24,026 results match your criteria fibrillary acidic


Comparison of GFAP and UCH-L1 Measurements from Two Prototype Assays: The Abbott i-STAT and ARCHITECT Assays.

Neurotrauma Rep 2021 7;2(1):193-199. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) may aid in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this analysis was to compare GFAP and UCH-L1 values measured using a handheld device compared with a core laboratory platform. We analyzed plasma samples from patients with TBI and healthy controls enrolled in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) cohort study. Read More

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Sedentary Life and Reduced Mastication Impair Spatial Learning and Memory and Differentially Affect Dentate Gyrus Astrocyte Subtypes in the Aged Mice.

Front Neurosci 2021 15;15:632216. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil.

To explore the impact of reduced mastication and a sedentary lifestyle on spatial learning and memory in the aged mice, as well as on the morphology of astrocytes in the molecular layer of dentate gyrus (MolDG), different masticatory regimens were imposed. Control mice received a pellet-type hard diet, while the reduced masticatory activity group received a pellet diet followed by a powdered diet, and the masticatory rehabilitation group received a pellet diet, followed by powder diet and then a pellet again. To mimic sedentary or active lifestyles, mice were housed in an impoverished environment of standard cages or in an enriched environment. Read More

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Poly (L-lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds support the proliferation and neural differentiation of mouse neural stem and progenitor cells.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Research Laboratory for Embryology and Stem Cells, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: The distribution and growth of cells on nanofibrous scaffolds seem to be an indispensable precondition in cell tissue engineering. The potential use of biomaterial scaffolds in neural stem cell therapy is increasingly attracting attention.

Aim: In this study, we produced porous nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated from random poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) to support neurogenic differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs), isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse brain. Read More

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Boswellia serrata suppress fipronil-induced neuronal necrosis and neurobehavioral alterations via promoted inhibition of oxidative/inflammatory/apoptotic pathways.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 27;785:147384. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22516, Egypt. Electronic address:

Boswellic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic terpenoid derived from the gum-resin of Boswellia serrate. It is known for its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. It has improved spatial learning and provides neuroprotection against trimethyltin-induced memory impairment. Read More

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Down-regulated long non-coding RNA RMST ameliorates dopaminergic neuron damage in Parkinson's disease rats via regulation of TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Neurology Department, The 960th Hospital of the PLA, Zibo 255300, Shandong, China; Neurology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450014, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Current treatment and prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are not ideal. This study explored the mechanism of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) rhabdomyosarcoma 2-associated transcript (RMST) in dopaminergic (DA) neuron damage in PD rats.

Methods: PD rats were modeled and injected with RMST silence or overexpression vectors to figure out its roles in oxidative stress, the apoptosis of DA neurons in brain substantia nigra (SN), and neurobehavioral activities of PD rats. Read More

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The effect of caspase-9 in the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 29:174138. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Cell Therapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Neuroblastoma is the most common solid malignant tumor in infants and young children. Its origin is the incompletely committed precursor cells from the autonomic nervous system. Neuroblastoma cells are multipotent cells with a high potency of differentiation into the neural cell types. Read More

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Serum GFAP and NfL as disease severity and prognostic biomarkers in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 1;18(1):105. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a frequently disabling neuroinflammatory syndrome with a relapsing course. Blood-based disease severity and prognostic biomarkers for NMOSD are a yet unmet clinical need. Here, we evaluated serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (sGFAP) and neurofilament light (sNfL) as disease severity and prognostic biomarkers in patients with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G positive (AQP4-IgG) NMOSD. Read More

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Possible antiapoptotic and neuroprotective effects of magnesium sulfate on retina in a preterm hypoxic-ischemic rat model.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Background: The effects of systemic magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on retina in preterm hypoxic-ischemic (HI) rat model are not known. Our aim was to investigate the effects of MgSO4 on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptotic index, retinal vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in preterm HI rat model.

Materials And Methods: Fifteen postnatal day (PND) 7 rat pups were divided into 3 groups: 1. Read More

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Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide prevents depression-like behaviors by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and cellular and synaptic damage.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 28:114164. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Medical Formula, Key Laboratory of Xin'an Medicine, Ministry of Education, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory (Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan), the main factors associated with the pathogenesis of depression are deficiencies relating to five zang organs, Qi, and blood. Polygonatum sibiricum F. Delaroche (PS), which may avert these pathological changes, has been used in a variety of formulas to treat depression. Read More

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Elevated chemokines and cytokines for eosinophils in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 9;52:102940. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Eosinophil infiltration is one of the distinctive features in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) but not in other demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Eosinophils express the chemokine receptor CCR3, which is activated by eotaxins (eotaxin-1, -2, and -3) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4. We aimed to investigate the role of MCPs (MCP-1, -2, -3, and -4) and eotaxins in the acute phase of NMOSD. Read More

