14,657 results match your criteria fiber size


The Regulation of Polyamine Pathway Proteins in Models of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy - a potential role for mTORC1.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute for Health and Sport (iHeS), Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Victoria University, St Albans, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Muscle Research (CMR), Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Polyamines have been shown to be absolutely required for protein synthesis and cell growth. The serine/threonine kinase, the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), also plays a fundamental role in the regulation of protein turnover and cell size, including in skeletal muscle, where mTORC1 is sufficient to increase protein synthesis and muscle fiber size, and is necessary for mechanical overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence suggests that mTORC1 may regulate the polyamine metabolic pathway; however, there is currently no evidence in skeletal muscle. Read More

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Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of the Human Uterus Measured by Spherical Indentation.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

The mechanical function of the uterus is critical for a successful pregnancy. During gestation, uterine tissue grows and stretches to many times its size to accommodate the growing fetus, and it is hypothesized the magnitude of uterine tissue stretch triggers the onset of contractions. To establish rigorous mechanical testing protocols for the human uterus in hopes of predicting tissue stretch during pregnancy, this study measures the anisotropic mechanical properties of the human uterus using optical coherence tomography (OCT), instrumented spherical indentation, and video extensometry. Read More

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Nucleoprotein-enriched diet enhances the protein synthesis pathway and satellite cell activation via ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the unloaded rat muscle.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Rehabilitation Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 654-0142, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The purpose of this study was to determine if the nucleotides in a nucleoprotein diet could ameliorate the unloading-associated decrease in soleus muscle mass and fiber size. What is the main finding and its importance? The results indicate that the nucleotides in the nucleoprotein-enriched diet could ameliorate the unloading-associated decrease in type I fiber size and muscle mass most likely due to the activation of protein synthesis pathways and satellite cell proliferation and differentiation via ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus nucleotide supplementation appears to be an effective countermeasure for muscle atrophy. Read More

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Distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in the secondary phloem of conifers: a constitutive defense mechanism?

New Phytol 2003 Sep;159(3):677-690

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236, USA.

•   Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals were studied in the secondary phloem of 46 conifer species from six families to characterize their distribution relative to defense. •   Scanning electron microscopy, and polarized light microscopy of stem tissue allowed analysis of the quantity, location, morphology and size of the crystals. •   Vastly different patterns of CaOx crystal deposition were observed in stems of Pinaceae and nonPinaceae lineages. Read More

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September 2003

Recent progress in surface plasmon resonance based sensors: A comprehensive review.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 8;7(3):e06321. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of EE, Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad, Karnataka, 580011, India.

In the recent years, researchers have contributed substantially in the field of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors and its applications. SPR sensors show the salient features, such as label-free detection, real-time monitoring, small sample size, furnish accurate outcomes at low cost, and smooth handling. Moreover, the SPR sensors are also well-known because of its quantitative and qualitative excellent performance in real-time applications, including drug discovery, environment monitoring, food safety, medical diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, biological studies, and biomolecule interactions. Read More

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Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Zinc Binding Capacity and Gastrointestinal Stability of Peptides Derived From Pumpkin (.) Seeds.

Front Nutr 2021 31;8:647782. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Zinc is a crucial micronutrient for maintaining body immune system and metabolism function. However, insufficient intake from diet may lead to zinc deficiency and impair normal body function. In addition, conventional zinc salts supplementation has the disadvantage of low bioavailability since the zinc ions may be easily chelated by dietary fiber or phytate commonly found in diets rich in plants, and form precipitates that cannot be absorbed. Read More

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RNA-Seq-based high-resolution linkage map reveals the genetic architecture of fruiting body development in shiitake mushroom, .

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 22;19:1641-1653. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Applied Mycology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Hubei Province, PR China.

