46,580 results match your criteria fetal brains


The effect of xenon on fetal neurodevelopment following maternal sevoflurane anesthesia and laparotomy in rabbits.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 May 4:106994. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: There is concern that maternal anesthesia during pregnancy impairs brain development of the human fetus. Xenon is neuroprotective in pre-clinical models of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in neonates. It is not known if xenon also protects the developing fetal brain when administered in addition to maternal sevoflurane-anesthesia during pregnancy. Read More

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Antenatal low-intensity pulsed ultrasound reduces neurobehavioral deficits and brain injury following dexamethasone-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

Brain Pathol 2021 May 7:e12968. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and IUGR survivors are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental deficits. No effective interventions are currently available to improve the structure and function of the IUGR brain before birth. This study investigated the protective effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes and brain injury using a rat model of IUGR induced by maternal exposure to dexamethasone (DEX). Read More

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Chromatin Imbalance as the Vertex Between Fetal Valproate Syndrome and Chromatinopathies.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:654467. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Prenatal exposure to valproate (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, has been associated with fetal valproate spectrum disorders (FVSD), a clinical condition including congenital malformations, developmental delay, intellectual disability as well as autism spectrum disorder, together with a distinctive facial appearance. VPA is a known inhibitor of histone deacetylase which regulates the chromatin state. Interestingly, perturbations of this epigenetic balance are associated with chromatinopathies, a heterogeneous group of Mendelian disorders arising from mutations in components of the epigenetic machinery. Read More

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Impairment of Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in Patients With Severe and Milder Forms of Sickle Cell Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:645205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Location AMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), cerebral blood flow (CBF) is elevated to counteract anemia and maintain oxygen supply to the brain. This may exhaust the vasodilating capacity of the vessels, possibly increasing the risk of silent cerebral infarctions (SCI). To further investigate cerebrovascular hemodynamics in SCD patients, we assessed CBF, arterial transit time (ATT), cerebrovascular reactivity of CBF and ATT (CVR and CVR ) and oxygen delivery in patients with different forms of SCD and matched healthy controls. Read More

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Maternal sevoflurane exposure induces temporary defects in interkinetic nuclear migration of radial glial progenitors in the fetal cerebral cortex through the Notch signalling pathway.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 6:e13042. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anesthesia, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The effects of general anaesthetics on fetal brain development remain elusive. Radial glial progenitors (RGPs) generate the majority of neurons in developing brains. Here, we evaluated the acute alterations in RGPs after maternal sevoflurane exposure. Read More

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Association of Total Sarnat Score with brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Perinatal Neuroscience, Brain Sciences Department, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, UK.

We examined the association of Total Sarnat Score (TSS) with brain injury on neonatal magnetic resonance (MR) and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO) (death or moderate or severe disability) at 2 years of age in 145 infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. TSS was associated with basal ganglia/thalamic injury on conventional MR (p=0.03) and thalamic N-acetyl aspartate on MR spectroscopy (R=0. Read More

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Protocol for assessing if behavioural functioning of infants born <29 weeks' gestation is improved by omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 May 5;11(5):e044740. Epub 2021 May 5.

Discipline of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: During the last trimester of pregnancy, the fetal brain undergoes a rapid growth spurt and accumulates essential nutrients including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This takes place ex-utero for infants born <29 weeks' gestation, without the in-utero provisions of DHA. Infants born <29 weeks' are more likely to experience behavioural and emotional difficulties than their term-born counterparts. Read More

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Data Quality Assessment for Super-Resolution Fetal Brain MR Imaging: A Retrospective 1.5 T Study.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Background: Super-resolution is a promising technique to create isotropic image volumes from stacks of two-dimensional (2D) motion-corrupted images in fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Purpose: To determine an acquisition quality metric and correlate that metric with radiologist perception of three-dimensional (3D) image quality.

