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Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and association with metabolic syndrome in an adult Iranian cohort: The Fasa PERSIAN cohort study.

Clin Obes 2021 May 4:e12459. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterised by a concomitant high fat mass (FM) and low fat free mass (FFM) leading to an increased cardio-metabolic risk. This analysis aims to estimate the SO prevalence in Iranian adults and evaluate the association of SO with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. This cross-sectional analysis included 4296 subjects (age 35-70 years, 55. Read More

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Can text messages encourage flossing among orthodontic patients?

Angle Orthod 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Objectives: To assess the extent to which text messages on WhatsApp play a role in patient awareness of the importance of proper oral hygiene and flossing on a daily basis and to test the null hypothesis that daily text messages do not influence the flossing habits of orthodontics patients.

Materials And Methods: Forty-four patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances with a mean age of 14.3 years participated in the study. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics of Chinese Male Patients with Aquaporin-4 Antibody-Positive Late-Onset Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 May 4:1-7. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background And Objective: Limited studies are available for male patients with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive late-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (LONMOSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of Chinese male patients with AQP4-Ab-positive LONMOSD.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 12 male patients with LONMOSD, 16 male patients with early-onset NMOSD (EONMOSD), and 64 female patients with LONMOSD. Read More

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Matched retrospective analysis of three different fixation devices for chevron osteotomy.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Jan 21;47:101779. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Orthopaedics of Herz Jesu Krankenhaus Vienna, Baumgasse 20A, 1030 Wien, Austria.

Chevron osteotomy with consecutive fixation is a commonly performed operative treatment option for hallux valgus deformities. The present retrospective study aims to compare the clinical and radiological outcome of novel bioabsorbable magnesium screw fixation with metal screw and Kirschner wire fixation. Eighteen matched triplets were assembled according to the following criteria: female gender, age difference less than 5 years, date of operation within 4 months, difference in preoperative intermetatarsal angle less than 5°, and equal experience of the first and second surgeon. Read More

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January 2021

CNS demyelination with TNFα inhibitor exposure: A retrospective cohort study.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 26;356:577587. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To study long-term outcomes in patients with CNS demyelinating events exposed to TNFa-inhibitors (TNFai), including subsequent clinical relapse, MRI lesions, and use of disease modifying therapy (DMT) for MS.

Methods: Adult patients evaluated for a CNS demyelinating disease during TNFai use were identified at Mass General Brigham [01/1998-08/2020] and analyzed in clinically-relevant subgroups. Inclusion criteria required a first neurological event while taking a TNFai, MRI lesions consistent with demyelination, and the absence of a more probable alternative diagnosis. Read More

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Persistent organic pollutants and the size of ovarian reserve in reproductive-aged women.

Environ Int 2021 May 1;155:106589. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Industrial chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with reduced fertility in women, including longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP), higher odds for infertility, and earlier reproductive senescence. Fertility is highly dependent on the ovarian reserve, which is composed of a prenatally determined stock of non-growing follicles. The quantity and quality of the follicles decline with age, thereby eventually leading to menopause. Read More

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Gender-specific effects of adverse childhood experiences on incidence of activities of daily life disability in middle-age and elderly Chinese population.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 1;117:105079. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China; Key Laboratory of Health Technology Assessment of Fujian Province, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China. Electronic address:

Background: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) may have long-lasting effects on late life health, probably through life-course mediators. However, whether such effects still exist when these mediators have been appropriately controlled is unclear.

Objectives: To estimate the controlled direct effect of ACEs on Activities of Daily Life (ADL) disability in middle-aged people and examine the gender-difference of this effect. Read More

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Associated Autoimmunity in Type 1 Diabetes and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults: The Role of Glutamic-Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 May 1:108847. Epub 2021 May 1.

Diabetes and Metabolism Clinic, 2(nd) Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "P&A Kyriakou" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of Associated Autoimmune Diseases (AADs) in Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA) versus autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and the role of glutamic-acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and other factors.

Methods: Adults with autoimmune diabetes mellitus (DM) were recruited from the Diabetes Center of Nikaia-Piraeus Hospital. Demographic and clinical parameters were recorded and anti-pancreatic and organ-specific antibodies were measured. Read More

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Predilection for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Z-Score Can Quickly Identify Children Needing Support for a Physically Active Lifestyle.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, 274065, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada;

Comprehensive physical literacy assessments can be time-consuming and require a gymnasium space and examiner training. This project sought to identify easy-to-administer tasks, suitable for all physical activity and healthcare settings, which could quickly screen a group of children to identify those most likely to benefit from an in-depth assessment or additional physical literacy support. The 40 potential screening tasks were compared to the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy among 226 children (57% female) 8 to 12 years of age. Read More

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Computer vision syndrome in presbyopic digital device workers and progressive lens design.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Optics, Pharmacology and Anatomy, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) in presbyopic digital device workers using two ophthalmic progressive lens designs during the working day, and to analyse the association of CVS with sociodemographic, occupational, digital device exposure and refractive factors.

