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Sexual differences in bone porosity, osteocyte density, and extracellular matrix organization due to osteoblastic-specific Bmp2 deficiency in mice.

Bone 2021 May 7:116002. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, United States of America. Electronic address:

Clinical studies have come to conflicting conclusions regarding BMP2 deficiency's link to regulating bone mass and increasing fracture risk. This may be due to the signaling protein having sex- or age-dependent effects. Previous pre-clinical studies have supported a role, but have not adequately determined the physical mechanism causing altered bulk material properties. Read More

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Sun protection changes among diverse elementary schoolchildren participating in a sun safety intervention: A latent transition analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Prev Med 2021 May 7:106601. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America; Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Children are a priority population for skin cancer prevention as excessive sun exposure in childhood increases the risk of melanoma in adulthood. The complexity of sun protective behaviors has posed measurement challenges for trials testing intervention efficacy. The current study evaluated a sun safety intervention for schoolchildren using latent transition analysis (LTA) to examine patterns of sun protection behaviors over time. Read More

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The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Ambient Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Wildtype and Genetically Predisposed Male and Female Rats.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 May 10;129(5):57005. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California Davis (UC Davis) School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

Background: Epidemiological data link traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Preclinical data corroborating this association are largely from studies of male animals exposed acutely or subchronically to high levels of isolated fractions of TRAP. What remains unclear is whether chronic exposure to ambient TRAP modifies AD risk and the influence of sex on this interaction. Read More

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Neck Pain in Rounded Shoulder Posture: Clinico-Radiologic Correlation by Shear Wave Elastography.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 10:e14240. Epub 2021 May 10.

Aydın Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Aydın.

Aim: The frequency of neck pain increases in adolescents and young adults. Using smart phones and computers for a long time causes posture disorders such as rounded shoulder (RSP) and forward head postures, and these posture disorders cause neck pain. The aim of the study is to analyze the correlation between shoulder and neck angles, and the stiffness of the upper trapezius and pectoralis minor muscles in patients with RSP. Read More

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Prevalence and burden of breathlessness in Australian adults: The National Breathlessness Survey-a cross-sectional web-based population survey.

Respirology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Australian Centre for Airways disease Monitoring (ACAM), the Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background And Objective: Chronic respiratory symptoms (in particular, breathlessness and cough) can cause physical, social and emotional distress, and may indicate the presence of an underlying disease that presages future poor health outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the burden of breathlessness in Australian adults, including breathlessness that may be undiagnosed, unlabelled or untreated.

Methods: The National Breathlessness Survey was a cross-sectional, web-based survey conducted in October 2019. Read More

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Patient, hospital and country-level risk factors of all-cause mortality among patients with chronic heart failure: Prospective international cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250931. Epub 2021 May 10.

Maria Cecilia Hospital-GVM Care & Research, Cotignola, Italy.

Background: Although many studies have described patient-level risk factors for outcomes in heart failure (HF), health care structural determinants remain largely unexplored. This research reports patient-, hospital- and country-level characteristics associated with 1-year all-cause mortality among patients with chronic HF, and investigates geographic and hospital variation in mortality.

Methods And Findings: We included 9,277 patients with chronic HF enrolled between May 2011 and November 2017 in the prospective cohort study European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long Term registry across 142 hospitals, located in 22 countries. Read More

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Histoplasmosis of the Central Nervous System: A Case Series between 1990 and 2019 in French Guiana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

2CIC INSERM 1424, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, Cayenne, French Guiana.

Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most frequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness in French Guiana. Paradoxically, central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been scarcely described. We aimed to identify CNS histoplasmosis in our territory. Read More

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Real-world treatment patterns and outcomes of abemaciclib for the treatment of HR+, HER2- metastatic breast cancer.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

This retrospective observational study described baseline characteristics, real-world treatment patterns, and outcomes among patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with abemaciclib in the United States. De-identified electronic health record-derived data were used to describe patients who began abemaciclib treatment on or after 30 June 2016 and ≥4 months before data cutoff (31 December 2018). Real-world response (rwR) and real-world progression assessments were abstracted from clinical documentation. Read More

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Cognitive impairment profile in adolescent early-onset psychosis using the MATRICS Battery: Age and sex effects.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):300-309

NORMENT Center of Excellence, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo.

To examine cognitive performance, stratified by age and sex, in adolescents with early-onset psychosis (EOP), relative to the healthy adolescent standardized scores for the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Seventy-one EOP patients (12-18 years) were included in the study. Raw scores of nine MCCB tests were converted into age- and sex-corrected scores comprising six domains and global cognition (cognitive composite score). Read More

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Dynamic changes occur in the DNA gut virome of female cynomolgus macaques during aging.

Microbiologyopen 2021 Mar;10(2):e1186

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Aging is a critical factor affecting physical health and disease in mammals. Emerging evidence indicates that aging may affect the gut bacteriome in cynomolgus macaques, but little is known about whether or how the gut virome changes with age. Here, we compared the DNA gut viral composition of 16 female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) at three life stages (young, adult, and old) using the shotgun metagenome sequencing method. Read More

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Cocoa-flavanols enhance moderate-intensity pulmonary [Formula: see text] kinetics but not exercise tolerance in sedentary middle-aged adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

Introduction: Cocoa flavanols (CF) may exert health benefits through their potent vasodilatory effects, which are perpetuated by elevations in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. These vasodilatory effects may contribute to improved delivery of blood and oxygen (O) to exercising muscle.

Purpose: Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine how CF supplementation impacts pulmonary O uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics and exercise tolerance in sedentary middle-aged adults. Read More

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Intra-horn Penile Intromission in the Alpaca Vicugna pacos and Consequences to Genital Morphology.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

North American Camelid Studies Program, Nunoa Project, Belchertown, MA 01007, USA.

Copulatory behavior and genital morphology interact to deliver sperm more effectively during mating, but the nature of this interaction has not been explored in depth in most vertebrates. Alpacas have unusually long copulations lasting 15-20 minutes, and a unique copulatory behavior, where the penis intromits all the way past the cervix, into the uterine horns. Here we describe the morphology of male and female genitalia and report unique morphological characteristics that may be associated with this unusual insemination mode. Read More

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Comparison of 20-Year Obesity-Associated Cancer Mortality Trends With Heart Disease Mortality Trends in the US.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218356. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill.

Importance: Heart disease and cancer are the 2 major diseases associated with mortality risk in the United States. Four decades of improvements in heart disease mortality slowed after 2011; this slowing has been associated with the obesity epidemic. The same pattern has not been observed for total cancer mortality. Read More

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Ten-year Thyroid Cancer Incidence in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA.

Introduction: The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has increased in recent decades, but data from community-based settings are limited. This study characterizes PTC trends in a large, integrated healthcare system over 10 years.

Methods: The annual incidence of PTC (2006-2015) was examined among Kaiser Permanente Northern California adults aged 21 to 84 years using Cancer Registry data, including tumor size and stage. Read More

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Female lip esthetic and its effect on facial attractiveness in Saudi Arabia.

Int J Esthet Dent 2021 May;16(2):232-242

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to determine opinions about beauty and attractiveness, to distinguish the rate of variables among gender and age groups, and to evaluate and determine the most attractive lip surface area (SA) and upper to lower lip ratio.

Material And Methods: The study was performed in two phases: In phase 1, a set of 10 internet-based frontal facial images were used to generate 5 synthetic images that were distributed to participants, who were asked to choose the most and least attractive image. A total of 312 responses were received in this phase. Read More

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Association between integrated backscatter and arrhythmia in patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Ventricular scars due to myocardial infarction provide a substrate for ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the golden standard for the quantification of scar tissue magnitude. CMR has still limitations with patients with ICD despite ICD's becoming MR-compatible. We investigated the association between calibrated integrated backscatter (cIBS) and arrhythmia frequency in patients with ICD. Read More

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U.S. trends in elective and emergent major abdominal surgical procedures from 2002 to 2014 in older adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: The U.S. population is aging and projected to undergo an increasing number of general surgical procedures. Read More

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Sleep duration and vascular inflammation using hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Study Objectives: Short sleep duration (SD) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the relationship between objective SD and subclinical atherosclerosis employing hybrid PET/MRI with F-FDG tracer in the MESA cohort.

Methods: We utilized data from MESA-SLEEP and MESA-PET ancillary studies. Read More

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Maternal high fructose diet induced early onset retinopathy via the suppression of synaptic plasticity mediated by the mitochondrial dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwangrid.413804.a.

Retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, and there is currently no cure. Earlier identification of the progression of retinopathy could provide a better chance for intervention. Diet has profound effects on retinal function. Read More

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Metabolic physiology and skeletal muscle phenotypes in male and female myoglobin knockout mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Surgery, UC Davis Health System, United Statesgrid.416958.7.

Myoglobin (Mb) is a regulator of O bioavailability in type I muscle and heart, at least when tissue O levels drop. Mb also plays a role in regulating cellular NO pools. Robust binding of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines to Mb, and enhanced glucose metabolism in hearts of Mb knockout (KO) mice, suggests additional roles in muscle intermediary metabolism and fuel selection. Read More

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The Epidemiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Thailand over 13 years (2005 - 2017): A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: There have been no published studies examining the epidemiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in large populations in Thailand.

Aims: This study aimed to explore the incidence, patient characteristics, seasonality, treatments, and outcomes of GBS in Thailand.

Methods: The National Health Security Office (NHSO) provided data on in-patient admission between fiscal year 2005 and 2017. Read More

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Post-transplant Inotrope Score is Associated with Clinical Outcomes after Adult Heart Transplantation.

Clin Transplant 2021 May 9:e14347. Epub 2021 May 9.

University of Groningen, University Msedical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, The Netherlands.

Background: Inotrope score has been proposed as a marker of clinical outcome after adult heart transplantation (HTx) but is rarely used in practice.

Methods: Inotrope score during the first 48 hours after HTx was calculated in 81 patients as: dopamine + dobutamine + amrinone + milrinone (dose × 15) + epinephrine (dose × 100) + norepinephrine (dose × 100) + enoximone + isoprenaline (dose × 100), with each drug in µg/kg/min. Determinants of inotrope score were identified with linear regression. Read More

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Sex differences in the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease: focus on cognitively intact elderly individuals.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Neurobiology and Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, P.R. China.

Aims: Women are more vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) than men. We investigated i) whether and at what age the AD hallmarks, i.e. Read More

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Skeletal Muscle Cellular Contractile Dysfunction After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Contributes to Quadriceps Weakness at Six-Month Follow-Up.

J Orthop Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Rehabilitation, Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Muscle dysfunction following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may evolve from alterations in muscle contractility at the myofilament protein level. Using a prospective, within-subject case control design, we evaluated cellular-level contractility, cross-sectional area (CSA), and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression on single muscle fibers 3-weeks post ACLR, and evaluated their relationship to whole muscle strength and patient-oriented outcomes 6 months post-op. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were performed 3-weeks post-ACLR in 11 subjects (5 female, mean age ±SD = 24. Read More

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Successful Plasmapheresis and Immunoglobulin treatment for severe lipid storage myopathy: doing the right thing for the wrong reason.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Lipid myopathies are rare and heterogeneous multi-systemic diseases that may be hereditary or acquired and affect the skeletal muscle [1]. Four types usually demonstrate accumulation of lipids in muscle biopsy specimens that can be visualised using Oil-Red-O (ORO) stain. These comprise (i) Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), (ii) Primary Carnitine Deficiency (PCD), (iii) Neutral Lipid Storage Disease with Ichthyosis (NLSDI), and (iv) Neutral Lipid Storage Disease with myopathy (NLSDM) [2]. Read More

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Fungus ball removal with video-cavernoscopy for complex aspergilloma.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Departoment of Surgery, Yokohoma City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Objective: Complete resection with a clear margin is the only curative treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma. This requires a high-level technique, especially for complex aspergilloma (CA), because of patient conditions and wide dense adhesions. Fungus ball removal is used palliatively to control hemoptysis, rather than as a radical procedure, and may be performed using video-cavernoscopy as a simple and repeatable method. Read More

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Environmental Temperature, but Not Male Age, Affects Wolbachia and Prophage WO Thereby Modulating Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in the Parasitoid Wasp, Habrobracon Hebetor.

Microb Ecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic bacterium found in many species of arthropods and manipulates its host reproduction. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one of the most common manipulations that is induced when an uninfected female mates with a Wolbachia-infected male. The CI factors (cifA and cifB genes) are encoded by phage WO that naturally infects Wolbachia. Read More

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Changes in COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in hospitalised adults in England over the first seven months of the pandemic: An observational study using administrative data.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Jun 30;5:100104. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Getting It Right First Time programme, NHS England and NHS Improvement, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Previous research by our team identified factors associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in England between March and May 2020. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the changing role of demographics and co-morbidity, with a particular focus on ethnicity, as risk factors for in-hospital mortality over an extended period.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study using the Hospital Episode Statistics administrative dataset. Read More

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Dataset on the questionnaire-based survey of the Perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and Contact lens (CL) wearers.

Data Brief 2021 May 1:107101. Epub 2021 May 1.

Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Optics and Optometry, Laboratory of Optical Metrology, School of Health and Welfare, University of West Attica, Egaleo Park Campus, pc 12243, Athens, Greece.

The data set presents data collected by an online questionnaire, applying closed-ended question types (multiple-choice, Likert scale) and questions Skip Logic. Instruments from previous studies in the field of optometry such as Contact Lens User Experience (CLUE Scales), Quality of Life Questionnaire (CLIQ), Quality of Vision (QoV) Questionnaire, did not meet the needs of this study. Therefore, in order to provide a statistically valid and consistent instrument to examine the psychopathological reactions in Contact lens wearers due to Covid-19, a new questionnaire was designed. Read More

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The Differences of Population Birth Defects in Epidemiology Analysis between the Rural and Urban Areas of Hunan Province in China, 2014-2018.

Biomed Res Int 2021 21;2021:2732983. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Hunan Province Maternal and Children Health Care Hospital, Changsha, China.

Objectives: To compare the differences of epidemiology analysis in population birth defects (BDs) between the rural and urban areas of Hunan Province in China.

Methods: The data of population-based BDs in Liuyang county (rural) and Shifeng district (urban) in Hunan Province for 2014-2018 were analyzed. BD prevalence rates, percentage change, and annual percentage change (APC) by sex and age were calculated to evaluate time trends. Read More

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