490 results match your criteria fetoplacental vasculature


Maternal natural killer cells at the intersection between reproduction and mucosal immunity.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, CB2 0SW, UK.

Many maternal immune cells populate the decidua, which is the mucosal lining of the uterus transformed during pregnancy. Here, abundant natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages help the uterine vasculature adapt to fetal demands for gas and nutrients, thereby supporting fetal growth. Fetal trophoblast cells budding off the forming placenta and invading deep into maternal tissues come into contact with these and other immune cells. Read More

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Fetal High-Density Lipoproteins: Current Knowledge on Particle Metabolism, Composition and Function in Health and Disease.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 30;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Cholesterol and other lipids carried by lipoproteins play an indispensable role in fetal development. Recent evidence suggests that maternally derived high-density lipoprotein (HDL) differs from fetal HDL with respect to its proteome, size, and function. Compared to the HDL of adults, fetal HDL is the major carrier of cholesterol and has a unique composition that implies other physiological functions. Read More

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Effects of lipoproteins on endothelial cells and macrophages function and its possible implications on fetal adverse outcomes associated to maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy.

Placenta 2021 Mar 2;106:79-87. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Medical Technology, Health Sciences Faculty, Universidad San Sebastian, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. During pregnancy, maternal hypercholesterolemia develops, and it can occur in a physiological (MPH) or supraphysiological (MSPH) manner, where MSPH is associated with endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerotic lesions in the fetoplacental vasculature. In the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, endothelial activation and endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an imbalance in the bioavailability of nitric oxide, contribute to the early stages of this disease. Read More

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Sex differences in modulation of fetoplacental vascular resistance in growth-restricted mouse fetuses following betamethasone administration: comparisons with human fetuses.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 01 6;3(1):100251. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Translational Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Maternally administered corticosteroids are routinely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation in pregnancies at risk of early preterm delivery. Although, among the subgroup with growth restriction, a majority show a temporary improvement in umbilical artery Doppler waveforms that may be sustained up to 7 days, a minority will acutely decompensate in response to corticosteroids in association with deteriorating umbilical and fetal Doppler waveforms. The basis for such acute Doppler changes is presently unknown. Read More

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January 2021

Insulin requires A adenosine receptors to modulate the L-arginine/nitric oxide signalling in the human fetoplacental vascular endothelium from late-onset preeclampsia.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 01 21;1867(1):165993. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL), Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8330024, Chile; Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville E-41012, Spain; Medical School (Faculty of Medicine), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil; University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR), Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Herston, QLD, 4029, Australia. Electronic address:

Late-onset preeclampsia (LOPE) associates with reduced umbilical vein reactivity and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity but increased human cationic amino acid (hCAT-1)-mediated L-arginine transport involving A adenosine receptor in the fetoplacental unit. This study addresses the A adenosine receptor (AAR)-mediated response to insulin in the fetoplacental vasculature from LOPE. Umbilical veins and HUVECs were obtained from women with normal (n = 37) or LOPE (n = 35) pregnancies. Read More

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January 2021

Pulsatility effects of flow on vascular tone in the fetoplacental circulation.

Placenta 2020 11 2;101:163-168. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, St. Mary's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: The regulation of vascular tone in the fetoplacental circulation is governed by endocrine and mechanical forces yielding a relaxed basal state in normal pregnancy. Flow mediated vasodilation, induced by shear stress and endothelial nitric oxide signalling, is key to driving vasorelaxation in this circulation. The pulsatile property of blood flow, as opposed to the flow rate, could provide an additional factor in this regulation, but its effects and signalling have never been explored in the fetoplacental microvasculature. Read More

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November 2020

Conditions of microelements exchange processes in women's placents in intrauterine infection of the fetus.

Wiad Lek 2020 ;73(7):1434-1437

Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine.

Objective: The aim:to study the content of trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb) in the placenta of pregnant healthy women and with signs of intrauterine infection of the fetus, features of transplacental transmission of infectious process from mother to fetus and to investigate the role of the placenta in trace element supply of the fetus.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods. 43 pregnant women between the aged 16 to 40 years were monitored, including 12 with physiological pregnancy (group 1) and 31 with signs of STI (group 2). Read More

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Role of oxygen in fetoplacental endothelial responses: hypoxia, physiological normoxia, or hyperoxia?

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 05 8;318(5):C943-C953. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Perinatal Research Laboratories, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

During pregnancy, placental vascular growth, which is essential for supporting the rapidly growing fetus, is associated with marked elevations in blood flow. These vascular changes take place under chronic physiological low O (less than 2-8% O in human; chronic physiological normoxia, CPN) throughout pregnancy. O level below CPN pertinent to the placenta results in placental hypoxia. Read More

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Larger First-Trimester Placental Volumetric Parameters Are Associated With Lower Pressure and More Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Fetoplacental Vasculature After Delivery.

