1,334 results match your criteria fetal radial

Maternal sevoflurane exposure induces temporary defects in interkinetic nuclear migration of radial glial progenitors in the fetal cerebral cortex through the Notch signalling pathway.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 6:e13042. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anesthesia, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The effects of general anaesthetics on fetal brain development remain elusive. Radial glial progenitors (RGPs) generate the majority of neurons in developing brains. Here, we evaluated the acute alterations in RGPs after maternal sevoflurane exposure. Read More

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A Machine Learning Approach to Monitor the Emergence of Late Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

Front Artif Intell 2021 8;4:622616. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Late intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal pathological condition characterized by chronic hypoxia secondary to placental insufficiency, resulting in an abnormal rate of fetal growth. This pathology has been associated with increased fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In standard clinical practice, late IUGR diagnosis can only be suspected in the third trimester and ultimately confirmed at birth. Read More

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Penguin Suit and Fetal Position Finite Element Model to Prevent Low Back Pain in Spaceflight.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 May;92(5):312-318

This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects of different interventions on astronauts lumbar intervertebral discs in a microgravity environment during spaceflight and in a gravity environment when the astronaut returns. A finite element model of the L4L5 lumbar segment was developed with eight loading schemes representing different interventions. The loading schemes included no intervention, wearing a penguin suit, sleeping in a fetal position, wearing a penguin suit combined with sleeping in the fetal position, reclining for 4 or 16 h/d, and maintaining upright posture for 4 or 16 h/d. Read More

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Biomechanical trade-offs in the pelvic floor constrain the evolution of the human birth canal.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria;

Compared with most other primates, humans are characterized by a tight fit between the maternal birth canal and the fetal head, leading to a relatively high risk of neonatal and maternal mortality and morbidities. Obstetric selection is thought to favor a spacious birth canal, whereas the source for opposing selection is frequently assumed to relate to bipedal locomotion. Another, yet underinvestigated, hypothesis is that a more expansive birth canal suspends the soft tissue of the pelvic floor across a larger area, which is disadvantageous for continence and support of the weight of the inner organs and fetus. Read More

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Intercellular bridges coordinate the transition from pluripotency to meiosis in mouse fetal oocytes.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 7;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Center for Reproductive Sciences, Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Meiosis is critical to generating oocytes and ensuring female fertility; however, the mechanisms regulating the switch from mitotic primordial germ cells to meiotic germ cells are poorly understood. Here, we implicate intercellular bridges (ICBs) in this state transition. We used three-dimensional in toto imaging to map meiotic initiation in the mouse fetal ovary and revealed a radial geometry of this transition that precedes the established anterior-posterior wave. Read More

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Fundamentals of the Development of Connectivity in the Human Fetal Brain in Late Gestation: From 24 Weeks Gestational Age to Term.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Apr;80(5):393-414

From the Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Scientific Centre of Excellence for Basic, Clinical and Translational Neuroscience, Zagreb, Croatia.

During the second half of gestation, the human cerebrum undergoes pivotal histogenetic events that underlie functional connectivity. These include the growth, guidance, selection of axonal pathways, and their first engagement in neuronal networks. Here, we characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of cerebral connectivity in extremely preterm (EPT), very preterm (VPT), preterm and term babies, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological data. Read More

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Neonatal Respiratory Distress and Airway Emergency: Report of Two Cases.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;8(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Pediatric Otolaryngology Head Neck Surgery, Children Hospital "ASST Spedali Civili", 25123 Brescia, Italy.

We discuss two cases of congenital airway malformations seen in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim is to report extremely rare events characterized by immediate respiratory distress after delivery and the impossibility to ventilate and intubate the airway. The first case is a male twin born at 34 weeks by emergency caesarean section. Read More

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Deoxyribonuclease activity negative correlates with extracellular DNA in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies in the third trimester.

J Perinat Med 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Objectives: It is not clear, which factors affect extracellular DNA (ecDNA) concentrations in healthy women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies, although deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are hypothesized to be responsible for the cleavage of plasma ecDNA. The aim of this study was to analyze potential determinants of total ecDNA including plasma DNase activity.

Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 48 healthy women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies in the third trimester (gestation week 37). Read More

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Neuroimaging of Supraventricular Frontal White Matter in Children with Familial Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Due to Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Neurotox Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Jane & Terry Semel Instutute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in patients with (ADHD+PAE) and without (ADHD-PAE) prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Many patients diagnosed with idiopathic ADHD actually have covert PAE, a treatment-relevant distinction. To improve differential diagnosis, we sought to identify brain differences between ADHD+PAE and ADHD-PAE using neurobehavioral, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging metrics that had shown promise in past research. Read More

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Integrated RNA Sequencing Reveals Epigenetic Impacts of Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Cerebral Organoids.

Dev Neurosci 2020 3;42(5-6):195-207. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatrics & Human Development, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA,

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests early in childhood. While genetic variants increase risk for ASD, a growing body of literature has established that in utero chemical exposures also contribute to ASD risk. These chemicals include air-based pollutants like diesel particulate matter (DPM). Read More

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Something old, something new: digital quantification of uterine vascular remodelling and trophoblast plugging in historical collections provides new insight into adaptation of the utero-placental circulation.

