49,017 results match your criteria feeding eating

A vertebrate adaptive radiation is assembled from an ancient and disjunct spatiotemporal landscape.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720;

To investigate the origins and stages of vertebrate adaptive radiation, we reconstructed the spatial and temporal histories of adaptive alleles underlying major phenotypic axes of diversification from the genomes of 202 Caribbean pupfishes. On a single Bahamian island, ancient standing variation from disjunct geographic sources was reassembled into new combinations under strong directional selection for adaptation to the novel trophic niches of scale-eating and molluscivory. We found evidence for two longstanding hypotheses of adaptive radiation: hybrid swarm origins and temporal stages of adaptation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autologous Muscle-Derived Cell Therapy for Swallowing Impairment in Patients Following Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer.

Laryngoscope 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: To evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of autologous muscle-derived cells (AMDCs) for the treatment of swallowing impairment following treatment for oropharynx cancer.

Study Design: Prospective, phase I, open label, clinical trial.

Methods: Oropharynx cancer survivors disease free ≥2 years post chemoradiation were recruited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Eating habits and lifestyle in children with obesity during the COVID19 lockdown: a survey in an Italian center.

Acta Biomed 2021 May 12;92(2):e2021196. Epub 2021 May 12.

Dipartimento di Pediatria, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli" IRCCS, Roma, Italia- Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore .

Objectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate BMI changes in children and adolescent with obesity or overweight, analyzing the possible risk factors that contributed to weight gain during a pandemic-associated lockdown.

Material And Methods: The study was conducted at the Pediatric Endocrinology Department of a third-level University Hospital in Rome, including children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. Personal, anthropometrics data and other information about physical activity, eating habits and psychological aspects were collected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A quasi-experimental intervention protocol to characterize the factors that influence the acceptance of new foods by infants: mothers' diet and weaning method. Dastatuz project.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 13;21(1):918. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacy and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country EHU/UPV, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain.

Background: Children usually refuse to eat and taste fruits and vegetables; and turning unhealthy eating habits around is an important social challenge in industrialized countries. The Dastatuz project aims to study children food neophobia and to enhance fruit and vegetable acceptance.

Methods: A quasi-experimental, multicentre, controlled and prospective intervention study is proposed, in which early factors influencing new food acceptance will be studied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Possible involvement of the dopamine D2 receptors of ventromedial hypothalamus in the control of free- and scheduled-feeding and plasma ghrelin level in rat.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: We investigated effect of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) dopamine D2 receptor inhibition on food intake and plasma ghrelin following chronic free or scheduled meal with different caloric intakes.

Methods: Male Wistar rats (220-250 g) were fed diets containing free (control) or three scheduled diets of standard, restricted and high-fat for 1 month. The animals stereotaxically received an intra VMH single dose of sulpiride (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sexual dimorphism and skull size and shape in the highly specialized snake species, (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae).

PeerJ 2021 20;9:e11311. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Comparative Anatomy, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Snakes exhibit sexual dimorphism in both head size and shape. Such differences are often attributed to different reproductive roles and feeding habits. We aim to investigate how sexual dimorphism is displayed in the highly specialised fish-egg-eating snake, , by analysing two complementary features: body size and skull morphology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gastrointestinal symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment history in patients with underweight avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and anorexia nervosa: Impact on weight restoration in a meal-based behavioral treatment program.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Gastrointestinal (GI) concerns are often presumed to complicate nutritional rehabilitation for restrictive eating disorders, yet their relationship to weight restoration outcomes is unclear. This retrospective chart review examined GI history and weight-related discharge outcomes in primarily adult, underweight inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN, N = 107) or avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID, N = 22) treated in a meal-based, behavioral eating disorder program.

Method: Lifetime GI symptomatology, diagnoses, diagnostic tests, and procedures were abstracted from medical records. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Ecological Perspective of Food Choice and Eating Autonomy Among Adolescents.