Front Physiol 2020 24;11. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Objective: To explore the correlation between placental volumetric parameters in the first trimester of pregnancy and parameters of fetoplacental vascular function after delivery.

Methods: In ten singleton physiological pregnancies, placental volume (PV) and uteroplacental vascular volume (uPVV) were measured offline in three-dimensional ultrasound volumes at 7, 9, and 11 weeks gestational age (GA) using Virtual Organ Analysis and Virtual Reality. Directly postpartum, term placentas were dually perfused and pressure in the fetoplacental vasculature was measured to calculate baseline pressure (pressure after a washout period), pressure increase (pressure after a stepwise fetal flow rate increase of 1 mL/min up to 6 mL/min) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMVD; reduction in inflow hydrostatic pressure on the fetal side at 6 mL/min flow rate). Read More

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January 2020

Gene expression changes in arterial and venous endothelial cells exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2020 Sep 20;36(9):791-795. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, People's Hospital of Jiaxiang County, Jining, China.

We investigated the molecular changes in fetoplacental blood vessel endothelial cells in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Raw gene expression profile data of arterial and venous endothelial cells from GDM complicated pregnancies and healthy controls were downloaded and used for bioinformatic analysis. There were two differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in venous endothelial cells and 178 DEGs in arterial endothelial cells induced by GDM. Read More

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September 2020

Intra-placental arterial Doppler: A marker of fetoplacental vascularity in late-onset placental disease?

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020 07 28;99(7):865-874. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Maternal and Fetal Health Research Center, Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Introduction: Late-gestation adverse pregnancy outcome is associated with reduced placental villous vascularity but rarely with a frankly abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveform. The clinical utility of umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in late gestation is limited by poor understanding of what aspect(s) of placental structure and function the impedance reflects. We hypothesized that placental arterial circulation impedance reflects placental vascularity and arterial function. Read More

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Transfer and Vascular Effect of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in the Human Placenta.

Hypertension 2020 03 30;75(3):877-884. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

From the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine (E.H., R.I.N., M.B., A.H.v.d.M., J.V., A.H.J.D.), Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Increasing evidence suggests a role for the ET (endothelin) system in preeclampsia. Hence, blocking this system with endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) could be a therapeutic strategy. Yet, clinical studies are lacking due to possible teratogenic effects of ERAs. Read More

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[The architectonics of fetal placental veins in second-trimester cytomegalovirus infection].

Arkh Patol 2019 ;81(4):43-47

Far Eastern Research Center for Physiology and Pathology of Respiration, Blagoveshchensk, Russia.

Objective: To study a change in the architectonics of fetal surface veins of the placenta and the structure of the latter in cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women.

Material And Methods: Placentas were studied and divided in 3 groups: 1) 35 placentas from women with physiological pregnancy; 2) 37 placentas from women with an exacerbation of latent cytomegalovirus infection and with chronic compensated placental insufficiency; 3) 30 placentas from those with an exacerbation of latent cytomegalovirus infection and with chronic subcompensated placental insufficiency. After X-ray contrasting the fetal surface veins of the placenta and collecting its sections for morphological analysis, the changes in the blood vessels were compared with the structure of the villous chorion. Read More

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October 2019

Overexpression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator partially rescues fetoplacental angiogenesis in severe fetal growth restriction.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2019 06 20;133(12):1353-1365. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine/Division of Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12361 E. 17th Avenue, B198-5, Aurora, CO 80045, U.S.A.

Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction with bnormal umbilical artery oppler elocimetry (FGRadv) are at substantial risk for adverse perinatal and long-term outcomes. Impaired angiogenesis of the placental vasculature in these pregnancies results in a sparse, poorly branched vascular tree, which structurally contributes to the abnormally elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance that is clinically manifested by absent or reversed umbilical artery Doppler indices. Previous studies have shown that aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a key mediator of proper placental angiogenesis, and within placental endothelial cells (ECs) from human FGRadv pregnancies, low expression of ARNT leads to decreased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and deficient tube formation. Read More

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Fetal hemodynamics and language skills in primary school-aged children with fetal growth restriction: A longitudinal study.

Early Hum Dev 2019 07 3;134:34-40. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; PEDEGO Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Turku, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Aim: Long-term follow-up studies on children born with fetal growth restriction (FGR) have revealed a specific profile of neurocognitive difficulties, including problems with speech, language and literacy skills. We hypothesized that problems with communication skills, including language use and literacy skills of FGR children at primary school age are associated with prenatal circulatory changes.

