180,019 results match your criteria fetal secretion


Effects of valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, on the expression of folate carriers and folate metabolism-related genes in the placenta of rats.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 Jun 7;40:100409. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics & Therapeutics, Division of Pharmasciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University. Electronic address:

Valproate (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, is known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). Exposure to VPA during pregnancy increases several fetal risks. The maintenance of folate level during pregnancy is essential for adequate fetal development, and the placenta plays a critical role in supplying nutrients to the fetus. Read More

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Seizure-mediated iron accumulation and dysregulated iron metabolism after status epilepticus and in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neuronal dysfunction due to iron accumulation in conjunction with reactive oxygen species (ROS) could represent an important, yet underappreciated, component of the epileptogenic process. However, to date, alterations in iron metabolism in the epileptogenic brain have not been addressed in detail. Iron-related neuropathology and antioxidant metabolic processes were investigated in resected brain tissue from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS), post-mortem brain tissue from patients who died after status epilepticus (SE) as well as brain tissue from the electrically induced SE rat model of TLE. Read More

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Thiopurine pharmacogenomics and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8574, Japan.

The thiopurine drugs azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are widely used for the maintenance of clinical remission in steroid-dependent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thiopurines are recommended to be continued throughout pregnancy in IBD patients, but conclusive safety data in pregnant patients remain still insufficient. On the other hand, a strong association between a genetic variant of nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X-type motif 15 (NUDT15 p. Read More

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Associations of single and multiple per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure with vitamin D biomarkers in African American women during pregnancy.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 18;202:111713. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Vitamin D has been linked to various physiological functions in pregnant women and their fetuses. Previous studies have suggested that some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may alter serum vitamin D concentrations. However, no study has investigated the relationship between PFAS and vitamin D in pregnant women. Read More

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Plasticity in Intrinsic Excitability of Hypothalamic Magnocellular Neurosecretory Neurons in Late-Pregnant and Lactating Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland are required for normal pregnancy and lactation. Oxytocin secretion is relatively low and constant under basal conditions but becomes pulsatile during birth and lactation to stimulate episodic contraction of the uterus for delivery of the fetus and milk ejection during suckling. Vasopressin secretion is maintained in pregnancy and lactation despite reduced osmolality (the principal stimulus for vasopressin secretion) to increase water retention to cope with the cardiovascular demands of pregnancy and lactation. Read More

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Prenatal stress-induced disruptions in microbial and host tryptophan metabolism and transport.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 16;414:113471. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

The aromatic amino acid tryptophan (Trp) is a precursor for multiple metabolites that can steer proper immune and neurodevelopment as well as social behavior in later life. Dysregulation in the Trp metabolic pathways and abundance of Trp or its derivatives, including indoles, kynurenine (Kyn), and particularly serotonin, has been associated with behavioral deficits and neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Previously, we have shown that prenatal stress (PNS) alters placental Trp and serotonin, and reduces Trp-metabolizing members of the maternal colonic microbiota. Read More

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Ancestry analysis indicates two different sets of essential genes in eukaryotic model species.

Funct Integr Genomics 2021 Jul 19;21(3-4):523-531. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Bioinformatics Multidisciplinary Environment - IMD, Federal University of Rio Grande Do Norte, Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima, 1722, Capim Macio, Natal, RN, 59078-400, Brazil.

Essential genes are so-called because they are crucial for organism perpetuation. Those genes are usually related to essential functions to cellular metabolism or multicellular homeostasis. Deleterious alterations on essential genes produce a spectrum of phenotypes in multicellular organisms. Read More

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PGK1 Is a Key Target for Anti-Glycolytic Therapy of Ovarian Cancer: Based on the Comprehensive Analysis of Glycolysis-Related Genes.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:682461. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Reprogramming of energy metabolism is a key hallmark of cancer, which provides a new research perspective for exploring the development of cancer. However, the most critical target of anti-glycolytic therapy for ovarian cancer remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, Oncomine, GEPIA, and HPA databases, combined with clinical specimens of different histological types of ovarian cancer were used to comprehensively evaluate the expression levels of glycolysis-related metabolite transporters and enzymes in ovarian cancer. Read More

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Fetal programming by androgen excess impairs liver lipid content and PPARg expression in adult rats.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Jul 19:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratorio de Fisiopatología Ovárica, Centro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos (CEFyBO), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, CP1121, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

