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The Relationship between Psychoacoustic and Electrophysiological Assessments of Temporal Resolution.

J Am Acad Audiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background:  Temporal resolution is essential to speech acoustic perception. However, it may alter in individuals with auditory disorders, impairing the development of spoken and written language. The envelope of speech signals contains amplitude modulation (AM) that has critical information. Read More

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Weaker McGurk Effect for Rubin's Vase-Type Speech in People With High Autistic Traits.

Multisens Res 2021 Apr 16:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Psychology, Chukyo University, 101-2 Yagoto Honmachi, Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi, 466-8666, Japan.

While visual information from facial speech modulates auditory speech perception, it is less influential on audiovisual speech perception among autistic individuals than among typically developed individuals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between autistic traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; AQ) and the influence of visual speech on the recognition of Rubin's vase-type speech stimuli with degraded facial speech information. Participants were 31 university students (13 males and 18 females; mean age: 19. Read More

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Lower extremity muscle contributions to ACL loading during a stop-jump task.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 9;121:110426. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Landing is considered a high-risk movement, especially landings from a stop-jump task, as they are often associated with lower extremity injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL). Females demonstrate lower extremity landing mechanics that often place them at a larger risk of injury compared to their male counterparts. While efforts have been made to understand lower extremity mechanics during stop-jump landings, little is known regarding the musculature function during these tasks and how they may influence ACL loading. Read More

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Validity of telephone calls to assess percentage of syllables stuttered with adolescents in clinical research.

J Commun Disord 2021 Apr 10;91:106103. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Australian Stuttering Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Purpose: Karimi, O'Brian, Onslow, and Jones (2013) reported, for adults, no systematic differences between percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) scores during a 12-hour day and 10-minute phone calls. The present study replicated that finding with adolescents, using valid methods for the age group. The present study also extended that initial report by determining whether the gender of the caller influenced %SS scores. Read More

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CT-based structural analyses of vertebral fractures with polymeric augmentation: A study of cadaveric three-level spine segments.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;133:104395. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Pathologic vertebral fractures due to metastasis can occur under normal physiologic activities, leading to pain and neurologic deficit. Prophylactic vertebroplasty is a technique used to augment vertebral strength and reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, no technique is available to objectively assess vertebral fracture risk in metastatically-involved vertebral bodies. Read More

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The co-occurrence of autistic spectrum disorder and schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 11;138:280-283. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Shalvata Mental Health Center, Affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Department of Behavioral Sciences, Ariel University, Israel. Electronic address:

Although the co-occurrence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia have been previously reported, the scope and magnitude of this comorbidity across large samples have not been sufficiently established. This study was aimed to assess the co-occurrence between schizophrenia and ASD in a large dataset, and to examine its predominance across different age and sex groups. Schizophrenia patients and age and sex frequency controls (n = 49,334) were assessed for the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. Read More

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Detection of age related differences in CBF with PCASL using 2 post label delays.

Clin Imaging 2021 Apr 12;79:36-42. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Magnetic Resonance, Shanxi Cardiovascular Hospital, Taiyuan, China.

Background: The brain is reliant on an abundant and uninterrupted CBF for normal neural function because it is an organ with high metabolic activity and limited ability to store energy.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare age-related variations in CBF measured with PCASL.

Methods: This prospective study included healthy volunteers at the Radiology Department of Shanxi Cardiovascular Hospital between October 2018 and July 2019. Read More

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Quality of life and mental health of patients with vascular malformations in a single specialist center in the United Kingdom.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; Department of Surgical Biotechnology, Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University College London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: Patients with vascular malformations suffer from chronic debilitating symptoms that have been shown to contribute negatively to their quality of life (QoL) and mental health. Despite this, the current literature evaluating the QoL and mental health of patients with vascular malformations remains scarce. The aim was to evaluate the QoL and mental health of patients with vascular malformations. Read More

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Hypospadias in ring X syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Apr 16:104225. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Genetic and Metabolic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, Alfaisal University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

Ring X is a chromosomal anomaly mainly seen in females with turner syndrome and usually present in mosaic form with 45,X cells (45,X/46,X,r(X)) because of their mitotic instability. In males it is an extremely rare finding because large nullisomy for X chromosome material is likely not compatible with survival. Only two cases of male with ring chromosome X were previously reported. Read More

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Stress effects on the oddball P300 and N2 in males and females.

Biol Psychol 2021 Apr 16:108095. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, University of Trier, Germany.