Methods: Ultrasonographic assessment of fetoplacental hemodynamics was performed prenatally in 77 fetuses. Read More

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Sexual Dimorphisms of Preeclampsia-Dysregulated Transcriptomic Profiles and Cell Function in Fetal Endothelial Cells.

Hypertension 2019 07 3;74(1):154-163. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison (C.Z., Q.Y., Q.-Y.Z., X.-Q.Z., C.T.T., I.M.B., J.Z.).

Preeclampsia impairs fetoplacental vascular function and increases risks of adult-onset cardiovascular disorders in children born to preeclamptic mothers, implicating that preeclampsia programs fetal vasculature in utero. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesize that preeclampsia alters fetal endothelial gene expression and disturbs cytokines- and growth factors-induced endothelial responses. Read More

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Anemia in late pregnancy induces an adaptive response in fetoplacental vascularization.

Placenta 2019 05 26;80:49-58. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Core Center for Molecular Morphology, Section for Stereology and Microscopy, Centre for Stochastic Geometry and Advanced Bioimaging, Department of Clinical Medicine, C113, level 1, Palle Juul Jensens Boulevard 99, Aarhus University, DK-8200, Aarhus N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Introduction: Anemia during pregnancy may compromise fetal and newborn's health, however, little is known about how and when the fetoplacental vascularization is most vulnerable to anemia.

Methods: Using systematic and isotropic uniform random sampling, placental samples were collected from 189 placentas in a cohort study of Tanzanian women whose hemoglobin concentration was measured throughout pregnancy. Fetoplacental vessels and villi were defined as exerting either a transport or diffusion function. Read More

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A Radiologist's Guide to the Performance and Interpretation of Obstetric Doppler US.

Radiographics 2019 May-Jun;39(3):893-910

From the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah Health, 30N 1099E, Room 1A71, Salt Lake City, UT 84132.

Doppler US provides a unique window to the fetoplacental circulation, allowing assessment of fetal well-being. Doppler US of the umbilical artery is an integral component of managing the fetus with growth restriction; and Doppler US of the middle cerebral artery, as a noninvasive means of detecting fetal anemia, has revolutionized the management of pregnancies complicated by alloimmunization. Serial use of amniocentesis, with its attendant risks, has been replaced by serial Doppler US examinations. Read More

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Do Doppler Changes Reflect Pathology of Placental Vascular Lesions in IUGR Pregnancies?

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2019 Oct 20;22(5):410-419. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pathology, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: Doppler assessment of uteroplacental (UP) and fetoplacental (FP) circulation detects abnormal waveforms in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) pregnancies. Similarly, histopathology also reveals lesions of vascular compromise in IUGR placenta. We evaluated an association between Doppler and histopathological (HP) assessment of the maternal and fetal circulation in IUGR. Read More

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October 2019

Plasticity of the Maternal Vasculature During Pregnancy.

Annu Rev Physiol 2019 02;81:89-111

Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Science, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy.

Maternal cardiovascular changes during pregnancy include an expansion of plasma volume, increased cardiac output, decreased peripheral resistance, and increased uteroplacental blood flow. These adaptations facilitate the progressive increase in uteroplacental perfusion that is required for normal fetal growth and development, prevent the development of hypertension, and provide a reserve of blood in anticipation of the significant blood loss associated with parturition. Each woman's genotype and phenotype determine her ability to adapt in response to molecular signals that emanate from the fetoplacental unit. Read More

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February 2019

Adenosine kinase and cardiovascular fetal programming in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 02 27;1866(2):165397. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL), Department of Obstetrics, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8330024, Chile; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville E-41012, Spain; University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR), Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 4029, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a detrimental condition for human pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction and endothelial inflammation in the fetoplacental vasculature and leads to increased cardio-metabolic risk in the offspring. In the fetoplacental vasculature, GDM is associated with altered adenosine metabolism. Adenosine is an important vasoactive molecule and is an intermediary and final product of transmethylation reactions in the cell. Read More

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February 2020

Involvement of A adenosine receptors as anti-inflammatory in gestational diabesity.

Mol Aspects Med 2019 04 24;66:31-39. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 8330024, Chile; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, E-41012, Spain; University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR), Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 4029, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Pregnant women that are obese may develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) configuring a new metabolic condition referred to as gestational diabesity. The metabolic alterations seen in gestational diabesity include a combination of an exacerbated pro-inflammatory state and fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. Also, gestational diabesity associates with supra-physiological extracellular concentration of adenosine in the foetoplacental blood. Read More

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Maternal exercise and growth restriction in rats alters placental angiogenic factors and blood space area in a sex-specific manner.