It is known that prenatal hyperandrogenization induces alterations since early stages of life, contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome affecting the reproductive axis and the metabolic status, thus promoting others associated disorders, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, liver dysfunction, and even steatosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of fetal programming by androgen excess on the hepatic lipid content and metabolic mediators at adult life. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of free testosterone from days 16 to 19 of pregnancy. Read More

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Update on mechanisms of the pathophysiology of neonatal encephalopathy.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 8:101267. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Fetal Physiology and Neuroscience Group, Department of Physiology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established to significantly improve survival without disability after neonatal encephalopathy (NE). To further improve outcomes, we need to better understand the mechanisms of brain injury. The central finding, which offers the potential for neuroprotective and neurorestorative interventions, is that brain damage after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia evolves slowly over time. Read More

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Thyroid hormone system disrupting chemicals.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 7:101562. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Hessische Strasse 3-4, 10115, Berlin, Germany.

The thyroid hormone system is a main target of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) at all levels of its intricately fine-tuned feedback regulation, synthesis, distribution, metabolism and action of the 'prohormone' thyroxine and its active metabolites. Apart from classical antithyroid effects of EDC on the gland, the majority of known and suspected effects occurs at the pre-receptor control of T3 ligand availability to T3 receptors exerting ligand modulated thyroid hormone action. Tissue-, organ- and cell-specific expression and function of thyroid hormone transporters, deiodinases, metabolizing enzymes and T3-receptor forms, all integral components of the system, may mediate adverse EDC effects. Read More

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DNA Methylation and gene expression patterns are widely altered in fetal growth restriction and associated with FGR development.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2021 17;25(3):128-135. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is the failure of the fetus toachieve its genetically determined growth potential, which increasesrisks for a variety of genetic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and stroke, during the lifetime. The dysregulation of DNA methylationis known to interact with environmental fluctuations, affect gene expressions comprehensively, and be fatal to fetus development in specific cases. Therefore, we set out to find out epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations associated with FGR development. Read More

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Decrease in abundance of bacteria of the genus in gut microbiota may be related to pre-eclampsia progression in women from East China.

Food Nutr Res 2021 28;65. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, China.

Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) can result in severe damage to maternal and fetal health. It has been reported that gut microbiota (GM) had important roles in regulating the metabolic and inflammatory responses of the mother. However, investigations on GM in PE are rare. Read More

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The Effects of Maternal Interleukin-17A on Social Behavior, Cognitive Function, and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice with Altered Kynurenine Metabolites.

Int J Tryptophan Res 2021 28;14:11786469211026639. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Baby Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.

Viral infection and chronic maternal inflammation during pregnancy are correlated with a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the pathoetiology of ASD is not fully understood; moreover, the key molecules that can cross the placenta following maternal inflammation and contribute to the development of ASD have not been identified. Recently, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-17A (IL-17A) was identified as a potential mediator of these effects. Read More

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Reducing embryonic mtDNA copy number alters epigenetic profile of key hepatic lipolytic genes and causes abnormal lipid accumulation in adult mice.

FEBS J 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Adverse fetal environment, in particular a shortage or excess of nutrients, is associated with increased risks of metabolic diseases later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental origin of adult diseases remain unclear. Here, we directly tested the role of mitochondrial stress in mediating fetal programming in mice by enzymatically depleting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in zygotes. Read More

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HtrA4 is up-regulated during trophoblast syncytialization and BeWo cells fail to syncytialize without HtrA4.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 13;11(1):14363. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Implantation and Placental Development Laboratory, Centre for Reproductive Health, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia.

The outer layer of the human placenta comprises syncytiotrophoblast, which forms through fusion of cytotrophoblasts (syncytialization), and plays a critical role in maternal-fetal communication including nutrient/oxygen transportation and hormone secretion. Impairment in syncytialization inevitably affects pregnancy outcomes. High temperature requirement factor A 4 (HtrA4) is a placental-specific protease, expressed by various trophoblasts including syncytiotrophoblast, and significantly elevated in preeclampsia at disease presentation. Read More

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In utero adenine base editing corrects multi-organ pathology in a lethal lysosomal storage disease.

