PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249039. Epub 2021 Apr 19.
Theoretical Research in Evolutionary Life Sciences, TRÊS, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
In most group-living animals, a dominance hierarchy reduces the costs of competition for limited resources. Dominance ranks may reflect prior attributes, such as body size, related to fighting ability or reflect the history of self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing a conflict (the winner-loser effect), or both. As to prior attributes, in sexually dimorphic species, where males are larger than females, males are assumed to be dominant over females. Read More