234,048 results match your criteria fetuses


Newborns at risk of Covid-19 - lessons from the last year.

J Perinat Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

After more than 1 year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a great deal of knowledge on how this virus affects pregnant women, the fetus and the newborn has accumulated. The gap between different guidelines how to handle newborn infants during this pandemic has been minimized, and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)'s recommendations are now more in accordance with those of the World Health Organization (WHO). In this article we summarize present knowledge regarding transmission from mother to the fetus/newborn. Read More

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Chronic hypoxia in pregnant mice impairs the placental and fetal vascular response to acute hypercapnia in BOLD-MRI hemodynamic response imaging.

Placenta 2021 Jun 3;110:29-38. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

The Goldyne Savad Institute of Gene Therapy and MRI Laboratory, Human Biology Research Center, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Ein Karem, And the Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; The Wohl Institute for Translational Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Ein Karem, And the Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Introduction: Brief hypercapnic challenge causes acute placental hypoperfusion with fetal brain sparing on BOLD-MRI. We hypothesize that this non-invasive imaging strategy can distinguish between normal pregnancy and chronic placental hypoperfusion (using the maternal hypoxia model).

Methods: Eighteen pregnant female ICR mice were randomized to three groups: normoxia, late-onset hypoxia (12%O;E13. Read More

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Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in Pregnancy: Systematic review and meta-analysis of maternal and perinatal safety and clinical outcomes.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Mater Research Institute - University of Queensland, Level 3 Aubigny Place, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine, Whitty Building, Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia; NHMRC Stillbirth Centre For Research Excellence, Mater Research Institute, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have recently been used for the treatment of severe early onset pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. There are however concerns that they may increase the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the safety profile and clinical outcomes of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors use in pregnancy. Read More

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The fetal outcomes after neoadjuvant platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy during pregnancy: analysis of three cases and review of the literature.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, 17 Qihelou St, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100006, China.

Objective: Data on the outcomes of fetus who are exposed to neoadjuvant platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy during pregnancy are lacking.

Methods: Relevant data were abstracted from patients in our institution, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. The primary assessment was the frequency of fetal death and congenital abnormalities. Read More

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Mechanical Effects of a Maylard Scar During a Vaginal Birth After a Previous Caesarean.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

INEGI - Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering/DEMec, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Caesarean section is one of the most common surgeries worldwide, even though there is no evidence supporting maternal and perinatal long-term benefits. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of a caesarean scar during a vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is not well understood since there are several questions regarding the uterine wound healing process. The aim of this study is to investigate the biomechanical Maylard fiber reorientation and stiffness influence during a VBAC through computational methods. Read More

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The Placental Ferroxidase Zyklopen Is Not Essential for Iron Transport to the Fetus in Mice.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Molecular Nutrition Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Australia.

Background: The ferroxidase zyklopen (Zp) has been implicated in the placental transfer of iron to the fetus. However, the evidence for this is largely circumstantial.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether Zp is essential for placental iron transfer. Read More

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First trimester sonographic diagnosis of limb-body wall defect associating both cephalic and thoraco-abdominal defects - a case report and literature update.

Med Ultrason 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Iuliu Haţieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

We present the first trimester prenatal ultrasonography and pathological assessment of a case diagnosed with limb-body wall complex (LBWC) presenting both exenchephaly and a complex thoraco-abdominal wall defect. Ectopia cordis is demonstrated with a movie showing the heart beating outside the body of the fetus after its expulsion. Also, we discuss the pathogenesis and possible etiology of LBWC and associated malformations and we provide an update of the literature of this very rare anomaly. Read More

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Outcomes of sustained fetal tachyarrhythmias after transplacental treatment.

Heart Rhythm O2 2021 Apr 9;2(2):160-167. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Obstetric and Maternal Fetal Medicine and EA7328.

Background: Fetal tachyarrhythmia is a condition that may lead to cardiac dysfunction, hydrops, and death. Despite a transplacental treatment, failure to obtain or maintain sinus rhythm may occur.