Nat Commun 2021 07 13;12(1):4291. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Center for Fetal Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

In utero base editing has the potential to correct disease-causing mutations before the onset of pathology. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-IH, Hurler syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) affecting multiple organs, often leading to early postnatal cardiopulmonary demise. We assessed in utero adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) delivery of an adenine base editor (ABE) targeting the Idua G→A (W392X) mutation in the MPS-IH mouse, corresponding to the common IDUA G→A (W402X) mutation in MPS-IH patients. Read More

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Non-linear and non-additive associations between the pregnancy metabolome and birthweight.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 10;156:106750. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Kravis Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Institute for Exposomic Research, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Birthweight is an indicator of fetal growth and environmental-related alterations of birthweight have been linked with multiple disorders and conditions progressing into adulthood. Although a few studies have assessed the association between birthweight and the totality of exogenous exposures and their downstream molecular responses in maternal urine and cord blood; no prior research has considered a) the maternal serum prenatal metabolome, which is enriched for hormones, and b) non-linear and synergistic associations among exposures.

Methods: We measured the maternal serum metabolome during pregnancy using an untargeted metabolomics approach and birthweight for gestational age (BWGA) z-score in 410 mother-child dyads enrolled in the PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) cohort. Read More

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Arginine, Agmatine, and Polyamines: Key Regulators of Conceptus Development in Mammals.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1332:85-105

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Arginine is a key amino acid in pregnant females as it is the precursor for nitric oxide (NO) via nitric oxide synthase and for polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) by either arginase II and ornithine decarboxylase to putrescine or via arginine decarboxylase to agmatine and agmatine to putrescine via agmatinase. Polyamines are critical for placental growth and vascularization. Polyamines stabilize DNA and mRNA for gene transcription and mRNA translation, stimulate proliferation of trophectoderm, and formation of multinucleated trophectoderm cells that give rise to giant cells in the placentae of species such as mice. Read More

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Gastrodin Exerts Cardioprotective Action via Inhibition of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type 2/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type 2 Receptor Expression in Cardiac Hypertrophy.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 21;6(26):16763-16774. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pharmacology for Natural Products, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China.

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is commonly associated with an upregulation of fetal genes, fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction, and heart failure. Previous studies have demonstrated that gastrodin (GAS) exerts cardioprotective action in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the mechanism by which GAS protects against cardiac hypertrophy is yet to be elucidated. Read More

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Gestational diabetes mellitus decreased umbilical cord blood polyunsaturated fatty acids: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Jul 2;171:102318. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Jilin University, No.1163 Xinmin Street, Changchun,Jilin Province, 130021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is important for the development of the fetal brain, and the retina. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may influence maternal and fetal fatty acid metabolism, in turn affecting fetal growth and development. In several studies, maternal and fetal PUFA metabolic differences have been reported between mothers with and without GDM, but not in other studies. Read More

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Evidence of multiple hepatic mechanisms to mobilize docosahexaenoic acid into dam plasma during pregnancy in chow-fed sprague dawley rats.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Jun 29;171:102317. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1. Electronic address:

Fetal brain growth requires considerable amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during late pregnancy that is associated with increased maternal/dam plasma levels of PC 16:0_22:6 (palmitoyl docosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine). While biosynthesis of DHA during pregnancy is upregulated, the mechanisms responsible for the incorporation of dam DHA into PC 16:0_22:6 are not understood. The present study used a discovery approach combining untargeted lipidomics of plasma and liver (n = 3/group) with semi-targeted qPCR of hepatic gene products (n = 6/group) to identify metabolic pathways related to DHA metabolism, with a hypothesis that an upregulated acyltransferase involved in PC remodeling would be identified. Read More

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Fetal Cardiac Lipid Sensing Triggers an Early and Sex-Related Metabolic Energy Switch in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Research Center, CHU Ste-Justine, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Context: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an immediate outcome of an adverse womb environment, exposing newborns to developing cardiometabolic disorders later in life. This study investigates the cardiac metabolic consequences and underlying mechanism of energy expenditure in developing fetuses under conditions of IUGR.

Methods: Using an animal model of IUGR characterized by uteroplacental vascular insufficiency, mitochondrial function, gene profiling, lipidomic analysis, and transcriptional assay were determined in fetal cardiac tissue and cardiomyocytes. Read More

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Mapping the cellular origin and early evolution of leukemia in Down syndrome.

Science 2021 07;373(6551)

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada.