Placenta 2018 12 15;74:47-54. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Fetal growth and development are dependent on adequate placental nutrient transfer. The surface area of the placental villous network is a key determinant of nutrient exchange, which is regulated by vasculogenic and angiogenic factors. These factors are altered by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal obesity in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generations. Read More

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December 2018

Placental vascular abnormalities in the mouse alter umbilical artery wave reflections.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 03 11;316(3):H664-H672. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

Current methods to detect placental vascular pathologies that monitor Doppler ultrasound changes in umbilical artery (UA) pulsatility have only moderate diagnostic utility, particularly in late gestation. In fetal mice, we recently demonstrated that reflected pressure waves propagate counter to the direction of flow in the UA and proposed the measurement of these reflections as a means to detect abnormalities in the placental circulation. In the present study, we used this approach in combination with microcomputed tomography to investigate the relationship between altered placental vascular architecture and changes in UA wave reflection metrics. Read More

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G Protein α Subunit 14 Mediates Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-Induced Cellular Responses in Human Endothelial Cells.

J Cell Physiol 2019 07 1;234(7):10184-10195. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

During pregnancy, a tremendous increase in fetoplacental angiogenesis is associated with elevated blood flow. Aberrant fetoplacental vascular function may lead to pregnancy complications including pre-eclampsia. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are crucial regulators of fetoplacental endothelial function. Read More

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Negative correlation between testosterone and TNF-α in umbilical cord serum favors a weakened immune milieu in the human male fetoplacental unit.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 02 22;186:154-160. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción Dr. Carlos Gual Castro, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Belisario Domínguez Sección XVI, C.P. 14080, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

Clinical and epidemiological evidence supports that pregnancies carrying a male fetus are more vulnerable to infections and preterm birth, probably due to testosterone immunosuppressive properties. In human placentas, testosterone lowers the expression of CYP27B1, the vitamin D (VD)-activating enzyme, diminishing cathelicidin synthesis, a potent VD-dependent antimicrobial peptide (AMP). VD also stimulates other AMPs, including defensins. Read More

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February 2019

Uterine and fetal placental Doppler indices are associated with maternal cardiovascular function.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 01 19;220(1):96.e1-96.e8. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Centre for Fetal Care, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom; Institute for Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: The mechanism underlying fetal-placental Doppler index changes in preeclampsia and/or fetal growth restriction are unknown, although both are associated with maternal cardiovascular dysfunction.

Objective: We sought to investigate whether there was a relationship between maternal cardiac output and vascular resistance and fetoplacental Doppler findings in healthy and complicated pregnancy.

Study Design: Women with healthy pregnancies (n=62), preeclamptic pregnancies (n=13), preeclamptic pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (n=15), or fetal growth restricted pregnancies (n=17) from 24-40 weeks gestation were included. Read More

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January 2019

Comparative determination of placental perfusion by magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in a murine model of intrauterine growth restriction.

Placenta 2018 09 18;69:74-81. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

UMR Inserm U930, University of Tours, 10 bd ter Tonnellé, 37032, Tours Cedex 1, France; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Regional Center Tours, 10bd Tonnellé, 37044, Tours, France.

Introduction: Exploration of placental perfusion is essential in screening for dysfunctions impairing fetal growth. The objective of this study was to assess the potential value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for examining placental perfusion in a murine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We also studied the reproducibility of perfusion quantification by CEUS. Read More

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September 2018

Postpartum placental CT angiography in normal pregnancies and in those complicated by diabetes mellitus.

Placenta 2018 09 30;69:20-25. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Introduction: Pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM) is a central obstetric problem often complicated by fetal macrosomia and increased risk of intrapartum asphyxia. This risk might be explained by fetoplacental vascular abnormalities. This study aimed to investigate the fetoplacental vascular volume by placental CT angiography in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by type 1 DM (T1DM), diet controlled gestational DM (GDMd), and insulin treated gestational DM (GDMi). Read More

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September 2018

Nitrite mediated vasorelaxation in human chorionic plate vessels is enhanced by hypoxia and dependent on the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway.

Nitric Oxide 2018 11 1;80:82-88. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Maternal & Fetal Health Research Centre, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Adequate perfusion of the placental vasculature is essential to meet the metabolic demands of fetal growth and development. Lacking neural control, local tissue metabolites, circulating and physical factors contribute significantly to blood flow regulation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of fetoplacental vascular tone. Read More

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November 2018