309,238 results match your criteria feeding

Microplastics in seawater and zooplankton: A case study from Terengganu estuary and offshore waters, Malaysia.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 1;786:147466. Epub 2021 May 1.

Faculty of Science & Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Widespread accumulation and distribution of microplastics at the sea surface raise concerns as the habitat is a feeding ground for zooplankton. As primary consumers, these organisms are closely connected to microplastic input in the marine food chain. Little comparative information currently exists about this problem in estuary and offshore systems. Read More

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Interactions of functional microorganisms and their contributions to methane bioconversion to short-chain fatty acids.

Water Res 2021 Apr 26;199:117184. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Methane bioconversion to value-added liquid chemicals has been proposed as a promising solution to augment the petroleum-dominated chemical market. Recent investigations have reported that various electron acceptors (e.g. Read More

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What's in the soup? Visual characterization and polymer analysis of microplastics from an Indonesian manta ray feeding ground.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 10;168:112427. Epub 2021 May 10.

Marine Megafauna Foundation, Truckee, CA, United States; Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; Aquatic Megafauna Research Unit, Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Plastics in marine environments vary in their physical and chemical properties, influencing their risk to biota once ingested. Manta rays are large filter-feeders that ingest plastics. To assess this risk, we characterized the plastics in a critical feeding habitat off Nusa Penida, Indonesia. Read More

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The effect of the use of copper carbonate and copper nanoparticles in the diet of rats on the level of β-amyloid and acetylcholinesterase in selected organs.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 8;67:126777. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Copper has an important role in nervous system function, as a cofactor of many enzymes and in the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Both the dose and the chemical form of copper can determine the impact of this element on metabolism, the neurological system and the immune system.

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine whether and in what form the addition of copper changes the level of amyloid beta and acetylcholinesterase level in selected rat tissues. Read More

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel F-labeled phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxamide derivative for detection of orexin 1 receptor in the brain.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 10:128098. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Although the orexin 1 receptor (OXR) in the brain is considered to regulate reward and feeding, the in vivo function of OXR has not been fully elucidated. In vivo imaging of OXR with positron emission tomography (PET) may be useful to further understand the molecular details of OXR. In this study, we newly designed and synthesized a phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxamide (PBC) derivative ([F]PBC-1) and evaluated its utility as a PET probe targeting OXR in the brain. Read More

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Cellular carbon stress is a mediator of obesity-associated osteoarthritis development.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, OH, 45701, USA; Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI), Ohio University, OH, 45701, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: 'Carbon stress' is a newly found mechanism that links obesity and dysregulated metabolism. It is defined as the cellular accumulation of metabolites during obesity post-translationally modifying metabolic proteins and decreasing their enzymatic activity. The objective of this study was to investigate if 'carbon stress' also occurs in cartilage and contributes to obesity associated OA development. Read More

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Evolution of life cycle dimorphism: an example of sacoglossan sea slugs.

J Theor Biol 2021 May 10:110760. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda-shi, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan.

Many sea slugs of Sacoglossa (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) are sometimes called "solar-powered sea slugs" because they keep chloroplasts obtained from their food algae and receive photosynthetic products (termed kleptoplasty). Some species show life cycle dimorphism, in which a single species has some individuals with a complex life cycle (the mother produces planktotrophic larvae, which later settle in the adult habitat) and others with a simple life cycle (mothers produce benthic offspring by direct development or short-term nonfeeding larvae in which feeding planktonic stages are skipped). Life cycle dimorphism is not common among marine species. Read More

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Trophic ecology of yellowtail rockfish (Sebastes flavidus) during a marine heat wave off central California, USA.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251499. Epub 2021 May 13.

Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, California, United States of America.

The yellowtail rockfish, Sebastes flavidus, is a widespread and abundant mesopredator in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We utilized stomach content and stable isotope analyses to investigate the trophic ecology of this species at three sites off central California just before (August-October 2013) and during (August and October 2014) a marine heat wave. Sebastes flavidus largely consumed pelagic prey (zooplankton and micronekton). Read More

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Allosteric MAPKAPK2 inhibitors improve plaque stability in advanced atherosclerosis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0246600. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Atherosclerotic vascular disease resulting from unstable plaques is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and thus a major therapeutic goal is to discover T2D drugs that can also promote atherosclerotic plaque stability. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK2 or MK2) in obese mice improves glucose homeostasis and enhances insulin sensitivity. We developed two novel orally active small-molecule inhibitors of MK2, TBX-1 and TBX-2, and tested their effects on metabolism and atherosclerosis in high-fat Western diet (WD)-fed Ldlr-/- mice. Read More

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Effect of inappropriate complementary feeding practices on the nutritional status of children aged 6-24 months in urban Moshi, Northern Tanzania: Cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250562. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Community Health, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania.