Study Type: Retrospective. Read More

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Cerebral Palsy and Criteria Implicating Intrapartum Hypoxia in Neonatal Encephalopathy - An Obstetric Perspective for the South African Setting.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 31;111(3b):280-288. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of KwaZulu-Natal College of Health Sciences.

The science surrounding cerebral palsy indicates  that it is a complex medical condition with multiple contributing variables and factors, and causal pathways are often extremely difficult to delineate. The pathophysiological processes are often juxtaposed on antenatal factors, genetics, toxins, fetal priming, failure of neuroscientific autoregulatory mechanisms, abnormal biochemistry and abnormal metabolic pathways. Placing this primed compromised compensated brain through the stresses of an intrapartum process could be the final straw in the pathway  to brain injury and later CP. Read More

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Prenatal diagnosis of rhombencephalosynapsis: neuroimaging features and severity of vermian anomaly.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Fetal Neurology Multidisciplinary Group, Division of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: To describe the prenatal neuroimaging spectrum of rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) and the criteria for the classification according to the severity of the vermian anomaly. Methods In this multicenter retrospective study of fetuses with a diagnosis of RES, the medical records, ultrasound and brain MR images were comprehensively evaluated for the severity of the vermian anomaly and the presence of associated brain findings. RES was classified based on the criteria suggested by Ishak et al. Read More

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MicroRNA-34a activation in tuberous sclerosis complex during early brain development may lead to impaired corticogenesis.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of (Neuro) Pathology, UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with dysregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling pathway. Neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently present in TSC, are linked to cortical tubers in the brain. We previously reported microRNA-34a (miR-34a) among the most up-regulated miRs in tubers. Read More

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CE-123, a novel dopamine transporter inhibitor, attenuates locomotor hyperactivity and improves cognitive functions in rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 30:113326. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Perinatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), usually first diagnosed in childhood, that are characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and learning and memory disability, among others. To test the hypothesis that dopamine signaling is one of the main factors underlying these impairments, a new atypical dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, CE-123 (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) was assessed for its potential to overcome the ethanol-induced behavioral effects in a rat model of FASD. In the present study, neonatal rats were exposed to alcohol intubations across the neonatal period (postnatal day (PND)4-9, the third trimester equivalent of human gestation) and, after weaning, the animals (male rats) were assigned randomly to three groups. Read More

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Embryonic ethanol exposure on zebrafish early development.

Brain Behav 2021 May 3:e02062. Epub 2021 May 3.

Physiology and Behavior Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Introduction: Embryonic exposure to ethanol leads to a condition of physical, behavioral, and cognitive deficiencies named fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The most severe variations are in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is easier to diagnose and not studied in animal models. On the other side, the pFAS (partial fetal alcohol syndrome) includes cases of alcohol-related congenital disabilities and neurodevelopmental disorder with an inconclusive diagnosis. Read More

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Hypoxia: A teratogen underlying a range of congenital disruptions, dysplasias, and malformations.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.

In this review, we explore evidence that hypoxia in the developing human fetus can lead not only to the more commonly accepted disruptive-type defects, but also patterns of anomalies that suggest that hypoxia can exert a more classic teratogenic effect, using the brain as one example. We review neuropathology in the context of intrauterine hypoxia, particularly as it relates to carbon monoxide poisoning, in utero strokes, and homozygous alpha-thalassemia. In general, the associated brain injuries resemble those seen with other causes of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Read More

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Tertiary cystic white matter injury as a potential phenomenon after hypoxia-ischaemia in preterm f sheep.

Brain Commun 2021 9;3(2):fcab024. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

The Fetal Physiology and Neuroscience Group, Department of Physiology, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

White matter injury, including both diffuse and cystic elements, remains highly associated with neurodevelopmental disability and cerebral palsy in preterm infants, yet its pathogenesis and evolution are still poorly understood and there is no established treatment. We examined the long-term evolution of white matter injury in chronically instrumented preterm fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) after 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion or sham occlusion. Read More

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The Effect of Prenatal Food Restriction on Brain Proteome in Appropriately Grown and Growth Restricted Male Wistar Rats.