Objective: We aimed to analyze the perinatal outcomes of sustained fetal tachyarrhythmias after in utero treatment. Read More

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Overexpression of DAZL, STRA8, and BOULE Genes and Treatment With BMP4 or Retinoic Acid Modulate the Expression of MSC Overexpressing Germ Cell Genes.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:667547. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Animal Production Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

gamete derivation from stem cells has potential applications in animal reproduction as an alternative method for the dissemination of elite animal genetics, production of transgenic animals, and conservation of endangered species. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be suitable candidates for gamete derivation considering their differentiative capacity and their potential for cell therapy. Due to its relevance in gametogenesis, it has been reported that retinoic acid (RA) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 are able to upregulate the expression of specific markers associated to the early stages of germ cell (GCs) differentiation in bovine fetal MSCs (bfMSCs). Read More

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Understanding the Pathogenesis of Gestational Hypothyroidism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:653407. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Pregnancy is a complex state with many endocrinological challenges to a woman's physiology. Gestational Hypothyroidism (GHT) is an emerging condition where insufficiency of the thyroid gland has developed during pregnancy in a previously euthyroid woman. It is different to overt hypothyroidism, where marked elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone with corresponding reduction in free thyroxine levels, is well known to cause detrimental effects to both the mother and the baby. Read More

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Why we should not extend the 14-day rule.

J Med Ethics 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Allied Health Sciences, London South Bank University School of Health and Social Care, London, UK.

The 14-day rule restricts the culturing of human embryos in vitro for the purposes of scientific research for no longer than 14 days. Since researchers recently developed the capability to exceed the 14-day limit, pressure to modify the rule has started to build. Sophia McCully argues that the limit should be extended to 28 days, listing numerous potential benefits of doing so. Read More

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[Application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill pregnant women].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 May;33(5):605-608

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital to Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China. Corresponding author: Gu Qin, Email:

Objective: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in emergency treatment of critically ill pregnant women.

Methods: Clinical data of 8 pregnant women with severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction during the perinatal period treated by ECMO in the department of intensive care unit (ICU) of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital to Nanjing University Medical School from September 2017 to November 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: For the 8 pregnant women, the mean age was (32. Read More

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Isolated CHDs and neurodevelopmental follow-up using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 18 and 36 months.

Cardiol Young 2021 Jun 11:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objectives: To compare early neurocognitive development in children born with and without isolated CHD using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition) and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (3rd edition).

Methods: Recruitment took place before birth. Women expecting fetuses with and without CHD causing disturbances in the flow of oxygenated blood to the fetal brain were included in a prospective cohort study comprising fetal MRI (previously published) and neurodevelopmental follow-up. Read More

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A Novel Model of Fetal Spinal Cord Exposure Allowing for Long-Term Postnatal Survival.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2021 Jun 10:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Surgery, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Background: The inherent morbidity associated with fetal ovine models of myelomeningocele (MMC) has created challenges for long-term survival of lambs. We aimed to develop a fetal ovine surgical spinal exposure model which could be used to evaluate long-term safety after direct spinal cord application of novel therapeutics for augmentation of in utero MMC repair.

Methods: At gestational age (GA) 100-106, fetal lambs underwent surgical intervention. Read More

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COVID-19 during Pregnancy: Clinical and In Vitro Evidence against Placenta Infection at Term by SARS-CoV-2.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Pole of Obstetrics, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Brussels, Belgium; Division of Obstetrics, Saint-Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

Despite occasional reports of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission during pregnancy, the question of placental infection and its consequences for the newborn remain questionable. Here, we analyzed the placentas of 31 COVID-19-positive mothers by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. We only detected one case of placental infection, which was associated with intrauterine demise of the fetus. Read More

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Maternal and Fetal Vascular Lesions of Malperfusion in the Placentas Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Death: Results of a Prospective Observational Study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Columbia University, New York NY USA.

