Brain Behav Evol 2018 29;91(4):201-213. Epub 2018 Jun 29.
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, IFM Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. Read More