Hum Reprod 2021 Feb;36(3):571-586

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Study Question: What is the physiological extent of vascular remodelling in and trophoblast plugging of the uterine circulation across the first half of pregnancy?

Summary Answer: All levels of the uterine vascular tree (arcuate, radial and spiral arteries (SAs)) dilate ∼2.6- to 4.3-fold between 6 and 20 weeks of gestation, with significant aggregates of trophoblasts persisting in the decidual and myometrial parts of SAs beyond the first trimester. Read More

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February 2021

Understanding the uterine artery Doppler waveform and its relationship to spiral artery remodelling.

Placenta 2021 Feb 16;105:78-84. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Centre for Trophoblast Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Analysis of the uterine artery (UtA) Doppler waveform is frequently used in high-risk pregnancies to assess the likelihood of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Whilst abnormal UtA waveforms at 18-20 weeks are associated with adverse outcomes, the underlying cause of these waveform changes remains unknown. Current evidence suggests the long-held dogma that the UtA waveform is merely a reflection of trophoblast-induced spiral artery remodelling is incorrect. Read More

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February 2021

Treadmill exercise in obese maternal rats during pregnancy improves spatial memory through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in the hippocampus of rat pups.

J Exerc Rehabil 2020 Dec 28;16(6):483-488. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Sport & Health Care, College of Art & Culture, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea.

Maternal nutrition is necessary for the growth of the fetus, and excessive intake of nutrients interferes with brain development in offspring. In the current study, the effect of treadmill running during pregnancy in obese maternal rats on spatial learning memory and spatial working memory in rat pups was investigated. Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) was also identified in rat pups. Read More

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December 2020

The ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel: a fetal study.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa, South Africa.

The ulnar nerve (UN), a terminal branch of the medial cord of the brachial plexus, is located posteromedial to brachial artery coursing along medially in the arm from the anterior to the posterior compartment through the arcade of Struthers. It passes posterior to medial epicondyle of humerus and enters the cubital tunnel. Thereafter, exiting through the distal part of the cubital fossa to enter the medial side of the forearm between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle underneath Osborne's ligament to enter the anterior compartment of the forearm. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypoplasia in Various Congenital Anomalies with a Comparison of Two Conventional Methods of Assessment: Radial Alveolar Count (RAC) and Lung Weight: Body Weight Ratio (LBW).

Turk Patoloji Derg 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pathology, Indian Institute of Medical Science and Research, Warudi, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA.

Objective: Pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the perinatal period and causes death in newborn infants. It is commonly associated with a number of malformation syndromes. Various parameters are used to estimate pulmonary hypoplasia at fetal autopsy including Lung Weight Body Weight ratio (LW:BW), Radial Alveolar Count (RAC) and DNA estimation. Read More

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January 2021

Histopathology of recurrent Steel syndrome in fetuses caused by novel variants of COL27A1 gene.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Pathology Department, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain.

Steel syndrome (STLS) encompasses characteristic facies, dwarfness, irreducible bilateral hip and radial head dislocation, and carpal bone coalition due to COL27A1 mutations. Two consecutive pregnancies in a non-consanguineous couple were terminated because of severe fetal anomalies. Complete autopsies with microscopic exam were performed on both fetuses. Read More

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January 2021

Embryonic Microglia Interact with Hypothalamic Radial Glia during Development and Upregulate the TAM Receptors MERTK and AXL following an Insult.

Cell Rep 2021 Jan;34(1):108587

Department of Medical Genetics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Despite a growing appreciation for microglial influences on the developing brain, the responsiveness of microglia to insults during gestation remains less well characterized, especially in the embryo when microglia themselves are still maturing. Here, we asked if fetal microglia could coordinate an innate immune response to an exogenous insult. Using time-lapse imaging, we showed that hypothalamic microglia actively surveyed their environment by near-constant "touching" of radial glia projections. Read More

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January 2021

Comparison of the colon with T1 breath-hold vs T1 free-breathing-A retrospective fetal MRI study.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jan 1;134:109457. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objectives: Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an increasingly important role in the prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal abnormalities. During gestation, the bowel develops T1-weighted hyperintensity due to meconium formation. Currently used T1-weighted sequences are performed in maternal breath-hold (BH) technique, which may take up to 20 s. Read More

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January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):941-944

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia. Read More

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November 2020

DTI parameters in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after total body hypothermia.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Nov 17:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Medical Physics Department, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background And Purpose: MR imaging provides means for discriminating different patterns of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and may distinguish most severe cases from less severe but is unable to predict long-term outcome. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers information for a more complete characterization of HIE. The purpose of this study is to compare the modifications of DTI parameters in newborns one week and six months following total-body cooling to healthy controls. Read More

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November 2020

Transcriptional priming as a conserved mechanism of lineage diversification in the developing mouse and human neocortex.

Sci Adv 2020 Nov 6;6(45). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

How the rich variety of neurons in the nervous system arises from neural stem cells is not well understood. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing and in vivo confirmation, we uncover previously unrecognized neural stem and progenitor cell diversity within the fetal mouse and human neocortex, including multiple types of radial glia and intermediate progenitors. We also observed that transcriptional priming underlies the diversification of a subset of ventricular radial glial cells in both species; genetic fate mapping confirms that the primed radial glial cells generate specific types of basal progenitors and neurons. Read More

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November 2020

Assessment of radial glia in the frontal lobe of fetuses with Down syndrome.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 08 20;8(1):141. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Centre for the Developing Brain, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Down syndrome (DS) occurs with triplication of human chromosome 21 and is associated with deviations in cortical development evidenced by simplified gyral appearance and reduced cortical surface area. Radial glia are neuronal and glial progenitors that also create a scaffolding structure essential for migrating neurons to reach cortical targets and therefore play a critical role in cortical development. The aim of this study was to characterise radial glial expression pattern and morphology in the frontal lobe of the developing human fetal brain with DS and age-matched controls. Read More

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Fetal Flow Quantification in Great Vessels Using Motion-Corrected Radial Phase Contrast MRI: Comparison With Cartesian.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 02 20;53(2):540-551. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Phase contrast MRI in the great vessels is a potential clinical tool for managing fetal pathologies. One challenge is the uncontrollable fetal motion, potentially corrupting flow quantifications.

Purpose: To demonstrate improvements in fetal blood flow quantification in great vessels using retrospectively motion-corrected golden-angle radial phase contrast MRI relative to Cartesian phase contrast MRI. Read More

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February 2021

Ultrasound-histopathologic features of the utero-placental interface in placenta accreta spectrum.

Placenta 2020 08 13;97:58-64. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

The Centre for Trophoblast Research (CTR), Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between utero-placental vascular changes on ultrasound imaging and histopathologic findings according to the grade of villous invasion in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS).

Methods: The ultrasound features of 31 patients with singleton pregnancies diagnosed prenatally with low-lying/placenta previa accreta were compared with histopathology findings following caesarean hysterectomy (n = 25) or partial myometrial resection (n = 6). The number and degree of transformation of arteries within the superficial layer of myometrium were recorded. Read More

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Radial shock waves prevent growth retardation caused by the clinically used drug vismodegib in ex vivo cultured bones.

Sci Rep 2020 08 7;10(1):13400. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Division of Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Solna, Sweden.

In childhood medulloblastoma patients, the hedgehog antagonist vismodegib is an effective anti-cancer treatment but unfortunately induces irreversible growth arrests and growth impairment limiting its use in skeletally immature patients. We hypothesized that radial shock wave treatment (rSWT) may protect drug-induced growth impairment owing to its osteogenic effects. Fetal rat metatarsal bones were exposed to vismodegib (day 0-5; 100 nM) and/or rSWT (single session); other bones from day 1 were continuously exposed to a Gli1 antagonist (GANT61; 10 µM) and/or rSWT (single session). Read More

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Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuron Development at the Single Cell Level: and in Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 25;8:463. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra. Current treatment options for PD are symptomatic and typically involve the replacement of DA neurotransmission by DA drugs, which relieve the patients of some of their motor symptoms. However, by the time of diagnosis, patients have already lost about 70% of their substantia nigra DA neurons and these drugs offer only temporary relief. Read More

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Identification of neuronal structures and pathways corresponding to clinical functioning in galactosemia.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 11 3;43(6):1205-1218. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Classic galactosemia (OMIM# 230400) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency. Newborn screening and prompt treatment with a galactose-free diet prevent the severe consequences of galactosemia, but clinical outcomes remain suboptimal. Five men and five women with classic galactosemia (mean age = 27. Read More

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November 2020

Genetic diagnoses and associated anomalies in fetuses prenatally diagnosed with esophageal atresia.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 08 23;182(8):1890-1895. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital anomaly occurring in 2.3 per 10,000 live births. Due to advances in prenatal imaging, EA is more readily diagnosed, but data on the associated genetic diagnoses, other anomalies, and postnatal outcome for fetuses diagnosed prenatally with EA are scarce. Read More

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Human-specific increases size and folding of primate neocortex in the fetal marmoset.

Science 2020 07 18;369(6503):546-550. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

The neocortex has expanded during mammalian evolution. Overexpression studies in developing mouse and ferret neocortex have implicated the human-specific gene in neocortical expansion, but the relevance for primate evolution has been unclear. Here, we provide functional evidence that causes expansion of the primate neocortex. Read More

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Ligase IV syndrome can present with microcephaly and radial ray anomalies similar to Fanconi anaemia plus fatal kidney malformations.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Sep 12;63(9):103974. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Ligase IV (LIG4) syndrome is a rare disorder of DNA damage repair caused by biallelic, pathogenic variants in LIG4. This is a phenotypically heterogeneous condition with clinical presentation varying from lymphoreticular malignancies in developmentally normal individuals to significant microcephaly, primordial dwarfism, radiation hypersensitivity, severe combined immunodeficiency and early mortality. Renal defects have only rarely been described as part of the ligase IV disease spectrum. Read More

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September 2020