Front Psychol 2021 21;12:654139. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Nutrition and Health Research Lab, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States.

Adolescence is an important developmental period marked by a transition from primarily parental-controlled eating to self-directed and peer-influenced eating. During this period, adolescents gain autonomy over their individual food choices and eating behavior in general. While parent-feeding practices have been shown to influence eating behaviors in children, little is known about how these relationships track across adolescent development as autonomy expands. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diurnal rhythms and obesity.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review will discuss the recent studies that implicate disturbed diurnal rhythms with the development of obesity. The second part of the review will discuss studies that use feeding time to restore diurnal rhythms and rescue obesity.

Recent Findings: Studies in patients with obesity and diabetes reveal attenuated circadian and metabolic rhythms in adipose tissue. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A distinct parabrachial-to-lateral hypothalamus circuit for motivational suppression of feeding by nociception.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 138667, Singapore.

The motivation to eat is not only shaped by nutrition but also competed by external stimuli including pain. How the mouse hypothalamus, the feeding regulation center, integrates nociceptive inputs to modulate feeding is unclear. Within the key nociception relay center parabrachial nucleus (PBN), we demonstrated that neurons projecting to the lateral hypothalamus (PBN) are nociceptive yet distinct from danger-encoding central amygdala-projecting (PBN) neurons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Baby-led weaning in Italy and potential implications for infant development.

Appetite 2021 May 4:105286. Epub 2021 May 4.

Deparment of Psychology, College of Health and Life Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, B4 7ET Birmingham, UK. Electronic address:

Baby-led weaning is an approach to complementary feeding that emphasizes an infant's ability to self-feed rather than being spoon fed, and to eat minimally-processed foods rather than puréed foods. This study aimed to investigate the variability in infant feeding practices and the possible association with developmental milestones in an Italian population. A sample of 1245 mothers of 6-12 month-old infants completed an online survey about complementary feeding and their infant's attainment of developmental milestones. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ecomorphological diversification of squamates in the Cretaceous.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201961. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.

Squamates (lizards and snakes) are highly successful modern vertebrates, with over 10 000 species. Squamates have a long history, dating back to at least 240 million years ago (Ma), and showing increasing species richness in the Late Cretaceous (84 Ma) and Early Palaeogene (66-55 Ma). We confirm that the major expansion of dietary functional morphology happened before these diversifications, in the mid-Cretaceous, 110-90 Ma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Current Aspects of the Role of Autoantibodies Directed Against Appetite-Regulating Hormones and the Gut Microbiome in Eating Disorders.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:613983. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

The equilibrium and reciprocal actions among appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) and appetite-suppressing (anorexigenic) signals synthesized in the gut, brain, microbiome and adipose tissue (AT), seems to play a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and feeding behavior, anxiety, and depression. A dysregulation of mechanisms controlling the energy balance may result in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). AN is a psychiatric disease defined by chronic self-induced extreme dietary restriction leading to an extremely low body weight and adiposity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Determinants of dental caries in children in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review based on literature published from 2000 to 2019.

BMC Oral Health 2021 May 4;21(1):237. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Health Sciences, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, P.O. Box 144534, Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Dental caries risk factors have been expanded to not only emphasize biology, dietary and oral habits but also broader social determinants such as socioeconomic factors and the utilization of health services. The aim was to review sociobehavioural/cultural and socioeconomic determinants of dental caries in children residing in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

Methods: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline database and Google Scholar to identify studies published from 2000 to 2019 covering children using key search terms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Eating Disorders Genetics Initiative (EDGI): study protocol.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 05 4;21(1):234. Epub 2021 May 4.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Locked Bag 2000, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, QLD, 4029, Australia.

Background: The Eating Disorders Genetics Initiative (EDGI) is an international investigation exploring the role of genes and environment in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.