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Mingmu Xiaomeng Tablets Restore Autophagy and Alleviate Diabetic Retinopathy by Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:632040. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

To investigate the effect of Mingmu Xiaomeng tablets (MMXM) on the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins in a diabetic rat model. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), diabetic model (DM) control, MMXM, and calcium dobesilate (CD) Rats injected with streptozotocin (STZ) were used as an experimental diabetes model. After 14 weeks, autophagy and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway proteins were detected by western blot. Read More

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Danhong Injection Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats Through the Suppression of the Neuroinflammation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:561237. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Neuroinflammation is one of the major causes of damage of the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, which can result in long-term disability and neuronal death. Danhong injection (DHI), a traditional Chinese medicine injection, has been applied to the clinical treatment of cerebral stoke for many years. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of DHI on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats and explored its potential anti-neuroinflammatory properties. Read More

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Can serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) solve the longstanding problem of diagnosis and monitoring progressive multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 31;50:102931. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Queen Mary University London, Neuroscience Centre. Electronic address:

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Cross-Sectional Exploration of Plasma Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome: Early Data from the Longitudinal Investigation for Enhancing Down Syndrome Research (LIFE-DSR) Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 28;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

With improved healthcare, the Down syndrome (DS) population is both growing and aging rapidly. However, with longevity comes a very high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LIFE-DSR study (NCT04149197) is a longitudinal natural history study recruiting 270 adults with DS over the age of 25. Read More

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Age-Related Changes of the Pineal Gland in Humans: A Digital Anatomo-Histological Morphometric Study on Autopsy Cases with Comparison to Predigital-Era Studies.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 15;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Emergency Clinical County Hospital, 400129 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

The pineal gland is a photoneuroendocrine organ in the midline of the brain, responsible primarily for melatonin synthesis. It is composed mainly of pinealocytes and glial tissue. This study examined human postmortem pineal glands to microscopically assess age-related changes using digital techniques, and offers a perspective on evolutionary tendencies compared to the past. Read More

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Neuroinflammatory Response to TNFα and IL1β Cytokines Is Accompanied by an Increase in Glycolysis in Human Astrocytes In Vitro.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Lausanne, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Astrogliosis has been abundantly studied in rodents but relatively poorly in human cells due to limited access to the brain. Astrocytes play important roles in cerebral energy metabolism, and are also key players in neuroinflammation. Astroglial metabolic and inflammatory changes as a function of age have been reported, leading to the hypothesis that mitochondrial metabolism and inflammatory responses are interconnected in supporting a functional switch of astrocytes from neurotrophic to neurotoxic. Read More

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Increased immunoreactivity of glutamate receptors, neuronal nuclear protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus of epileptic rats with fast ripple activity.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, CUCBA, University of Guadalajara, Camino Ing. R. Padilla Sánchez 2100, Las Agujas, Nextipac, Zapopan, Jalisco, 45110, México.

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission is observed. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter that acts through ionic and metabotropic receptors; both types of receptors are involved in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). High frequency oscillations called fast ripples (FR, 250-600 Hz) have been observed, particularly in the hippocampus, and they are involved in epileptogenesis. Read More

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NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the eyes of hypertensive rats.

Mol Vis 2021 2;27:161-178. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla. CL Profesor García González, Sevilla, Spain.

Purpose: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by NADPH oxidase and inflammation are associated with arterial hypertension and eye diseases associated with high blood pressure, including glaucoma, retinopathies (e.g., age-related macular degeneration), and choroidopathies affecting ocular function; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes remain undefined. Read More

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Effect of L-carnitine and atorvastatin on a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of spinal cord.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Apr 26:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Medical Physiology, Menoufia University, Shebein Elkom, Egypt.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in acute spinal cord injury, leading to myelin breakdown, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis of neurons and glial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of L-carnitine (carn) or atorvastatin (ator) on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Rats were randomized into nine equal groups (n = 8): control and control taking carn (100 mg/kg BW), ator (2. Read More

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A comprehensive structural, lectin and immunohistochemical characterization of the zebrafish olfactory system.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 23;11(1):8865. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain.

Fish chemosensory olfactory receptors allow them to detect a wide range of water-soluble chemicals, that mediate fundamental behaviours. Zebrafish possess a well-developed sense of smell which governs reproduction, appetite, and fear responses. The spatial organization of functional properties within the olfactory epithelium and bulb are comparable to those of mammals, making this species suitable for studies of olfactory differentiation and regeneration and neuronal representation of olfactory information. Read More

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αA-Crystallin inhibits optic nerve astrocyte activation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 20;278:119533. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Ophthalmology Department, Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

Aims: A previous study reported that intravitreal injection of αA-crystallin inhibits glial scar formation after optic nerve traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of αA-crystallin on optic nerve astrocytes induced by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro.