Methods: This time series, quasi-experimental design study included 69 presbyopic digital device workers (age range: 46-69 years; mean ± SD = 54.7 ± 5. Read More

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Fungal asthma among Ugandan adult asthmatics.

Med Mycol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Makerere University Lung Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7749, Kampala, Uganda.

Fungal sensitization is associated with poor asthma control. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with fungal asthma among Ugandan adults. Individuals aged ≥18 years with a new diagnosis of asthma in the last 12 months participating in the African Severe Asthma Program constituted the study population. Read More

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Analysis of facial expressions in response to basic taste stimuli using artificial intelligence to predict perceived hedonic ratings.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250928. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kio University, Nara, Japan.

Taste stimuli can induce a variety of physiological reactions depending on the quality and/or hedonics (overall pleasure) of tastants, for which objective methods have long been desired. In this study, we used artificial intelligence (AI) technology to analyze facial expressions with the aim of assessing its utility as an objective method for the evaluation of food and beverage hedonics compared with conventional subjective (perceived) evaluation methods. The face of each participant (10 females; age range, 21-22 years) was photographed using a smartphone camera a few seconds after drinking 10 different solutions containing five basic tastes with different hedonic tones. Read More

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Reaching underserved South Africans with integrated chronic disease screening and mobile HIV counselling and testing: A retrospective, longitudinal study conducted in Cape Town.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0249600. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Health Sciences, The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Community-based, mobile HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and screening for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) may improve early diagnosis and referral for care in underserved populations. We evaluated HCT/NCD data and described population characteristics of those visiting a mobile clinic in high HIV disease burden settings in Cape Town, South Africa, between 2008 and 2016.

Methods: Trained counsellors registered patients ≥12 years old at a mobile clinic, which offered HCT and blood pressure, diabetes (glucose testing) and obesity (body mass index) screening. Read More

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Symptomatic Atlas Hypoplasia in a Latin-American Patient: Case Report and Literature Review.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 May 4;5(5):e21.00041. Epub 2021 May 4.

From the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Spinal Pathology Service, Almagro, CABA, Argentina. Orthopedic Institute "Prof. Dr. Carlos E. Ottolengui", Adult Spine Pathology Service, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, CABA, Argentina.

Background: Atlas hypoplasia is an infrequent cause of upper cervical stenosis. Only 24 cases in nonsyndromic adult population have been published. We are not aware of previous reports describing isolated fully formed atlas hypoplasia in a Latin-American patient. Read More

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Treatment options used for management of COVID-19 in Pakistan: Timeline, reality, and challenges.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department o Infectious Diseases., Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, PK.

Background: Ever since the first reports of COVID-19 infections, the foremost requirement is to find a treatment regimen that not only fights the causative agent but also controls the associated complications of the infection. Due to time consuming process of drug discovery, doctors used readily available drugs and therapies for treatment of infections to minimize the death toll.

Objective: To provide a snap-shot analysis of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 Pakistani patients during the May-July period when the first wave peaked in the country. Read More

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Telemedicine during the COVID-19 in China-Physicians' Perspective.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medical Informatics, West China West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guoxuexiang Road, Chengdu, CN.

Background: Generalized restriction of movement due to the COVID-19 epidemic, together with unprecedented pressure on the health system, disrupted routine care for non-COVID-19 patients. Telemedicine should be vigorously promoted to reduce the risk of infections and to offer medical assistance to restricted patients.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to understand physicians' attitudes and perspectives toward telemedicine during and after COVID-19, so as to provide support for better implementation of telemedicine. Read More

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Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis with Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Conjunction with Unilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation via the Wiltse Approach.

Orthop Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) in conjunction with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UPSF) via the Wiltse approach in treating degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS).

Methods: The article is a retrospective analysis. Twelve patients with DLS who underwent combined OLIF and UPSF between July 2017 and December 2018 were included. Read More

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The influence of price and funding source disclosure on medication labels: Implications for intended adherence, perceived value and efficacy, and feelings of burden and guilt.

Br J Health Psychol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

London School of Economics, UK.

Objectives: To examine if informing people in free-at-the-point-of-use medical systems of the financial value of medicines, and priming them with the fact that the medication is funded by taxation, influences people's perceived value and efficacy of the medicines, feelings of burdensomeness and guilt, and intended adherence.

Design: An experiment was implemented to examine the impact of medication labelling featuring the presence (vs. absence) of the phrase 'funded by UK the taxpayer' and pricing information (absent vs. Read More

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Patients with Chronic Urticaria Remain Largely Undertreated: Results from the DERMLINE Online Survey.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Introduction: Chronic urticaria (CU) is an unpredictable disease, with high disease burden and a significant negative impact on quality of life, especially in patients of working age. Many patients are undertreated, and there is poor awareness of strategies to manage patients with CU in the real-world setting. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of CU from the patients' perspective, including the body areas most affected by wheals and angioedema, the disease burden and current use of the healthcare system. Read More

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Effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery in Increasing Kidney Transplant Eligibility in Patients with Kidney Failure Requiring Dialysis.