Front Neurosci 2021 14;15:665354. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been associated with a higher risk of developing adverse perinatal outcomes and distinct neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal food restriction on the brain proteome in both FGR and appropriately grown rats and to identify potential pathways connecting maternal malnutrition with altered brain development.

Methods: Ten time-dated pregnant Wistar rats were housed individually at their 12th day of gestation. Read More

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Cortical spectral matching and shape and volume analysis of the fetal brain pre- and post-fetal surgery for spina bifida: a retrospective study.

Neuroradiology 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences (BMEIS), King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose: A retrospective study was performed to study the effect of fetal surgery on brain development measured by MRI in fetuses with myelomeningocele (MMC).

Methods: MRI scans of 12 MMC fetuses before and after surgery were compared to 24 age-matched controls without central nervous system abnormalities. An automated super-resolution reconstruction technique generated isotropic brain volumes to mitigate 2D MRI fetal motion artefact. Read More

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Fetal hypoxia and apoptosis following maternal porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 1;17(1):182. Epub 2021 May 1.

Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, 52 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Background: Mechanisms of fetal death following maternal PRRSV2 infection remain uncharacterized, although hypoxia from umbilical cord lesions and/or placental detachment due to apoptosis are hypothesized. We performed two experiments examining hypoxia and apoptosis in PRRSV-infected and non-infected, third-trimester fetuses to elucidate possible associations with fetal death. Fetuses were selected based on four phenotypic infection groups: fetuses from non-challenged control gilts (CTRL); low viral load fetuses (LVL; Exp 1) or uninfected fetuses (UNINF; Exp 2) from inoculated gilts; viable high viral load fetuses (HVL-VIA); and HVL meconium-stained fetuses (HVL-MEC). Read More

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Operative list of genes associated with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders based on database review.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Apr 28:103623. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, UMR3571 CNRS, Université de Paris, F-75015, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) has made tremendous progress during the last few decades with the identification of more than 1500 genes associated with conditions such as intellectual disability and autism. The functional roles of these genes are currently studied to uncover the biological mechanisms influencing the clinical outcome of the mutation carriers. To integrate the data, several databases and curated gene lists have been generated. Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes a leaky blood-brain barrier and neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum regions of infected mice offspring.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kwazulu Natal, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

The maternal system's exposure to pathogens influences fetal brain development through the influx of maternal cytokines and activation of the fetal immune status to a persistent inflammatory state characterised by glia cell activation. Neuroinflammation influences the blood-brain barrier's (BBB) permeability allowing peripheral immune cell trafficking into the brain. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a pathogen that causes Tuberculosis (TB), a global pandemic responsible for health and economic burdens. Read More

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CB antagonism increases excitatory synaptogenesis in a cortical spheroid model of fetal brain development.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9356. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27834, USA.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a complex role in the development of neural circuitry during fetal brain development. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB) controls synaptic strength at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses and thus contributes to the balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling. Imbalances in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synapses have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated central nervous system development including autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Read More

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Plasma lipidome profiling of newborns with antenatal exposure to Zika virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 30;15(4):e0009388. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The 2015-2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil was remarkably linked to the incidence of microcephaly and other deleterious clinical manifestations, including eye abnormalities, in newborns. It is known that ZIKV targets the placenta, triggering an inflammatory profile that may cause placental insufficiency. Transplacental lipid transport is delicately regulated during pregnancy and deficiency on the delivery of lipids such as arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids may lead to deficits in both brain and retina during fetal development. Read More

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Craniopagus twin: pre- and post-natal 3-dimensional virtual and physical models and virtual navigation created with free or open source software-an option for low-resource centers.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Obstetrics, Paulista School of Medicine - Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), Rua Belchior de Azevedo, 156 apto. 111 Torre Vitoria, CEP, São Paulo, SP, 05089-030, Brazil.