Fruiting body development (FBD) of mushroom-forming fungi has attracted tremendous interest. However, the genetic and molecular basis of FBD is poorly known. Here, using (shiitake) as a model, we deciphered the genetic architecture underlying fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs) by combined genomic, genetic and phenotypic data. Read More

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Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Responses to Different Types of Short-Term Exercise Training and Detraining in Middle-Age Men.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Exercise and Nutrition Research Program, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Sports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre, Australian Catholic University, Australia Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Sport, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Whether short-term, single-mode exercise training can improve physical fitness prior to a period of reduced physical activity (e.g. post-surgery recovery) is not well characterized in clinical populations nor middle-age adults. Read More

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Effects of corn grain endosperm type and conservation method on feed intake, feeding behavior, and productive performance of lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824.

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of corn grain varying in endosperm type and conserved as high-moisture or dry ground corn on dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and yields of milk and milk components of cows in early to mid-lactation. Seven ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (73 ± 39 d in milk; mean ± SD) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of corn grain endosperm type (floury or vitreous) conserved as high-moisture corn (HMC) or dry ground corn (DGC). Read More

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Rumen function and grazing behavior of early-lactation dairy cows supplemented with fodder beet.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, PO Box 85084, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Fodder beet (FB) is a source of readily fermentable carbohydrate that can mitigate early spring herbage deficits and correct the negative energy balance experienced during early lactation in pastoral dairy systems of New Zealand. However, the low-fiber and high-soluble carbohydrate content of both FB bulb and spring herbage are factors that promote subacute ruminal acidosis, impairing rumen function and limiting the marginal milk production response to supplement. In a crossover experiment, 8 Holstein Friesian × Jersey early-lactation dairy cows were used to test the effect of supplementing 16 kg of dry matter (DM) of a grazed perennial ryegrass herbage with 6 kg of DM/d of FB bulb (FBH) versus herbage only (HO) on changes in rumen function and grazing behavior. Read More

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Effects of corn grain endosperm type and fineness of grind on site of digestion, ruminal digestion kinetics, and flow of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum in lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824.

Our objective was to evaluate effects of corn grain endosperm type and fineness of grind on feed intake, feeding behavior, and productive performance of lactating cows. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in mid lactation (130 ± 42 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of corn grain endosperm type (floury or vitreous) and fineness of grind (fine or medium). Read More

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Effects of corn grain endosperm type and fineness of grind on feed intake, feeding behavior, and productive performance of lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824.

Our objective was to evaluate effects of corn grain endosperm type and fineness of grind on feed intake, feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating cows. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in mid lactation (130 ± 42 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of corn grain endosperm type (floury or vitreous) and fineness of grind of corn grain (fine or medium). Read More

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Detection and diversity of fluorinated oil- and water-repellent coatings on apparel fibers.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.

Fluorinated coatings, often used for oil and water repellency and stain resistance in fabrics, are potentially persistent forensic fiber markers. However, they have received limited attention because of challenges in their detection caused by the small size of a single fiber and thin nature of stain-resistant coatings. Here, we utilize a sensitive fluorine-selective analytical technique to detect and evaluate diversity of fluorinated coatings in apparel. Read More

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Synthesis of wheat bran sawdust/FeO composite for the removal of methylene blue and methyl violet.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 16;193(5):276. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.

Magnetically modified nanomaterials have recently gained a great attention in wastewater treatment. In this study, the uptake process of methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous media using wheat bran sawdust/FeO composite was studied. To specify the surface and structural properties of the wheat bran sawdust/FeO composite, various analyses such as FTIR, XRD, EDX, Map, TGA/DTG, SEM, VSM, and BET were performed. Read More

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Processing variables of direct-write, near-field electrospinning impact size and morphology of gelatin fibers.

Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, 4130 Engineering Building III, Campus Box 7115, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27695, UNITED STATES.