Introduction: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). The prevalence of early introduction of complementary feeding, low meal frequency, and low dietary diversity are frequent in LMICs. The effect of inappropriate complementary feeding practices on the nutritional status of children is not well documented in East African countries including Tanzania. Read More

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The Effects of Early Oropharyngeal Administration of Microdosed Colostrum on Feeding Status in Ventilated Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

Breastfeed Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neonatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

For extremely low-birth-weight infants (ELBWIs), mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition are generally required in the early stages and lose the protective effect of early gastrointestinal nutrition of colostrum. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to explore the effectiveness of early colostrum oropharyngeal administration on the feeding status of ELBWIs on mechanical ventilation. We randomly divided mechanically ventilated ELBWIs into an intervention group and a control group. Read More

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Parenteral nutrition with fish oil-based lipid emulsion reduces the risk of cholestasis in preterm infants.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211011805

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Changhua Christian Children's Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan.

Objective: Preterm infants receive long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) for gastrointestinal immaturity. This study aimed to determine if mixed lipid emulsions containing fish oil decrease the incidence of PN-associated cholestasis by reducing oxidative stress and providing an anti-inflammatory effect.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 399 very low birth weight premature infants (gestational age ≤32 weeks) between January 2009 and November 2017 at a single neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

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Myocardin‑related transcription factor A nuclear translocation contributes to mechanical overload‑induced nucleus pulposus fibrosis in rats with intervertebral disc degeneration.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Jul 13;48(1). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Spinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qing'dao, Shandong 266000, P.R. China.

Previous studies have reported that the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA)/myocardin‑related transcription factor A (MRTF‑A) nuclear translocation axis positively regulates fibrogenesis induced by mechanical forces in various organ systems. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this signaling pathway was involved in the pathogenesis of nucleus pulposus (NP) fibrosis induced by mechanical overload during the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and to confirm the alleviating effect of an MRTF‑A inhibitor in the treatment of IVDD. NP cells (NPCs) were cultured on substrates of different stiffness (2. Read More

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polysaccharide ameliorates HFD‑induced mouse obesity via regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory response.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 13;24(1). Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410208, P.R. China.

The present study sought to elucidate the role of polysaccharide (PSP) in high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced mouse obesity and investigated the primary molecular mechanism underlaying these effects. An obese mouse model was established by feeding HFD and three doses of PSP were administered intragastrically. Changes in body weight, serum lipids and parameters were recorded and the mechanism was explored by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting. Read More

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Risk factors for recurrent acute otitis media: a real-life clinical experience.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 Jan-Feb;35(1 Suppl. 2):33-38

Allergy Center, Istituto G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infection in children. Some children with AOM tend to be otitis-prone, such as frequent recurrence of AOM (RAOM). Possible RAOM risk factors are widely debated. Read More

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[Effects and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizers on soil and tritrophic interactions in Chinese medicinal plants ecosystem].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):1893-1900

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Nitrogen is one of the most frequently used fertilizers in growth of Chinese medicinal plants(CMP). As in many other ecosystems, CMP ecosystem is also composed of plant-herbivore-natural enemy(tritrophic) interactions. Nitrogen fertilizer influences the growth and reproduction of CMP, and it is also able to heavily shape the ecosystem functions of CMP ecosystem through bottom-up forces. Read More

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Dynamic evaluation of swallowing in pediatric patients with dysphagia: The Brazilian perspective.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Dynamic Evaluation of Swallowing (DES) is an exam which provides invaluable information on the swallowing function. This review describes the requirements, protocols and processes for DES in regions of Brazil. Dysphagia is a swallowing abnormality, in one or more swallowing phases, with risk and/or occurrence of aspiration, damage regarding nutrition and/or hydration and possible need of nonoral feeding methods. Read More

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Tooth wear, growth and height in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed pelleted or extruded diets with or without added abrasives.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Among the different factors thought to affect dental wear, dietary consistency is possibly the least investigated. To understand tooth wear of herbivorous animals consuming different dietary consistencies with different abrasive potential, we fed 14 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) exclusively with a timothy grassmeal-based diet in either pelleted or extruded form, or the same diets with an addition of 5% fine sand abrasives (mean size 130 µm). First, we offered the rabbits the pelleted and extruded diets as well as the pelleted control and pelleted abrasive diet in a two-stage preference experiment. Read More

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Ecotoxicology of alpine streams in the West Carpathians-Alpine Bullhead (Cottus poecilopus) and high mountain flash flood effects.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of High Mountain Biology, University of Žilina, Tatranská Javorina 7, 059 56, Tatranská Javorina,, Slovakia.

Flash floods represent a serious threat to wildlife, water biota, and human life in pre-alpine regions, particularly in recent historical memory. The alpine bullhead is an established bioindicator of water quality in mountain streams, which can be adversely affected by an increased propensity for flash flooding. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flash flooding on the variation of chemical elements found in the skull of alpine bullheads, with a focus on inter-annual effects. Read More

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Efficient induction of proximity-dependent labeling by biotin feeding in BMAL1-BioID knock-in mice.

J Biochem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Transborder Medical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575, Japan.

Proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) is a useful method to identify unknown protein-protein interactions. Few reports have described genetically engineered knock-in mouse models for in vivo BioID. Thus, little is known about the proper method for biotin administration and which tissues are applicable. Read More

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Impact of manganese amino acid complex on tissue specific trace mineral distribution and corpus luteum function in gilts.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, United States.