We examined the effect of psychosocial stress on electrophysiological markers of novelty and deviance processing, the N2 and P300, as well as sex differences therein. Participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control procedure, followed by an oddball paradigm. A physiological stress response was induced in both sexes in the TSST condition. Read More

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Anxiety-like behavior in female mice is modulated by STAT3 signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre de Recherche du CHUM. Department of; Nutrition; Montreal Diabetes Research Center; Center for Studies in Behavioural Neurobiology (Concordia University). Electronic address:

The central signalling actions of cytokines are mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3). STAT3 activation plays a pivotal role in the behavioral responses to the adiposity hormone leptin, including in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons where it mediates the influence of leptin to diminish physical activity and running reward in male mice. Leptin also has anxiolytic effects which have been tied to the mesolimbic DA system. Read More

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What Are the Effects of Methylprednisolone Injection Into the Masseter and Gluteal Muscle on Pain, Rdema and Trismus After Impacted Lower Third Molar Surgery? A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Dentistry Student, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Methylprednisolone is widely administered after impacted third molar surgery. This study compared the effect of methylprednisolone injection into the masseter and gluteal muscle on pain, edema, and trismus after impacted lower third molar surgery.

Methods: This was a single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Read More

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The clinical applications of five-alpha reductase inhibitors.

Authors:
Kevin R Loughlin

Can J Urol 2021 Apr;28(2):10584-10588

Harvard Medical School, Vascular Biology Laboratory, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

INTRODUCTION Five-alpha reductase (5-AR) deficiency was first identified by Imperato-McGinley and Walsh as the cause of pseudohermaphroditism in two separate studies. The discoveries led to the development of finasteride (inhibitor of type 2 isoenzyme of 5-AR) and dutasteride (inhibitor of type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5-AR. Both drugs have been proven effective for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and improve voiding symptoms, reduce the risk of urinary retention and the need for prostate surgery. Read More

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Gender Disparity in Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis in the United States: A Retrospective Analysis of the 2005-2017 MarketScan Commercial Claims Database.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Penn State University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To examine gender disparities in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) within a privately insured population in the U.S. and investigate potential contributing factors for these gender differences. Read More

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Female emancipation in a male dominant, sexually dimorphic primate under natural conditions.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249039. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Theoretical Research in Evolutionary Life Sciences, TRÊS, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

In most group-living animals, a dominance hierarchy reduces the costs of competition for limited resources. Dominance ranks may reflect prior attributes, such as body size, related to fighting ability or reflect the history of self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing a conflict (the winner-loser effect), or both. As to prior attributes, in sexually dimorphic species, where males are larger than females, males are assumed to be dominant over females. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics and Management of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Patients With Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:1076029621999104

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, 12517Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a relatively rare phenomenon, and this observational study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of APS patients complicated with CVST. We retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of CVST events in APS and compared differential characteristics and associated factors between APS patients with and without CVST. Twenty-one CVST patients with APS were enrolled including 14 females (9. Read More

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Exploring the Sexual Dimorphism of Crustacean Neuropeptide Expression Using as a Model Organism.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.

The impact of numerous diseases has been linked to differences in sex between organisms, including various neurological diseases. As neuropeptides are known to be key players in the nervous system, studying the variation of neuropeptidomic profiles between males and females in a crustacean model organism is of interest. By using high-resolution mass spectrometry with two complementary ionization sources in conjunction with quantitative chemical labeling (isotopic reductive dimethylation), differences were observed in five key neural tissues and hemolymph. Read More

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The T-type calcium channel antagonist, Z944, reduces spinal excitability and pain hypersensitivity.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Purpose: T-type voltage-gated calcium channels are an emerging potential therapeutic target for neurological disorders including epilepsy and pain. Inhibition of T-type channels reduces the excitability of peripheral nociceptive sensory neurons and reverses pain hypersensitivity in male rodent pain models. However, administration of peripherally restricted T-type antagonists has failed to show efficacy in multiple clinical and preclinical pain trials, suggesting that inhibition of peripheral T-type channels alone may be insufficient for pain relief. Read More

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Extended single-dose toxicity study of [At]NaAt in mice for the first-in-human clinical trial of targeted alpha therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer.

Ann Nucl Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute for Radiation Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Objective: Astatine (At) is a promising alpha emitter as an alternative to iodine (I). We are preparing the first-in-human (FIH) clinical trial of targeted alpha therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in consultation with Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Here, we performed an extended single-dose toxicity examination under a reliability standard, as a preclinical safety assessment of [At]NaAt to determine the FIH dose. Read More

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Sex Pheromone of the Alfalfa Plant Bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus: Pheromone Composition and Antagonistic Effect of 1-Hexanol (Hemiptera: Miridae).

J Chem Ecol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), H-1022 Herman Ottó u. 15, Budapest, Hungary.