Several biofabrication methods are being investigated to produce scaffolds that can replicate the structure of the extracellular matrix. Direct-write, near-field electrospinning of polymer solutions and melts is one such method which combines fine fiber formation with computer-guided control. Research with such systems has focused primarily on synthetic polymers. Read More

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Oxygenated carbon nanotubes cages coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for selective extraction of migrated aromatic amines from food contact materials.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 3;1646:462031. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Analytical Science of Food Safety and Biology, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350116, China. Electronic address:

In this study, an oxygenated carbon nanotubes cages (OCNTCs) material was prepared by calcinating zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) and then oxidizing the resulting material. The OCNTCs was used as a high efficient solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating to extract aromatic amines (AAs). The obtained fiber exhibited high selectivity for AAs over other organic compounds in food contact materials (FCMs) due to matched pore size and abundant oxygen-containing groups. Read More

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Interactive effect of corn particle size and insoluble fiber source on performance, nutrient utilization and intestine morphology in broilers fed pelleted diets.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Monogastric Research Center, School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

The effects of corn particle size and dietary fibre on the performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) and intestinal characteristics in broiler starters fed pelleted diets were studied. The experiment included 10 treatments arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial with two corn particle sizes (GMD of 1071 [CGC] vs. 534 [FGC]) and five diets that consisted in a low-fibre diet and four extra diets resulting from the inclusion of insoluble fibre sources (10 g/kg of lignocellulose (LC), and 30 g/kg of oat hulls; OH, rice hulls; RH, and sunflower hulls; SFH). Read More

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Autonomous Purkinje cell activation instructs bidirectional motor learning through evoked dendritic calcium signaling.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2153. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL, USA.

The signals in cerebellar Purkinje cells sufficient to instruct motor learning have not been systematically determined. Therefore, we applied optogenetics in mice to autonomously excite Purkinje cells and measured the effect of this activity on plasticity induction and adaptive behavior. Ex vivo, excitation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing Purkinje cells elicits dendritic Ca transients with high-intensity stimuli initiating dendritic spiking that additionally contributes to the Ca response. Read More

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mTORC1 mediates fiber type-specific regulation of protein synthesis and muscle size during denervation.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Apr 12;7(1):74. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Comparative Biosciences in the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Skeletal muscle denervation occurs in diverse conditions and causes severe muscle atrophy. Signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a central role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass by regulating net protein balance; yet, its role in denervation-induced atrophy is unclear. In this study, by using skeletal muscle-specific and inducible raptor knockout mice, we demonstrate that signaling through mTORC1 is activated during denervation and plays an essential role in mitigating the atrophy of non-type IIB muscle fibers. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Oscillation in Confined Epithelial Motion upon Fluid-to-Solid Transition.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Innovative Center for Flexible Devices (iFLEX), Max Planck-NTU Joint Lab for Artificial Senses, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

Fluid-to-solid phase transition in multicellular assembly is crucial in many developmental biological processes, such as embryogenesis and morphogenesis. However, biomechanical studies in this area are limited, and little is known about factors governing the transition and how cell behaviors are regulated. Due to different stresses present, cells could behave distinctively depending on the nature of tissue. Read More

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Effects of long-term ethanol storage on muscle architecture.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Muscle excursion and force potential can be estimated from architectural variables, including mass, volume, fascicle length and density. These have been collected from fresh specimens, preserved specimens, and sometimes mixed samples of both. However, preservation alters the gross morphology of muscles. Read More

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Design and finite element simulation of metal-core piezoelectric fiber/epoxy matrix composites for virus detection.

Sens Actuators A Phys 2021 Aug 7;327:112742. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Frontier Sciences for Advanced Environment, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba-yama 6-6-02, Sendai, Japan.

Undoubtedly, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has received the greatest concern with a global impact, and this situation will continue for a long period of time. Looking back in history, airborne transimission diseases have caused huge casualties several times. COVID-19 as a typical airborne disease caught our attention and reminded us of the importance of preventing such diseases. Read More

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Role of fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells in muscle atrophy and musculoskeletal diseases.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 8;58:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA. Electronic address:

Maintaining muscle mass is clinically important as muscle helps to regulate metabolic systems of the body as well as support activities of daily living that require mobility, strength, and power. Losing muscle mass decreases an individual's independence and quality of life, and at the same time increases the risk of disease burden. Fibro-adipogenic progenitor (FAP) cells are a group of muscle progenitor cells that play an important role in muscle regeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle fiber size. Read More

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Analysis on microplastics in dug wells around Tamangapa Landfills, Makassar City, Indonesia.