Obes Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, 6550 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: Severe obesity can increase risk of complications after kidney transplantation. There is a paucity of literature on bariatric surgery outcomes in renal transplant candidates. The objective of this study was to analyze outcomes of bariatric surgery as a weight reduction strategy for patients with kidney failure to enhance eligibility for kidney transplantation. Read More

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Harm Avoidance and Mobility During Middle Childhood and Adolescence among Hadza Foragers.

Hum Nat 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Cross-cultural sex differences in mobility and harm avoidance have been widely reported, often emphasizing fitness benefits of long-distance travel for males and high costs for females. Data emerging from adults in small-scale societies, however, are challenging the assumption that female mobility is restricted during reproduction. Such findings warrant further exploration of the ontogeny of mobility. Read More

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Simultaneous Recording of Motor Evoked Potentials in Hand, Wrist and Arm Muscles to Assess Corticospinal Divergence.

Brain Topogr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to further develop methods to assess corticospinal divergence and muscle coupling using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy right-handed adults participated (7 females, age 34.0 ± 12. Read More

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Cancer is associated with inferior outcome in patients with ischemic stroke.

J Neurol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, CH-8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Whether patients with stroke and cancer exhibit specific characteristics has remained controversial.

Methods: Medical records of patients with ischemic stroke in 2014 or 2015 registered in the Swiss Stroke Registry of Zurich were retrospectively analyzed and integrated with regional cancer registry data. Associations of clinical and outcome parameters with cancer diagnosed up to 5 years prior to stroke were tested. Read More

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Additional coracoclavicular augmentation reduces revision rates in the treatment of lateral clavicle fractures as compared to angle-stable plate osteosynthesis alone.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Diakovere Friederikenstift, Humboldtstraße 5, 30169, Hannover, Germany.

Introduction: There is no uniform approach to the management of lateral clavicle fractures. Recent studies have investigated additive coracoclavicular (CC) augmentation as a treatment option; however, it is unclear whether it is superior to conventional locking plate osteosynthesis.

Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 40 patients with lateral clavicle fracture (Neer type IIb) who were treated between 2014 and 2017 with either a hybrid locking plate osteosynthesis/additive arthroscopy-assisted CC augmentation (HP) procedure or a locking plate osteosynthesis only (PO) approach to determine which strategy was more effective. Read More

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Tic disorders in children and adolescents: does the clinical presentation differ in males and females? A report by the EMTICS group.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic Universitari, c/ Villarroel 170, Section 11 Floor 3, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Tic disorders have a strong male predominance, with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1 in Tourette syndrome (TS) and 2:1 in persistent tic disorders. In other neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the disparity in sex distribution has been partially related to differences in symptom presentation between males and females. In tic disorders, however, little research has been conducted on this topic, probably due to the limited access to large samples with a significant proportion of females. Read More

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Admission blood glucose level and outcome in patients requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology I (Heart Center Freiburg-Bad Krozingen), Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetterstrasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest undergoing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) frequently present with blood glucose levels out of normal range. The clinical relevance of such findings in the context of V-A ECMO is unknown. We therefore investigated the prognostic relevance of blood glucose at time of cannulation for V-A ECMO. Read More

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Influence of WhatsApp and electronic mail reminders on oral hygiene compliance of orthodontic patients using planimetry : A randomized clinical trial.

J Orofac Orthop 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Selangor, Jenjarom, Malaysia.

Purpose: To determine the effect of WhatsApp (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) and electronic mail reminders on oral hygiene compliance of orthodontic patients.

Methods: A randomized, parallel group, double blinded study was conducted on 54 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment at a university clinic. Read More

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Effect of Half-Dose vs Stable-Dose Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Disease Flares in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Remission: The ARCTIC REWIND Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 May;325(17):1755-1764

Division of Rheumatology and Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Importance: Sustained remission has become an achievable goal for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), but how to best treat patients in clinical remission remains unclear.

Objective: To assess the effect of tapering of csDMARDs, compared with continuing csDMARDs without tapering, on the risk of flares in patients with RA in sustained remission.

Design, Setting, And Participants: ARCTIC REWIND was a multicenter, randomized, parallel, open-label noninferiority study conducted in 10 Norwegian hospital-based rheumatology practices. Read More

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Type 1 Diabetes Care in Mexico: An Analysis of the RENACED-DT1 National Registry.

Rev Invest Clin 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (PWT1D) in Mexico is limited. We developed an on-line platform Registro Nacional de Pacientes con Diabetes Tipo 1 (RENACED-DT1).

Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics and healthcare of PWT1D registered in RENACED-DT1. Read More

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