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Cut-Off Values of Foveal Vascular Indices in Exfoliation Glaucoma.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 9;15:1453-1462. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Batıgöz Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: To compare the vascular measurements obtained from fovea including foveal avascular zone (FAZ) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) between patients with exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) and healthy controls.

Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study included 54 XFG patients and 94 healthy subjects. All subjects were given a complete ophthalmological examination including visual field testing, retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell complex analysis. Read More

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Rheological properties of cellulose nanofiber hydrogel for high-fidelity 3D printing.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 24;263:117976. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea; Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Optimization of the rheological properties of the matrix is ​​critical for high-fidelity matrix-assisted 3D printing (MAP), which enables the free-form fabrication of fluidic soft materials. This report describes the generic criteria observable in the printing process of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) hydrogels: the sharpness of an angled line, the cross-sectional ratio of a feature, the surface roughness of features, and the completeness of multi-line writing. The concentration and physical properties of the CNF affects the printing fidelity by changing the values of the four criteria, which are closely related to the rheological properties of the matrix. Read More

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Tear Film Cytokine Profile of Patients With the Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1: Comparing Patients With and Without Glaucoma.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4):20

Department of Ophthalmology, Université de Montréal, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose: Inflammatory cytokines are involved in glaucoma pathogenesis. The purpose is to compare cytokine levels in the tear film of Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) patients with and without glaucoma, relative to controls, and correlate levels with clinical parameters.

Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 58 eyes (58 patients): 41 KPro eyes with glaucoma, 7 KPro eyes without glaucoma, and 10 healthy controls. Read More

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Flexibility of equine bioenergetics and muscle plasticity in response to different types of training: An integrative approach, questioning existing paradigms.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249922. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Research Group of Comparative Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Equine bioenergetics have predominantly been studied focusing on glycogen and fatty acids. Combining omics with conventional techniques allows for an integrative approach to broadly explore and identify important biomolecules. Friesian horses were aquatrained (n = 5) or dry treadmill trained (n = 7) (8 weeks) and monitored for: evolution of muscle diameter in response to aquatraining and dry treadmill training, fiber type composition and fiber cross-sectional area of the M. Read More

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Commercial foods for infants under the age of 36 months: an assessment of the availability and nutrient profile of ultra-processed foods.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 12:1-20. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, cep 59.078-900 Natal, RN - Brazil.

Objective: Considering the negative impact of the consumption of ultra-processed foods on health, this study assessed the availability and nutritional profile of commercial ultra-processed foods for infants in Natal, Brazil.

Design: A cross-sectional exploratory study.

Setting: Foods targeted at children under the age of 36 months sold in retail establishments located in high and low-income areas of the one capital city of Brazil. Read More

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Maternal protein restriction changes structural and metabolic gene expression in the skeletal muscle of aging offspring rats.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Apr 12:18337. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Maternal protein restriction affects postnatal skeletal muscle physiology with impacts that last through senility. To investigate the morphological and molecular characteristics of skeletal muscle in aging rats subjected to maternal protein restriction, we used aged male rats (540 days old) born of dams fed a protein restricted diet (6% protein) during pregnancy and lactation. Using morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses, we evaluated the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) (n=8), muscle fiber frequency (n=5) and the gene expression (n=8) of the oxidative markers (succinate dehydrogenase-Sdha and citrate synthase-CS) and the glycolytic marker (lactate dehydrogenase-Ldha). Read More

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Ultra-Processed Food Consumption Among Chilean Preschoolers Is Associated With Diets Promoting Non-communicable Diseases.

Front Nutr 2021 26;8:601526. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

In adults, intake of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been linked with poor diets and adverse health outcomes. In young children, evidence is scarcer but suggests a higher dietary share of UPF. To quantify the intake of UPF and its association with the nutrient composition of the diet in a sample of preschoolers in Santiago, Chile. Read More

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An association between stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis, peripheral retinoschisis and posterior hyaloid attachment.