Functional corpora lutea (CL) are required for pregnancy establishment and gestational maintenance in swine, and CL function is susceptible to environmental influences. Manganese (Mn) could be critical in regulating CL function since it is a component of the antioxidant enzyme Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as well as enzymes involved in cholesterol and steroid hormone synthesis. We hypothesized that a more bioavailable dietary Mn source would increase Mn content in the CL thereby influencing luteal function during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Read More

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Regulation of systemic metabolism by the autonomic nervous system consisting of afferent and efferent innervation.

Int Immunol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Autonomic nerves, sympathetic and parasympathetic, innervate organs and modulate their functions. It has become evident that afferent and efferent signals of the autonomic nervous system play important roles in regulating systemic metabolism, thereby maintaining homeostasis at the whole-body level. Vagal afferent nerves receive signals, such as nutrients and hormones, from the peripheral organs/tissues including the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue then transmit these signals to the hypothalamus, thereby regulating feeding behavior. Read More

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Tissue and Circulating Fatty Acids as Biomarkers to Evaluate Long-Term Fat Intake Are Tissue and Sex Dependent in CD-1 Mice.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background: There is currently no consensus on which tissues are optimal for assessing specific diet-derived fatty acids (FAs) as biomarkers for long-term dietary studies.

Objectives: This study measured the content of unique diet-derived FAs from dairy, echium, and fish in tissues (adipose, muscle, liver, erythrocyte membranes, and plasma phospholipids, cholesterol esters, triglycerides, and free fatty acids) after long-term feeding in CD-1 mice.

Methods: Beginning at weaning, mice (n = 10-11/sex/diet) were fed 1 of 4 diets (40% kcal/total energy) that only differed in FA composition: control fat blend (CON), reflecting the FA profile of the average US American diet, or CON supplemented with 30% of fish oil (FO), dairy fat (DF), or echium oil (EO). Read More

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Time-Restricted Feeding Regulates Circadian Rhythm of Murine Uterine Clock.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 May 9;5(5):nzab064. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Function Analysis, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Background: Skipping breakfast is associated with dysmenorrhea in young women. This suggests that the delay of food intake in the active phase impairs uterine functions by interfering with circadian rhythms.

Objectives: To examine the relation between the delay of feeding and uterine circadian rhythms, we investigated the effects of the first meal occasion in the active phase on the uterine clock. Read More

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Effect of Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membrane and Lactoferrin in Infant Formula on Gut Microbiome and Metabolome at 4 Months of Age.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 May 2;5(5):nzab027. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Medical and Scientific Affairs, Reckitt|Mead Johnson Nutrition Institute, Evansville, IN, USA.

Background: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin (LF) are human-milk bioactive components demonstrated to support gastrointestinal and immune development. Significantly fewer diarrhea and respiratory-associated adverse events through 18 mo of age were previously reported in healthy term infants fed a cow-milk-based infant formula with an added source of bovine MFGM and bovine LF through 12 mo of age.

Objectives: The aim was to compare microbiota and metabolite profiles in a subset of study participants. Read More

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Retinal Pigment Epithelium Adenoma and Adenocarcinoma: A Review.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021 Mar 22;7(2):121-132. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

L&T Ocular Pathology Department, Vision Research Foundation, Chennai, India.

Adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are rare intraocular tumours that are often misdiagnosed as posterior uveal melanoma or other simulating lesions. It is important to be able to differentiate these tumours from melanoma for 3 reasons. First, an inability to rule out melanoma often tilts the management towards enucleation. Read More

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Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses reveal significant differences in trophic niches of smooth hammerhead (Carcharhiniformes) among three nursery areas in northern Humboldt Current System.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e11283. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Fishery pressure on nursery areas of smooth hammerhead in northern Peruvian coast have become a serious threat to sustainability of this resource. Even though, some management actions focused on conservation of the smooth hammerhead populations were proposed in recent years, their scientific foundations are often limited, and biomass of smooth hammerhead in Peruvian waters continues to decrease. To inform management and conservation, this study aims to evaluate the trophic niche of smooth hammerhead juveniles from three nursery areas in the northern Peruvian coast using stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. Read More

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Autoamputated pharyngeal hairy polyp presented with aero-digestive obstruction: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 20;16(6):1570-1573. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

A pharyngeal hairy polyp (HP) is a rare benign mass that can be surgical detached with few complications. In this report, we describe a hairy polyp in a 7-day-old neonate presented with intermittent respiratory distress and feeding difficulties since birth. Neck computed tomography was performed, and demonstrated a well-defined pedunculated heterogeneous mass arising from the right lateral wall of the nasopharynx extending downward and nearly completely obstructing of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Read More

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Altered Food Habits? Understanding the Feeding Preference of Free-Ranging Gray Langurs Within an Urban Settlement.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:649027. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.

Urbanization affects concurrent human-animal interactions as a result of altered resource availability and land use pattern, which leads to considerable ecological consequences. While some animals have lost their habitat due to urban encroachment, few of them managed to survive within the urban ecosystem by altering their natural behavioral patterns. The feeding repertoire of folivorous colobines, such as gray langur, largely consists of plant parts. Read More

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