Methods: A total of 14,500 individuals with eating disorders and 1500 controls will be included from the United States (US), Australia (AU), New Zealand (NZ), and Denmark (DK). In the US, AU, and NZ, participants will complete comprehensive online phenotyping and will submit a saliva sample for genotyping. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of Feeding Barley, Corn, and a Barley/Corn Blend on Beef Composition and End-Product Palatability.

Foods 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Lacombe Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe, AB T4L 1W1, Canada.

This study evaluated the relationship among palatability attributes, volatile compounds, and fatty acid (FA) profiles in meat from barley, corn, and blended (50:50, barley and corn) grain-fed steers. Multiple correspondence analysis with three dimensions (Dim) explained 62.2% of the total variability among samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploring the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Eating and Purchasing Behaviours of People Living in England.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 29;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

National Centre for Food Manufacturing, University of Lincoln, Holbeach PE12 7PT, UK.

Consumers' eating habits have changed significantly due to the anxiety and boredom from the reported cases and deaths of COVID-19, the change in work patterns, controlled food shopping, and the inability to meet loved ones during the lockdown. The magnitude of these changes in the eating behaviours and purchasing habits of consumers varies across different groups of people. This study provides empirical evidence of the effects of COVID-19 on the eating and purchasing behaviours of people living in England, which was assessed based on sociodemographic variables. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The association between bullying and eating disorders: A case-control study.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Regional Department for Eating Disorders, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Childhood bullying is associated with a range of adverse mental health outcomes, and here we investigated the association between bullying exposure and eating disorders (EDs).

Method: In this case-control study, we compared bullying history in individuals with EDs with community controls. Participants (n = 890, mean age = 29. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of Pretreatment Dysphagia on Postchemoradiation Swallowing Function in Head and Neck Cancer.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 May 4:1945998211009853. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Objectives: Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for head and neck cancer can have profound effects on swallowing function. Identification of risk factors for development of swallowing dysfunction after CRT may improve allocation of preventive strategies. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between pre-CRT dysphagia and post-CRT swallowing dysfunction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Estimation of direct and social effects of feeding duration in growing pigs using records from automatic feeding stations.

J Anim Sci 2021 May;99(5)

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

Automatic feeding systems in pig production allow for the recording of individual feeding behavior traits, which might be influenced by the social interactions among individuals. This study fitted mixed models to estimate the direct and social effects on visit duration at the feeder of group-housed pigs. The dataset included 74,413 records of each visit duration time (min) event at the automatic feeder from 135 pigs housed in 14 pens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of Infant Milk-Type and Childhood Eating Behaviors on Functional Constipation in Preschool Children.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Nutritionist. Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Hospital. Universitário. Rua Cláudio Batista, s/n. Bairro Sanatório. Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. CEP: 49060-100 Associate Professor. Discipline of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Pedro de Toledo, 781, 12 andar, 04039-032 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil Nutritionist. Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Hospital. Universitário. Rua Cláudio Batista, s/n. Bairro Sanatório. Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. CEP: 49060-100.

Objective: To investigate the association between functional constipation, infant feeding in early infancy and eating behavior in preschool children.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in public and private schools in the state of Sergipe (Northeast of Brazil). The sample calculation was based on a 25% estimate of constipation prevalence in Brazilian children, resulting in a sample size of 1051 children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Early life triggers for food allergy that in turn impacts dietary habits in childhood.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 1;49(3):146-152. Epub 2021 May 1.

Medical School, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Introduction And Objectives: In order to investigate food allergy's prevalence, risk factors and eating behavior of children with relevant anamnesis, a study was performed in Cypriot primary schools.

Patients: A specially composed questionnaire for self-reported adverse reactions to food, created in the context of the EuroPrevall study, was distributed in 13 representative primary schools across the country. Participants were sub-grouped into three groups; healthy (H), those with unconfirmed food hypersensitivity reactions (FA) and children with a confirmed diagnosis by a physician IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of melatonin supplementation on eating habits and appetite-regulating hormones: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical and preclinical trials.

Chronobiol Int 2021 May 2:1-14. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Public Health Graduate Program, Catholic University of Santos, SP, Brazil.