Children with Down syndrome have a 150-fold increased risk of developing myeloid leukemia, but the mechanism of predisposition is unclear. Because Down syndrome leukemogenesis initiates during fetal development, we characterized the cellular and developmental context of preleukemic initiation and leukemic progression using gene editing in human disomic and trisomic fetal hematopoietic cells and xenotransplantation. GATA binding protein 1 () mutations caused transient preleukemia when introduced into trisomy 21 long-term hematopoietic stem cells, where a subset of chromosome 21 microRNAs affected predisposition to preleukemia. Read More

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Maternal omega-3 fatty acids maintained positive maternal lipids and cytokines profile, and improved pregnancy outcomes of C57BL/6 mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jul 6:108813. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, A1B 3 × 9. Electronic address:

Omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation; however, the regulation of maternal lipid metabolism and cytokines profile by n-3 PUFA during different gestation stages, and its impact on fetal sustainability is not known. We investigated the effects of maternal diet varying in n-3 PUFA prior to, and during gestation, on maternal metabolic profile, placental inflammatory cytokines, and fetal outcomes. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high, low or very low (9, 3 or 1% w/w n-3 PUFA) diet, containing n-6:n-3 PUFA of 5:1, 20:1 and 40:1, respectively for 2 weeks before mating, and throughout pregnancy. Read More

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Women with chronic hypoparathyroidism have low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcome and total number of births in chronic hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT).

Patients: The Swedish National Patient Register, The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Total Population Register were used to identify 97 women with chronic hypoPT and 1030 age-matched controls who delivered 139 and 1577 singleton infants, respectively, following diagnosis between 1997 and 2017.

Results: Women in the chronic hypoPT group had more frequent diabetes (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to women in the control group (p=0. Read More

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Gestational Low Protein Diet Modulation on miRNA Transcriptome and Its Target During Fetal and Breastfeeding Nephrogenesis.

Front Physiol 2021 22;12:648056. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Fetal Programming and Hydroelectrolyte Metabolism Laboratory, Nucleus of Medicine and Experimental Surgery, Department of Internal Medicine, FCM, Campinas, Brazil.

Background: The kidney ontogenesis is the most structurally affected by gestational protein restriction, reducing 28% of their functional units. The reduced nephron number is predictive of hypertension and cardiovascular dysfunctions that are generally observed in the adult age of most fetal programming models. We demonstrate miRNAs and predict molecular pathway changes associated with reduced reciprocal interaction between metanephros cap (CM) and ureter bud (UB) and a 28% decreased nephron stem cells in the 17 gestational days (17GD) low protein (LP) intake male fetal kidney. Read More

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Perinatal effects of persistent organic pollutants on thyroid hormone concentration in placenta and breastmilk.

Mol Aspects Med 2021 Jul 5:100988. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Molecular EXposomics, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany; Technical University of Munich, Department für Biowissenschaftliche Grundlagen, 85350, Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Thyroid hormones (TH) are known to play a critical role in regulating many biological processes including growth and development, energy homeostasis, thermogenesis, lipolysis and metabolism of cholesterol. Severe TH deficiency especially during fetal development results in cretinism, but can also lead to an imbalance in metabolism with, among others, an alteration in body weight composition. Over the past two decades, increasing evidence has shown that certain persistent organic pollutants (POP) can interfere with the endocrine system. Read More

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From native core micriobiome to milk-oriented microbiome.

Authors:
L Paglia

Eur J Paediatr Dent 2021 Jun;22(2):89

Editor in chief - European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry.

The human microbiome is the full set of microorganisms (microbiota) present on and in our body. Its importance is such that the human being has been defined as a holobiont, that is, a superorganism made up of human eukaryotic cells and microbial cells. A balanced microbiota (eubiosis) is a prerequisite for health and well-being; on the contrary, an altered microbiota (dysbiosis) is the cause of pathological conditions. Read More

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The tissue origin of human mesenchymal stem cells dictates their therapeutic efficacy on glucose and lipid metabolic disorders in type II diabetic mice.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 7;12(1):385. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

SIAT-GHMSCB Biomedical Laboratory for Major Diseases, Dongguan Enlife Stem Cell Biotechnology Institute, Dongguan Avenue 430, Dongguan, Guangdong, China.

Background: The therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of different tissue origins on metabolic disorders can be varied in many ways but remains poorly defined. Here we report a comprehensive comparison of human MSCs derived from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (UC-MSCs), dental pulp (PU-MSCs), and adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) on the treatment of glucose and lipid metabolic disorders in type II diabetic mice.

Methods: Fourteen-to-fifteen-week-old male C57BL/6 db/db mice were intravenously administered with human UC-MSCs, PU-MSCs, and AD-MSCs at various doses or vehicle control once every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. Read More

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