Retina 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, United Kingdom Wellcome EPSRC Centre for Interventional and Surgical Sciences, University College London, United Kingdom Department of Ophthalmology, Luton and Dunstable University Hospital, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) is a disorder characterized by splitting of the retina at the macula, without a known underlying mechanical or inherited cause. This study investigates demographic, anatomical and functional characteristics of subjects with SNIFR, to explore potential underlying mechanisms.

Methods: In this single-site, retrospective and cross-sectional, observational study, data were collected from 28 eyes from 24 subjects with SNIFR. Read More

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Mechanical lengthening of porcine small intestine with decreased forces.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 453 Quarry Road, MC 5733, Stanford, CA 94304, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: short bowel syndrome is marked by inadequate intestinal surface area to absorb nutrients. Current treatments are focused on medical management and surgical reconfiguration of the dilated intestine. We propose the use of spring-mediated distraction enterogenesis as a novel intervention to increase intestinal length. Read More

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US Adults Fall Short of the Dietary Guidelines for Cancer Prevention Regardless of BMI Category.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Background: Cancer risk is determined by specific factors, including body weight and dietary patterns. Accordingly, the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research published updated cancer prevention recommendations in 2018 based on comprehensive reviews of modifiable behaviors associated with cancer risk.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which US adults meet these evidence-based recommendations and how adherence differs by weight status. Read More

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Structure-Function Relationship of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

The retinal ganglion cells (RGC) may be considered an easily accessible pathophysiological site of degenerative processes in neurological diseases, such as the RGC damage detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with (HON) and without a history of optic neuritis (NON). We aimed to assess and interrelate RGC functional and structural damage in different retinal layers and retinal sites. We included 12 NON patients, 11 HON patients and 14 healthy controls for cross-sectional multifocal pattern electroretinography (mfPERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. Read More

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The Association between Portion Sizes from High-Energy-Dense Foods and Body Composition in European Adolescents: The HELENA Study.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 16;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Obesity prevalence has been simultaneously increasing with high consumption of large food portion sizes (PS). However, there is scarce information on PS of energy-dense (ED) foods as a potential risk factor of obesity in adolescents. In the present study, we investigate the association between the PS of the most ED foods and body composition. Read More

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Correlations between Retinal Arterial Morphometric Parameters and Neurodegeneration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with No or Mild Diabetic Retinopathy.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 5;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 V. Babes str., 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

: In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), the neural retina is starting to degenerate before the development of vascular lesions. Our purpose was to investigate the correlation between the retinal arterial morphometric parameters and structural neurodegeneration in patients with type 2 DM with no or mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). : This is a prospective study including 53 eyes of patients with type 2 DM and 32 eyes of healthy controls. Read More

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Evaluation of Current Symptoms in Postoperative Achilles Tendons: A Multimodal Ultrasound Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

(1) Background: It is unknown which imaging parameters are associated with clinical persistent symptoms in postoperative Achilles tendons. This study used B-Mode, Power Doppler (PD-US), Ultrasound Tissue Characterization (UTC) and Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) to investigate which imaging parameters are associated with persistent symptoms in postoperative Achilles tendon tissue. (2) Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, multimodal imaging study. Read More

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Mitigation of Galvanic Corrosion in Bolted Joint of AZ31B and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composite Using Polymer Insulation.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;14(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

The use of polymer insulation to mitigate galvanic corrosion was examined for bolted joints of AZ31B Mg alloy and carbon fiber-reinforced composite. To assess the corrosion behaviors of bolted joints with and without polymer insulation, solution immersion and salt spray exposure (ASTM B117) tests were conducted, and the corrosion depths and volumes were determined for the joint specimens after the tests. The polymer-insulated bolted joints exhibited much lower corrosion depths and volumes, highlighting the effective mitigation of galvanic corrosion. Read More

