management at University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 and NBER.

Research has shown that giving disadvantaged families financial incentives to invest in their children could decrease socioeconomic inequality by enhancing human capital formation. Yet, within the household how are such gains achieved? We use a field experiment to investigate how parents allocate time when they receive financial incentives. We find that incentives increase investment in the target child. Read More

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Psychological Drivers of Individual Differences in Risk Perception: A Systematic Case Study Focusing on 5G.

Authors:
Renato Frey

Psychol Sci 2021 Sep 22:956797621998312. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Psychology, Center for Cognitive and Decision Sciences, University of Basel.

What drives people's perceptions of novel risks, and how malleable are such risk perceptions? Psychological research has identified multiple potential drivers of risk perception, but no studies have yet tested within a unified analytic framework how well each of these drivers accounts for individual differences in large population samples. To provide such a framework, I harnessed the deployment of 5G-the latest generation of cellular network technology. Specifically, I conducted a multiverse analysis using a representative population sample in Switzerland (Study 1; = 2,919 individuals between 15 and 94 years old), finding that interindividual differences in risk perceptions were strongly associated with hazard-related drivers (e. Read More

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September 2021

One year incubation of pyrite at the deep seafloor and its microbiological and biogeochemical characterizations.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 22:AEM0097721. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute for Extra-cutting-edge Science and Technology Avant-garde Research (X-star), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science & Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan.

In this study, we performed a year-long incubation experiment of a common ferrous sulfide (Fe-S) mineral, pyrite, at the oxidative deep seafloor in the hydrothermal vent field in the Izu-Bonin arc, Japan, and characterized its microbiological and biogeochemical properties to understand the microbial alteration processes of the pyrite, focusing on the Fe(II) oxidation. The microbial community analysis of the incubated pyrite showed that the domain heavily dominated over compared with that of the ambient seawater, and and distinctively co-dominated at the class level. The mineralogical characterization by surface-sensitive Fe X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed that specific Fe(III) hydroxides (schwertmannite and ferrihydrite) were locally formed at the pyrite surface as the pyrite alteration products. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of misinformation and inoculation: Replication of an experiment on the effect of false experts in the context of climate change communication.

Public Underst Sci 2021 Sep 22:9636625211024550. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of Passau, Germany.

An important communication strategy of climate skeptics is the use of fake experts, who act as spokespersons, although they do not possess any expertise in the field. One promising approach to tackle the effect of misinformation is inoculation. Previous research focuses on the United States, and the comparably low effect sizes of previous research call for further examination and consolidation. Read More

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September 2021

Precise Microfluidic Luminescent Sensor Platform with Controlled Injection System.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 2;6(36):23412-23420. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea.

Efforts have been devoted to screening various prevalent diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is currently the most widely used, has high accuracy, but it requires several facilities and takes a relatively long time to check; so, new testing technology is necessary for a higher test efficiency. A chemiluminescence (CL) sensor is a relatively simple device and suitable as an alternative because it can detect very precise specimens. Read More

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September 2021

Can citizen pressure influence politicians' communication about climate change? Results from a field experiment.

Clim Change 2021 16;168(1-2). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

The Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC Canada.

Urgent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions depend on governments implementing and enforcing rigorous climate policy. Individuals in democracies seeking to persuade government officials to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can take steps such as voting, protesting, and contacting officials directly, but it is unclear how effective each of these actions is in changing the behavior of elected officials. Here we take advantage of the public nature of social media to evaluate the actual efficacy of climate campaign emails using an original, real-world experiment where 335 Members of Canadian Parliament were asked by constituents to post a pro-climate message to their Twitter account. Read More

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September 2021

Growth, yield and quality of two guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) ecotypes affected by sowing date and planting density in a semi-arid area.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(9):e0257692. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The growth period, phenology, grain yield and gum content of two different guar ecotypes were studied in response to different sowing dates and plant densities. A two-year field experiment was conducted as a split-factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates in the research field of Tarbiat Modares University during 2016 and 2017 growing season. Main plots consisted of four sowing dates (May 21, June 4, June 21 and July 5 in 2016 and May 10, May 26, June 10 and June 26 in 2017), and subplots including three plant densities (13, 20 and 40 plants m-2) and two ecotypes (Pakistani and Indian). Read More

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September 2021