The sex pheromone composition of alfalfa plant bugs, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze), from Central Europe was investigated to test the hypothesis that insect species across a wide geographical area can vary in pheromone composition. Potential interactions between the pheromone and a known attractant, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, were also assessed. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) using male antennae and volatile extracts collected from females, previously shown to attract males in field experiments, revealed the presence of three physiologically active compounds. Read More

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Measuring stiffness of normal medial collateral ligament in healthy volunteers via shear wave elastography.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Radiology, Gazi University, 06560, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: We aim to determine a reference data set for normal medial collateral ligament (MCL) stiffness values using shear wave elastography (SWE).

Methods: Quantitative stiffness of the MCL was measured at three levels: the proximal (MCL area from the level of the medial meniscus to the level of the femoral attachment), the middle (MCL area at the level of the medial meniscus), and the distal (MCL area from the level of the medial meniscus to the level of the tibial attachment) segments of the MCL at a knee position of 0°.

Results: A total of 60 MCL of 30 healthy volunteers (15 female, 15 male) were examined. Read More

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Intraoperative mapping of pre-central motor cortex and subcortex: a proposal for supplemental cortical and novel subcortical maps to Penfield's motor homunculus.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Penfield's motor homunculus describes a caricaturised yet useful representation of the map of various body parts on the pre-central cortex. We propose a supplemental map of the clinically represented areas of human body in pre-central cortex and a novel subcortical corticospinal tract map. We believe this knowledge is essential for safe surgery in patients with eloquent brain lesions. Read More

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Influence of visual feedback, hand dominance and sex on individuated finger movements.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

The ability to perform individual finger movements, highly important in daily activities, involves visual monitoring and proprioception. We investigated the influence of vision on the spatial and temporal control of independent finger movements, for the dominant and non-dominant hand and in relation to sex. Twenty-six healthy middle-aged to old adults (M age = 61 years; range 46-79 years; females n = 13) participated. Read More

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The Association of Mitochondrial Copy Number with Sarcopenia in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Background: Adult childhood cancer survivors are at risk for frailty, including low muscle mass and weakness (sarcopenia). Using peripheral blood (PB) mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) as a proxy for functional mitochondria, this study describes cross-sectional associations between mtDNAcn and sarcopenia among survivors.

Methods: Among 1,762 adult childhood cancer survivors (51. Read More

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Postdiagnostic dairy products intake and colorectal cancer survival in US males and females.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Nutrition, T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: To evaluate the association between postdiagnostic dairy intake and survival among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: This study analyzed data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Postdiagnostic dairy intake and other dietary and lifestyle factors were obtained from validated questionnaires. Read More

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Morphological and genetic description of two new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) parasitic in needlefishes (Belonidae) from estuaries of Florida, USA.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2021 Apr 13;68. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from needlefishes (Belonidae) in Florida are described based on morphological and genetic characteristics: Philometra aequispiculata sp. n. (males and females) collected from the ovary of Strongylura marina (Walbaum) (type host) and Strongylura notata (Poey), and Philometra notatae sp. Read More

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Determining Tracheobronchial Tree with Anatomical Dissection: 204 Cases.

Turk Thorac J 2021 Mar 1;22(2):124-129. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Autopsy, Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: There are various anatomic variations in the tracheobronchial system. The frequency in studies with bronchoscopy was contradictory. This study aimed to investigate the tracheobronchial tree of the deceased patients with anatomical dissection. Read More

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Patients want their doctors' help to increase physical activity: a cross sectional study in general practice.

Scand J Prim Health Care 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Inactivity is prevalent in patients presenting in general practice, and the health benefits of increased physical activity (PA) are well known. Few studies have explored whether patients want their general practitioner's (GPs) contribution in facilitating a lifestyle change.

Objective: To identify the characteristics of patients who expect help from their doctor in increasing levels of PA. Read More

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Different progression pattern between acral and nonacral melanoma: A retrospective, comparative, clinicoprognostic study of 492 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma according to tumor site.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Mar 9:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: There are limited data regarding the difference in progression pattern between acral melanoma and nonacral melanoma.

Aims: The objectives of this study were to compare the progression pattern between acral and nonacral melanoma and evaluate its impact on clinical outcomes.

Methods: Clinical and histopathological features, survival outcomes and prognostic factors of 492 patients with acral melanoma or nonacral melanoma were retrospectively evaluated using the Asan Medical Center database. Read More

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Gastroschisis in Ontario, Canada: 2012-2018.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Regional Genetics Program, CHEO, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly of the abdomen in which the intestines are found outside of the body at birth. While no clear causative factors have been identified, it is strongly associated with young maternal age. Other reported associations include low maternal socioeconomic status, low maternal, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. Read More

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