Melatonin is a hormone involved in appetite regulation and food intake. Circadian chronorrupture caused by its absence has been associated with excessive food consumption, and there is evidence that exogenous melatonin supplementation can restore homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled clinical and preclinical trials that evaluated the effects of exogenous melatonin supplementation on eating habits and appetite-regulating hormones. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hypoglycemia attenuates acute amylin-induced reduction of food intake in male rats.

Physiol Behav 2021 Apr 29:113435. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich (UZH), 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The ability of amylin to inhibit gastric emptying and glucagon secretion in rats is reduced under hypoglycemic conditions. These effects are considered part of a fail-safe mechanism that prevents amylin from further decreasing nutrient supply when blood glucose levels are low. Because these actions and amylin-induced satiation are mediated by the area postrema (AP), it is plausible that these phenomena are based on the co-sensitivity of AP neurons to amylin and glucose. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stakeholder selected strategies for obesity prevention in childcare: results from a small-scale cluster randomized hybrid type III trial.

Implement Sci 2021 May 1;16(1):48. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Psychiatry, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St, #522-4, Little Rock, AR, 72205-7199, USA.

Background: Together, We Inspire Smart Eating (WISE) is an intervention for the early care and education setting to support children's exposure to and intake of fruits and vegetables. WISE emphasizes 4 evidence-based practices (EBPs): (1) use of a mascot; (2) educators' role modeling; (3) positive feeding practices; and (4) hands-on exposures. The current study reports on a small-scale implementation trial aimed at improving the use of WISE EBPs by teachers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Month of Birth and Mental Disorders: A Population-Based Study and Validation Using Global Meta-Analysis.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Objective: Month of birth (MOB) is associated with specified mental disorders (MDs). However, whether these relationships extend to all MDs remains unclear. We investigate the association using a population-based cohort study and a meta-analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between weight control behaviors and diet quality among Brazilian adolescents and young adults: Health Survey of São Paulo with Focus on Nutrition, 2015.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: Little is known about how behaviors to control weight are associated with diet quality among youth from low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine associations between efforts to control weight (ECW) and diet quality among Brazilian adolescents and young adults.

Methods: Data from 731 participants (17. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Associations between Children's Genetic Susceptibility to Obesity, Infant's Appetite and Parental Feeding Practices in Toddlerhood.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 26;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Université de Paris, CRESS, INSERM, INRAE, F-75004 Paris, France.

Previous findings suggest that parental feeding practices may adapt to children's eating behavior and sex, but few studies assessed these associations in toddlerhood. We aimed to study the associations between infant's appetite or children's genetic susceptibility to obesity and parental feeding practices. We assessed infant's appetite (three-category indicator: low, normal or high appetite, labelled 4-to-24-month appetite) and calculated a combined obesity risk-allele score (genetic risk score of body mass index (BMI-GRS)) in a longitudinal study of respectively 1358 and 932 children from the EDEN cohort. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19-Related Stress and Anxiety, Body Mass Index, Eating Disorder Symptomatology, and Body Image in Women from Poland: A Cluster Analysis Approach.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Pedagogy, University of Bielsko-Biala, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biala, Poland.

To limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), many countries have introduced mandated lockdown or social distancing measures. Although these measures may be successful against COVID-19 transmission, the pandemic and attendant restrictions are a source of chronic and severe stress and anxiety which may contribute to the emergence or worsening of symptoms of eating disorders and the development of negative body image. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to: (1) classify different conditions associated with COVID-19-related stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and weight status; and (2) analyze and compare the severity of dimensions typically related to eating disorders symptomatology and body image in individuals with different COVID-19-related stress, COVID-19-related anxiety, and weight status. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Physical Activity, Sedentariness, Eating Behaviour and Well-Being during a COVID-19 Lockdown Period in Greek Adolescents.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, 42100 Trikala, Greece.

Adolescents' daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF