240 results match your criteria feedback fsh-beta


Estrogens in Human Male Gonadotropin Secretion and Testicular Physiology From Infancy to Late Puberty.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 25;11:72. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Endocrinology Department, Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Several reports in humans as well as transgenic mouse models have shown that estrogens play an important role in male reproduction and fertility. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are expressed in different male tissues including the brain. The estradiol-binding protein GPER1 also mediates estrogen action in target tissues. Read More

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Gene knockout analysis reveals essentiality of estrogen receptor β1 (Esr2a) for female reproduction in medaka.

Sci Rep 2019 06 20;9(1):8868. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

In vertebrates, sex steroids play crucial roles in multiple systems related to reproduction. In females, estrogens and their receptor estrogen receptor (ER or Esr) play indispensable roles in the negative sex steroid feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotropin secretion, which prevents excessive development of ovarian follicles. However, the mechanism of this feedback regulation of a gonadotropin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which is essential for folliculogenesis throughout vertebrates, is poorly understood. Read More

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Pituitary as a Source of HCG: Residual Levels After Bilateral Testicular Tumor Removal.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2019 Jan-Dec;7:2324709619841414

2 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Cornell-Weil School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Context: Challenging clinical scenario in which elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, subsequently termed HCG) levels suggested occult tumor metastases after removal of bilateral testicular cancers and metastases from them and as well as after chemotherapy.

Case Report: A 22-year-old male, post excision of bilateral testicular tumors, who had no imaging or clinical evidence of residual tumor but an elevated HCG raising the question of the presence and location of occult tumor metastases. Clinical Questions. Read More

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Expressional regulation of gonadotropin receptor genes and androgen receptor genes in the eel testis.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019 09 19;280:123-133. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

Receptors for follicle-stimulating hormone (Fshr), luteinizing hormone (Lhcgr1 and Lhcgr2) and androgens (Ara and Arb) transduce the hormonal signals that coordinate spermatogenesis, but the factors that regulate the abundance of these transducers in fish testes remain little-understood. To mend this paucity of information, we first determined changes in transcript abundance for these receptors (fshr, lhcgr1, ara and arb) during spermatogenesis induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection in the eel, Anguilla australis. We related our findings to testicular production of the fish androgen, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and to the levels of the transcripts encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star) and 11β-hydroxylase (cyp11b), and subsequently evaluated the effects of hCG or 11-KT on mRNA levels of these target genes in vitro. Read More

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September 2019

ASAS-SSR Triennial Reproduction Symposium: Looking Back and Moving Forward-How Reproductive Physiology has Evolved: WNTs role in bovine folliculogenesis and estrogen production.

J Anim Sci 2018 Jun;96(7):2977-2986

Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.

Appreciation of mechanisms that affect steroidogenesis is critical to identifying compromising signals that may decrease reproductive efficiency. Follicle maturation and steroidogenesis requires coordinated actions from the pituitary gonadotropins and local ovarian signaling molecules. β-Catenin (CTNNB1), the lynchpin molecule of canonical wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (WNT) signaling, is required for maximal gonadotropin stimulation of steroid production from granulosa (GC) and luteal cells. Read More

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Sex steroids differentially regulate , and expression in Atlantic cod ().

Reproduction 2017 11 5;154(5):581-594. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Depending on the stage of gonad maturation, as well as other factors, gonadal steroids can exert either a positive or negative feedback at the brain and pituitary level. While this has been demonstrated in many teleost species, little is known about the nature of steroid feedback in Gadiform fish. Using an optimized model system of the Atlantic cod pituitary, the present study investigated the potential effects of two physiologically relevant doses of estradiol, testosterone (TS) or dihydrotestosterone (DHTS) on cell viability and gene expression of gonadotropin subunits (/) and two suggested reproduction-relevant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (/) during three stages of sexual maturity. Read More

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November 2017

Pituitary-thyroid axis development during the larval-juvenile transition in the pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis.

J Fish Biol 2017 Sep 23;91(3):818-834. Epub 2017 Jul 23.