Background: Fetal death, one of the major adverse pregnancy outcomes, is especially common in low and middle-income countries. Placental lesions may play an important role in the etiology of fetal and possibly neonatal death. Prior research relating placental lesions to fetal death causation was often hindered by the lack of agreement on a placental classification scheme. Read More

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Maternal Diabetes and Infant Sex Ratio.

Curr Diab Rep 2021 Jun 10;21(8):24. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 390 HPER, 1914 Andy Holt Ave, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Evolutionary hypotheses on the ratio of males to females at birth posit that women terminate pregnancies with low likelihood of surviving and producing grandchildren. Thus, females are preferred to males under unfavorable conditions. Much of this literature has focused on catastrophic disruptions that induce maternal stress and result in fewer males. Read More

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From a Disposable Ureteroscope to an Active Lightweight Fetoscope-Characterization and Usability Evaluation.

IEEE Robot Autom Lett 2018 Oct 20;3(4):4359-4366. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Sebastien Ourselin is with the Department of Imaging and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, U.K.

The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a severe fetal anomaly appearing in up to 15% of identical twin pregnancies. This anomaly occurs when twins share blood vessels from a common placenta. The complication leads to an unbalanced blood transfusion between both fetuses. Read More

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October 2018

Rare Fetus-in-Fetu: Experience From a Large Tertiary Pediatric Referral Center.

Front Pediatr 2021 24;9:678479. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Fetus-in-fetu (FIF) is an extremely rare disease, and most prior publications are single case reports. Here, we describe the clinical characteristics, imaging manifestations, and the treatment and related complications of FIF from a large tertiary pediatric referral center. After institutional review board approval, patients with a diagnosis of FIF between January 2010 and November 2019 were further selected and reexamined. Read More

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Magnetic resonance imaging of skull and brain parameters in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction.

Radiol Bras 2021 May-Jun;54(3):141-147

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To compare fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those with normal growth, in terms of skull and brain measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective cohort study including 26 single fetuses (13 with IUGR and 13 with normal growth), evaluated from 26 to 38 weeks of gestation. Using MRI, we measured skull and brain biparietal diameters (BPDs); skull and brain occipitofrontal diameters (OFDs); corpus callosum length and area; transverse cerebellar diameter; extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF); and right and left interopercular distances (IODs). Read More

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MicroRNA-362-5p promotes the proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of trophoblast cells via targeting glutathione-disulfide reductase.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):2410-2419

First Department of Obstetrics, Chongqing Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Chongqing, China.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common complication of pregnancy, harms the health of pregnant women and fetuses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation in placenta is involved in GDM. Herein, we explored the roles of miR-362-5p in GDM. Read More

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December 2021

An automated technique for double staining of bone and cartilage in fetal mouse skeletal specimens using alizarin red S and Alcian blue.

Biotech Histochem 2021 Jun 10:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Syngenta Limited, Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, UK.

Automated methods exist for double staining bone and cartilage in fetal rat, rabbit and mice using alizarin red S and Alcian blue. None of the published methods produce consistently stained bone and cartilage in mouse fetuses. Consequently, we modified an automated staining method for use with mouse fetuses. Read More

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A Case of Balanced Translocation: 46, XY, t(9;22) (q22;q13) Accompanied with Oligospermia and Asthenospermia.

Clin Lab 2021 Jun;67(6)

Background: Balanced translocation of chromosomes has a negative impact on male fertility, which can easily cause clinical manifestations such as oligospermia and asthenospermia. It is necessary to conduct cytogenetic examination on men of childbearing age to guide them in their fertility.

Methods: We report a case of balanced translocation: 46, XY, t(9;22) (q22;q13) accompanied with oligospermia and asthenospermia. Read More

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Warfarin Anticoagulation and Fetal Central Nervous System Abnormalities: a Case Report.

Clin Lab 2021 Jun;67(6)

Background: Anticoagulation of pregnant woman with mechanical prosthetic heart valves is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks.

Methods: We describe a case of dorsal midline dysplasia in a fetus at 11 weeks' gestation. The mother was receiving warfarin therapy at a dose of 7. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic pregnant women in South Brazil: RT-PCR and serological detection.