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Influence of Micronutrient Intake, Sociodemographic, and Behavioral Factors on Periodontal Status of Adults Assisted by a Public Health Care System in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Multivariate Analysis.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 17;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Health Sciences Faculty, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), 37200-900 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The lack of access to a balanced diet, rich in vitamins and minerals, can predispose people to inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient intake, sociodemographic behavioral characteristics, and periodontal health in adults assisted by a public health care system. Participants ( = 450) answered a food frequency questionnaire and were submitted to anthropometric and oral clinical examinations. Read More

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Association between Serum Concentration of Carotenoid and Visceral Fat.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 11;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Innovation Center for Health Promotion, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562, Japan.

Consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids has been widely reported to prevent cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and visceral fat area (VFA), which is considered a better predictor of cardiovascular diseases than the body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the relationship in healthy individuals in their 20s or older, stratified by sex and age, to compare the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and VFA and BMI. Read More

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Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Correlates with Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Levels and is Associated with Current Disability in Multiple Sclerosis.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2021 Mar 16;58(1):34-40. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology İzmir, Turkey.

Introduction: The main purpose of the present study is to confirm Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (pRNFL) thickness is a biomarker of axonal degeneration in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate its relationship with Neurofilament heavy chain (NfH) and Nitrotyrosine (NT).

Method: We quantified serum (s) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfH and NT levels in 30 relapsing-remitting MS patients (RRMS), 16 secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients and in 29 control subjects matched for age and gender. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of pRNFL were performed in all subjects. Read More

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Factors Determining the Morphology of Peripapillary Retinoschisis.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 25;15:1293-1300. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: We conducted cross-sectional examinations to determine the frequency of peripapillary retinoschisis (PRS) in eyes with glaucoma and suspected glaucoma and analyzed the pathogenesis of PRS by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

Patients And Methods: In 1516 cases involving glaucoma and suspected glaucoma, we retrospectively reviewed the disc and macular volume scans obtained by SD-OCT and categorized PRS into two groups based on whether the retinoschisis was closer to the optic nerve over the Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (ahead group) or did not go past the BMO (behind group) and then compared the characteristics between both groups.

Results: The total frequency of PRS was 1. Read More

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Macular Microvasculature and Associated Retinal Layer Thickness in Pediatric Amblyopia: Magnification-Corrected Analyses.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Mar;62(3):39

Department of Ophthalmology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize macular microvasculature and structural retinal layers using magnification-corrected optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images in children with amblyopia.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 22 children with unilateral amblyopia (4-11 years of age) receiving spectral-domain OCTA. Vessel densities in foveal and parafoveal regions of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were measured in amblyopic and fellow eyes using a customized image analysis program correcting the scale of retinal image with axial length. Read More

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The effect of vertebral level on biomechanical properties of the lumbar paraspinal muscles in a rat model.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Mar 15;118:104446. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; ICORD, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Passive mechanical properties of the paraspinal muscles are important to the biomechanical functioning of the spine. In most computational models, the same biomechanical properties are assumed for each paraspinal muscle group, while cross-sectional area or fatty infiltration in these muscles have been reported to differ between the vertebral levels. Two important properties for musculoskeletal modeling are the slack sarcomere length and the tangent modulus. Read More

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Nutritional intake and its impact on patients with epilepsy: an analytical cross-sectional study.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Mar 29:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Anecdotal reports have proposed that diet might influence the occurrence of seizures.

Objectives: Our objectives were to assess nutritional status in a sample of patients with epilepsy and to investigate the impact of nutrition on epilepsy control.

Patients And Methods: One hundred and fifty patients with epilepsy participated in the study. Read More

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All-optical high-speed modulation of THz transmission through silicon core optical fibers.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):3543-3552

High speed optical modulation of THz radiation is of interest for information processing and communications applications. In this paper infrared femtosecond pulses are used to generate free carriers that reduce the THz transmission of silicon based waveguides over a broad spectral range. Up to 96% modulation is observed from 0. Read More

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February 2021

Diagnostic capability of different morphological parameters for primary open-angle glaucoma in the Chinese population.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 25;21(1):151. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, No.8 Xi Shi Ku Street, Xi Cheng District, 100034, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: To assess the diagnostic capability of novel Bruch's membrane opening (BMO)-based disc parameters, the BMO-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and the BMO-minimum rim area (BMO-MRA) in the Chinese population and compare them to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the rim area (RA) from the Heidelberg retinal tomograph-III (HRT-III).

Methods: In total, 200 eyes of 77 healthy and 123 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent the visual field test and structural measurements by OCT and HRT-III. Read More

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Maintenance of muscle mass in adult male mice is independent of testosterone.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0240278. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States of America.

Testosterone is considered a potent anabolic agent in skeletal muscle with a well-established role in adolescent growth and development in males. However, the role of testosterone in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function throughout the lifespan has yet to be fully established. While some studies suggest that testosterone is important for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, an understanding of the role this hormone plays in young, adult, and old males with normal and low serum testosterone levels is lacking. Read More

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Association of Retinal Changes With Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal Individuals.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Medical Research Center Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Importance: Retinal biomarkers reflecting in vivo brain Alzheimer disease (AD) pathologic abnormalities could be a useful tool for screening cognitively normal (CN) individuals at the preclinical stage of AD.

Objectives: To investigate the association of both functional and structural alterations of the retina with in vivo AD pathologic abnormalities in CN older adults and model a screening tool for detection of preclinical AD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study included a total of 49 CN individuals, and all assessment was done at the Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Read More

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Evening Chronotype Is Associated with Poorer Habitual Diet in US Women, with Dietary Energy Density Mediating a Relation of Chronotype with Cardiovascular Health.

J Nutr 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: An innate preference for later timing of sleep and activity, termed evening chronotype, is linked to poorer cardiovascular health (CVH). However, associations of chronotype with specific health behaviors in US women are not well characterized. Of particular interest is habitual diet, because <1% of US adults meet recommendations for a healthful diet. Read More

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Muscle fiber morphometry and physicochemical characteristics of the Longissimus thoracis muscle of hair male lambs fed zilpaterol hydrochloride and implanted with steroids.

Meat Sci 2021 Jul 8;177:108490. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A. C., Carretera Gustavo Enrique Astiazarán Rosas, No. 46, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304, Mexico. Electronic address:

Muscle fiber morphometry and physicochemical characteristics were evaluated in LT muscles obtained from entire male lambs treated with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH, 0 and 0.15 mg/kg body weight) and/or steroidal implant (SI, with and without trenbolone acetate/estradiol). ZH and SI acted synergistically to increase LT area, type-IIb fiber cross-sectional area and soluble collagen content, likewise to decrease metmyoglobin concentration and insoluble collagen content. Read More

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Variety in fruits and vegetables, diet quality and lifestyle in an older adult mediterranean population.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 24;40(4):1510-1518. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, Reus, Spain; Institut D'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Reus, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Nutrition Unit, Reus, Spain.

Background And Aims: Previous studies, mainly focused on quantity rather than variety, have shown beneficial associations between the amount of fruit and vegetable consumed, diet quality and healthy lifestyle. The aim is to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, diet quality and lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population, considering both variety and the combination of quantity and variety (QV).

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 6647 participants (51. Read More

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Retinal layer thicknesses and neurodegeneration in early age-related macular degeneration: insights from the Coimbra Eye Study.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image (AIBILI), Coimbra, Portugal.

Purpose: This study aims to analyze the retinal layers and choroidal thickness in a large set of eyes with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in order to detect differences by stage suggestive of early neurodegeneration, and to explore biomarkers of different phenotypes.

Methods: This study is a population-based, cross-sectional study. Patients from the incidence AMD study (NCT02748824) with early AMD (Rotterdam 2a, 2b, 3) were included. Read More

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