Laboratorio de Ictiofisiología y Acuicultura, Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas-Instituto Tecnológico de Chascomús, (IIB-INTECH, CONICET-UNSAM), Intendente Marino Km. 8,200 (B7130IWA), Chascomús, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The morphological development of the thyroid gland of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis during larval-juvenile transition was studied and related to whole-body concentrations of thyroxine (T ) and tri-iodothyronine (T ). A complementary (c)DNA fragment of the thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit (tshb) was sequenced and transcript levels quantified during this period. Follicles with eosinophilic and T -immunoreactive colloids were detected at hatching together with tshb transcript levels and whole-body concentrations of T and T hormones. Read More

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September 2017

Effects of active immunization against GnRH versus surgical castration on hypothalamic-pituitary function in boars.

Theriogenology 2017 Jul 26;97:89-97. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Isotope Research Lab, Biological Engineering and Application Biology Department, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, PR China. Electronic address:

The objective was to compare effects of anti-GnRH immunization (immunocastration) versus surgical castration on hypothalamic-pituitary function in boars. Thirty-six boars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (boostered 8 wk later). Compared to intact boars, immunocastration reduced (P < 0. Read More

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Molecular basis of growth, proliferation, and differentiation of mammalian follicular granulosa cells.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2017 Jan-Mar;31(1):1-8

Department of Anatomy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

For normal folliculogenesis and oogenesis to occur many intrinsic and extrinsic factors are needed, i.e. positive feedback of hormone secretion and local ovarian-follicular growth factors distribution. Read More

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Conserved miR-10 family represses proliferation and induces apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells.

Sci Rep 2017 01 23;7:41304. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Chinese University of Hong Kong - Shandong University Joint Laboratory for Reproductive Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.

Granulosa cells (GCs) are essential somatic cells in the ovary and play an important role in folliculogenesis. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and the TGF-β pathway have been identified as a critical hormone and signalling pathway, respectively, in GCs. In this study, we found that a conserved microRNA family that includes miR-10a and miR-10b repressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in human, mouse, and rat GCs (hGCs, mGCs and rGCs, respectively). Read More

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January 2017

Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

Aquat Toxicol 2016 Sep 22;178:118-31. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112, USA; Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 98164, USA. Electronic address:

It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. Read More

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September 2016

Biological mechanisms of premature ovarian failure caused by psychological stress based on support vector regression.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(11):21393-9. Epub 2015 Nov 15.

Basic School of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University Guangzhou 510006, China.

Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Read More

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February 2016

Estradiol Restrains Prepubertal Gonadotropin Secretion in Female Mice via Activation of ERα in Kisspeptin Neurons.

Endocrinology 2016 Apr 29;157(4):1546-54. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Neuroscience Training Program (S.L.D.) and Department of Neuroscience (S.L.D., J.E.L.), University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705; Department of Pediatrics (A.W., S.R.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (U.B.), University of Saarland School of Medicine, Homburg D-66421, Germany; and Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (J.E.L.), Madison, Wisconsin 53715.

Elimination of estrogen receptorα (ERα) from kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons results in premature LH release and pubertal onset, implicating these receptors in 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated negative feedback regulation of GnRH release during the prepubertal period. Here, we tested the dependency of prepubertal negative feedback on ERα in Kiss1 neurons. Prepubertal (postnatal d 14) and peripubertal (postnatal d 34) wild-type (WT) and Kiss1 cell-specific ERα knockout (KERαKO) female mice were sham operated or ovariectomized and treated with either vehicle- or E2-containing capsules. Read More

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Estradiol Priming Improves Gonadotrope Sensitivity and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Obese Women.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Nov 1;100(11):4372-81. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Z.A.A., J.C., J.L., C.R., A.P.B., N.S., W.K., A.J.P.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045; Department of Biostatistics and Informatics (H.L., N.E.C., T.P.), Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado 80045; Center for Health and the Environment and California National Primate Research Center (N.A.G.), University of California, Davis, California 95616; and Department of Medicine (W.K.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045.