Materials And Methods: Optic nerve astrocytes from newborn Long Evans rats were cultured with αA-crystallin (10 g/l) to detect the effects of αA-crystallin on astrocytes. Read More

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A Case of Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor in an Adolescent Male.

Cureus 2021 Mar 16;13(3):e13917. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Division of Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, USA.

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are benign mixed glioneuronal neoplasms that frequently occur in children and young adults. We present the case of a 17-year-old male who arrived at the hospital following seizure-like activity. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a 10 x 8 x 10 mm, oval-shaped, non-enhancing, well-defined mass within the right hippocampus. Read More

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Critical illness polyneuropathy, myopathy and neuronal biomarkers in COVID-19 patients: A prospective study.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim was to characterize the electrophysiological features and plasma biomarkers of critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and myopathy (CIM) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW).

Methods: An observational ICU cohort study including adult patients admitted to the ICU at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, from March 13th to June 8th 2020. We compared the clinical, electrophysiological and plasma biomarker data between COVID-19 patients who developed CIN/CIM and those who did not. Read More

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CSF chitinase 3-like 1 is associated with iron rims in patients with a first demyelinating event.

Mult Scler 2021 Apr 19:13524585211010082. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Chronic active lesions with iron rims have prognostic implications in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Objective: To assess the relationship between iron rims and levels of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in patients with a first demyelinating event.

Methods: Iron rims were identified using 3T susceptibility-weighted imaging. Read More

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Failure of IVIG in steroid-responsive autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytopathy: A case report.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 4;51:102933. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

University of California Irvine (UCI), Department of Neurology, Irvine CA, United States.

Objective: To advocate for high-dose steroids, not intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), as first-line treatment for Anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) associated meningoencephalomyelitis.

Background: A novel IgG antibody against GFAP was associated with relapsing autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis.

Design/methods: Here, we present an investigational case report to highlight continuing challenges in diagnosing and managing Anti-GFAP associated meningoencephalomyelitis. Read More

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Neurotrauma Biomarker Levels and Adverse Symptoms Among Military and Law Enforcement Personnel Exposed to Occupational Overpressure Without Diagnosed Traumatic Brain Injury.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e216445. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Blast Induced Neurotrauma Branch, Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Importance: There is a scientific and operational need to define objective measures of exposure to low-level overpressure (LLOP) and concussion-like symptoms among persons with specialized occupations.

Objective: To evaluate serum levels of neurotrauma biomarkers and their association with concussion-like symptoms reported by LLOP-exposed military and law enforcement personnel who are outwardly healthy and cleared to perform duties.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study, conducted from January 23, 2017, to October 21, 2019, used serum samples and survey data collected from healthy, male, active-duty military and law enforcement personnel assigned to operational training at 4 US Department of Defense and civilian law enforcement training sites. Read More

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Anatomical and biochemical studies of Spartium junceum infected by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex ST 87.

Protoplasma 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli studi di Firenze, via P.A. Micheli 3, 50121, Firenze, Italy.

Spartium junceum L. is a typical species of Mediterranean shrubland areas, also grown in gardens and parks as an ornamental. In recent years in Europe, S. Read More

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Blood biomarkers for dementia in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adults.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2021 9;7(1):e12164. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer's & Neurodegenerative Diseases University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio Texas USA.

Introduction: The study evaluated if blood markers reflecting diverse biological pathways differentiate clinical diagnostic groups among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adults.

Methods: Within Hispanic (n = 1193) and non-Hispanic White (n = 650) participants, serum total tau (t-tau), neurofilament light (NfL), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase LI, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), soluble cluster of differentiation-14, and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) were quantified. Mixed-effects partial proportional odds ordinal logistic regression and linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association of biomarkers with diagnostic group and cognition, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, apolipoprotein E ε4, education, and site. Read More

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Naringenin mitigates behavioral alterations and provides neuroprotection against 3-nitropropinoic acid-induced Huntington's disease like symptoms in rats.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Background: Naringenin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory flavonoid which has been widely used as a therapeutic agent in various toxic models. However, few studies have clearly discussed the neuromodulatory effects of naringenin against different neurodegenerative disorders.

Aim: We investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of naringenin against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurobehavioral, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats. Read More

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Nicotine induces morphological and functional changes in astrocytes via nicotinic receptor activity.

Glia 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Nicotine is a highly addictive compound present in tobacco, which causes the release of dopamine in different regions of the brain. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and mediate calcium signaling. In this study, we examine the morphological and functional adaptations of astrocytes due to nicotine exposure. Read More

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