J Perinat Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Objectives: This study aims to detect the SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence in asymptomatic pregnant women.

Methods: A group of 195 asymptomatic pregnant women who attended the prenatal care outclinic and to the obstetric emergency department was tested concomitantly for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and serological tests.

Results: The virus was detected by RT-PCR in two (1. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Sonographic Evaluation of the Position of the Fetal Conus Medullaris at First Trimester.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2021 Jun 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the position of the conus medullaris (CM) at the first trimester 3D ultrasound in a cohort of structurally normal fetuses.

Methods: This was a multicenter prospective study involving a consecutive series of structurally normal fetuses between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation (CRL between 45 and 84 mm). All fetuses were submitted to 3D transvaginal ultrasound using a sagittal view of the spine as the starting plane of acquisition. Read More

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Randomized Trial of Fetal Surgery for Severe Left Diaphragmatic Hernia.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, KU Leuven (J.A.D., F.M.R.) and Academic Department of Development and Regeneration, Biomedical Sciences, University Hospitals KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (J.A.D., B.V.C., F.M.R.); King's College Hospital (K.H.N.) and the Institute for Women's Health, University College London Hospital (J.A.D.) - both in London; Hospital Antoine-Béclère, Université Paris-Saclay, Clamart, France (A.B.); Hospital Clinic and Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (E.G.); Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (G.R.); Hospital Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (N.P.); the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (H.S.); Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston (A.J.); the Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (M.W.); and University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany (C.B.).

Background: Observational studies have shown that fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) has been associated with increased survival among infants with severe pulmonary hypoplasia due to isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side, but data from randomized trials are lacking.

Methods: In this open-label trial conducted at centers with experience in FETO and other types of prenatal surgery, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, women carrying singleton fetuses with severe isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side to FETO at 27 to 29 weeks of gestation or expectant care. Both treatments were followed by standardized postnatal care. Read More

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Randomized Trial of Fetal Surgery for Moderate Left Diaphragmatic Hernia.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals KU Leuven (J.A.D., P.L.J.D.) and Academic Department of Development and Regeneration, Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (J.A.D., B.V.C., P.L.J.D.); Hospital Antoine-Béclère, Université Paris-Saclay, Clamart (A.B.), and Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (Y.V.) - both in France; Hospital Clinic and Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (E.G.); Institute for Women's Health, University College London Hospital (J.A.D.) and King's College Hospital(K.H.N.) - both in London; the University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany (C.B.); Hospital Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (N.P.), and Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome (F.M.) - both in Italy; Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital (M.B.) and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital (A.J.) - all in Houston; Mater Mothers' Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia (G.J.G.); the Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (M.W.); and Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (P.L.J.D.).

Background: Fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) has been associated with increased postnatal survival among infants with severe pulmonary hypoplasia due to isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side, but data are lacking to inform its effects in infants with moderate disease.

Methods: In this open-label trial conducted at many centers with experience in FETO and other types of prenatal surgery, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, women carrying singleton fetuses with a moderate isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side to FETO at 30 to 32 weeks of gestation or expectant care. Both treatments were followed by standardized postnatal care. Read More

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Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava: Why is Prenatal Diagnosis Important?

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2021 Jun 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Perinatology Department, Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate fetal anomalies and pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) to provide assistance in prenatal counseling.

Methods: Cases diagnosed with PLSVC between January 2015 and January 2020 were obtained from the hospital's electronic system and were analyzed retrospectively.

Results: Twenty-seven cases were analyzed. Read More

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Clinical significance of S100B protein in pregnant woman with early- onset severe preeclampsia.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics, Maternal and child health hospital of Hunan Province Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the most feared complications of pregnancy, which can progress rapidly to serious complications such as death of both mother and fetus. To present, the leading cause of preeclampsia is still debated. The purpose of this article was to explore the clinical significance of S100B protein, a kind of Ca2+ -sensor protein, in the early-onset severe preeclampsia. Read More

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