Background: Craniopagus twins represent a rare and complex congenital malformation characterized by conjoined twins fused at the cranium. Craniopagus is challenging for patients' families and surgeons, and accurate confirmation of the extent of cranial fusion is a complex process. Most information regarding the surgical anatomy of this rare condition is obtained through analysis of ultrasonographic, magnetic resonance, or computed tomographic images. Read More

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Grumpy face during adult sleep: A clue to negative emotion during sleep?

J Sleep Res 2021 Apr 29:e13369. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Sleep Disorder Unit, APHP, Pitie-Salpetriere University Hospital, Paris, France.

Negative facial expressions and frowns have been studied (albeit more rarely than smiles) in fetus' and neonate' sleep, but they have not been investigated during adult sleep. Video polysomnography (including corrugator muscle electromyography and face-focussed video) was used to study negative facial expressions in sleeping adults, including healthy subjects and patients with/out parasomnia. Frowns were observed during sleep in 89/91 (97. Read More

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Second-Trimester Placental and Thyroid Hormones Are Associated With Cognitive Development From Ages 1 to 3 Years.

J Endocr Soc 2021 May 23;5(5):bvab027. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Adequate maternal thyroid hormone (TH) is necessary for fetal brain development. The role of placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in ensuring the production of TH is less well understood. The objective of the study was to evaluate 1) associations of placental hCG and its subunits, and maternal TH in the second trimester, and 2) the single and joint effects of TH and placental hormones on cognitive development and communication at ages 1 and 3 years. Read More

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Case Report: Congenital Arthrogryposis and Unilateral Absences of Distal Arm in Congenital Zika Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 13;8:499016. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Yucatan, Mexico.

Zika virus was recognized as a teratogen in 2015, when prenatal Zika infection was associated with neonatal microcephaly. The transmission, virulence, tropism, and consequences of Zika virus infection during pregnancy are currently studied. Decreased neural progenitor cells, arrest in neuronal migration and/or disruption of the maturation process of the fetus central nervous system have been associated. Read More

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Rapamycin Improves Spatial Learning Deficits, Vulnerability to Alcohol Addiction and Altered Expression of the GluN2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor in Adult Rats Exposed to Ethanol during the Neonatal Period.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University, Chodzki 4A, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Ethanol exposure during pregnancy alters the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the fetal brain. Hence, in adult rats exposed to ethanol during the neonatal period, we investigated the influence of rapamycin, an mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, on deficits in spatial memory and reversal learning in the Barnes maze task, as well as the ethanol-induced rewarding effects (1.0 or 1. Read More

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Don't Forget Rare Causes of Postpartum Headache! Cases Report and Literature Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 13;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Section of Legal Medicine, S. Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Headache is a common finding in the postpartum period, caused by a spectrum of different conditions. Most headaches in the postpartum period are self-limiting and benign in etiology, but there are some potentially serious causes to be considered. We disclose two cases of postpartum headache, initially considered as post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), that evolved into a harmful condition and showed that an expanded differential diagnosis for headache in the postpartum is mandatory, requiring a high level of attention from health professionals. Read More

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Untargeted Metabolomics Insights into Newborns with Congenital Zika Infection.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 13;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barao de Jeremoabo, 147, Salvador, BA 40170-115, Brazil.

Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, causes severe neurological clinical complications and has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fetal abnormalities known collectively as congenital Zika syndrome, and microcephaly. Studies have shown that ZIKV infection can alter cellular metabolism, directly affecting neural development. Brain growth requires controlled cellular metabolism, which is essential for cell proliferation and maturation. Read More

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-Induced Maternal Immune Activation Promotes Autism-Like Phenotype in Infected Mice Offspring.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 23;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa.

The maternal system's exposure to pathogens during pregnancy influences fetal brain development causing a persistent inflammation characterized by elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in offspring. () is a global pathogen that causes tuberculosis, a pandemic responsible for health and economic burdens. Although it is known that maternal infections increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is not known whether infection is sufficient to induce ASD associated behaviors, immune dysregulation and altered expression of synaptic regulatory genes. Read More

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