Gac Sanit 2021 ;35 Suppl 1:S87-S89

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

Objective: This study aims to determine the microplastics abundance of dug wells around Tamangapa Landfills in Makassar area.

Method: The research method used is quantitative research with a descriptive. The number of samples is 8 dug wells with the criteria of 4 dug wells that are <500m from landfills and 4 dug wells that are 500m-1km from landfills. Read More

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January 2021

Flexible fiber-shaped supercapacitors based on graphene/polyaniline hybrid fibers with high energy density and capacitance.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093, CHINA.

Fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FSCs) are promising energy storage devices for portable and wearable electronics due to their miniaturized size, flexibility, and knittability. Despite the significant progress in this area, it is still a challenge to develop large capacitance and high energy density fiber-shaped supercapacitors for practical applications. In this work, a hybrid fiber composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyaniline nanoparticles (r-PANI-GOF) are synthesized via in-situ deposition of polyaniline nanoparticles on graphene oxide fibers followed by further reduction. Read More

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Energetics and Biomechanics of Running Footwear with Increased Longitudinal Bending Stiffness: A Narrative Review.

Sports Med 2021 May 8;51(5):873-894. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Integrative Locomotion Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003-9258, USA.

In the wake of the quest to break the 2-h marathon barrier, carbon-fiber plates have become commonplace in marathon racing shoes. Despite the controversy surrounding this shoe technology, studies on the effects of increased longitudinal bending stiffness on running economy report mixed results. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on midsole bending stiffness and carbon-fiber plates in distance running shoes, focusing on how longitudinal bending stiffness affects running energetics and lower limb mechanics. Read More

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Ultrasonic signal detection based on Fabry-Perot cavity sensor.

Vis Comput Ind Biomed Art 2021 Apr 8;4(1). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Nanophotonics Research Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

Acoustic/ultrasonic sensors are devices that can convert mechanical energy into electrical signals. The Fabry-Perot cavity is processed on the end face of the double-clad fiber by a two-photon three-dimensional lithography machine. In this study, the outer diameter of the core cladding was 250 μm, the diameter of the core was 9 μm, and the microcavity sensing unit was only 30 μm. Read More

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Regional Variations of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity in Japanese Participants With Normal Glucose Tolerance.

Front Nutr 2021 22;8:632422. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

Regional differences in dietary patterns in Asian countries might affect the balance of insulin response and sensitivity. However, this notion is yet to be validated. To clarify the regional differences in the insulin response and sensitivity and their relationship to nutrients, we compared the insulin secretory response during an oral glucose tolerance test in Japanese participants. Read More

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Chemotactic TEG3 Cells' Guiding Platforms Based on PLA Fibers Functionalized With the SDF-1α/CXCL12 Chemokine for Neural Regeneration Therapy.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:627805. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Molecular and Cellular Neurobiotechnology, Institute of Bioengineering of Catalonia, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

(Following spinal cord injury, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach in promoting functional improvement. Some studies report that the migratory properties of OECs are compromised by inhibitory molecules and potentiated by chemical concentration differences. Here we compare the attachment, morphology, and directionality of an OEC-derived cell line, TEG3 cells, seeded on functionalized nanoscale meshes of Poly(l/dl-lactic acid; PLA) nanofibers. Read More

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Dual-Illumination Ultrasound/ Photoacoustic System for Cervical Cancer imaging.

IEEE Photonics J 2021 Feb 14;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Early stage cancer detection technologies can provide functional information and potentially decrease the mortality rate caused by cervical cancer. In our previous work, a miniaturized ultrasound and photoacoustic endoscopic system has been developed to image the cervical tissue through the cervical canal to fulfills the need for a safe, low-cost, and high-resolution functional diagnostic system. However, the miniaturized size of endoscope and American National Standards Institute safety limits cause constraints of using high-intensity illumination during imaging. Read More

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February 2021