Context: Obesity is associated with a pro-inflammatory state and relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Estrogen (E2) is a potential link between these phenomena because it exhibits negative feedback on gonadotropin secretion and also inhibits production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Objective: We sought to examine the effect of estrogen priming on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in obesity. Read More

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November 2015

RNAi-mediated knockdown of INHBB increases apoptosis and inhibits steroidogenesis in mouse granulosa cells.

J Reprod Dev 2015 9;61(5):391-7. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China.

Inhibins are members of the TGFβ superfamily and act as suppressors of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from pituitary glands via a negative feedback mechanism to regulate folliculogenesis. In this study, the INHBB gene was knocked down by three RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector- mediated recombinant plasmids to explore the effects of INHBB silencing on granulosa cell (GC) cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA were performed to evaluate the role of INHBB in the mouse GC cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. Read More

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Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2015 Sep 22;298(9):1644-58. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Departamento De Fisiologia, Instituto De Biociências, Universidade De São Paulo, Rua Do Matão, Travessa 14, 321, São Paulo, 05508-090, SP, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Read More

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September 2015

Gonadotrope-specific deletion of Dicer results in severely suppressed gonadotropins and fertility defects.

J Biol Chem 2015 Jan 18;290(5):2699-714. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

From the Departments of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Center for Reproductive Sciences, Institute for Reproductive Health and Regenerative Medicine, and

Pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are heterodimeric glycoproteins expressed in gonadotropes. They act on gonads and promote their development and functions including steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Although transcriptional regulation of gonadotropin subunits has been well studied, the post-transcriptional regulation of gonadotropin subunits is not well understood. Read More

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January 2015

β-catenin stabilization in gonadotropes impairs FSH synthesis in male mice in vivo.

Endocrinology 2015 Jan;156(1):323-33

Departments of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (V.K., Y.W., X.Z., S.K., D.J.B.) and Animal Science (R.L., S.K.), McGill University, Montréal, Canada H3G 1Y6; Département de Biomédecine Vétérinaire (D.B., V.K., A.B., C.R., C.C.) and Département de Pathologie et Microbiologie (M.P.), Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Canada J2S 7C6; and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (U.B.), University of Saarland School of Medicine, 66421 Homburg, Germany.

Although classically considered a WNT signaling intermediary, β-catenin (CTNNB1) can also mediate GnRH induction of gonadotropin β-subunit (Fshb and Lhb) transcription in the murine gonadotrope-like cell line LβT2. Here, we assessed CTNNB1's role in gonadotropin synthesis in vivo. We used a Cre/lox approach to introduce both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in the murine Ctnnb1 gene in gonadotrope cells. Read More

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January 2015

The association between nonylphenols and sexual hormones levels among pregnant women: a cohort study in Taiwan.

PLoS One 2014 22;9(8):e104245. Epub 2014 Aug 22.

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Read More

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Receptors of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-axis hormone in uterine myomas.

Biomed Res Int 2014 22;2014:521313. Epub 2014 Jun 22.

Department of Proteomics, Medical University of Silesia, Jednosci Street 8, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.

In this study the expression of GnRH, FSH, LH, ER-α, ER-β, and PR receptors was examined in uterine myomas of women in reproductive and perimenopausal age. In cases of GnRH and tropic hormones a membranous and cytoplasmic immunohistochemical reaction was detected, in cases of ER-α and PR the reaction was located in cell nucleus, and in the case of ER-β it manifested also a cytoplasmic location. In some of the examined cases the expression was detected in endometrium, myocytes, and endothelium of blood vessels, in uterine glands and myoma cells. Read More

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Effects of diethylstilbestrol on luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the mouse anterior pituitary.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2014 Mar 12;239(3):311-9. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027, Japan.

Gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Neonatal diethylstilbestrol (neoDES) treatment affects reproductive function of male and female mice, but the effect of this treatment on the development as well as direct effects on pituitary gonadotrophs have not been ascertained. We investigated LH-secreting gonadotropes and the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins in the anterior pituitary of neoDES mice using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Read More

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Characterization of the mechanism of inhibin α-subunit gene in mouse anterior pituitary cells by RNA interference.

PLoS One 2013 3;8(10):e74596. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Laboratory of Animal Infectious Diseases, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China ; Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education. College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Inhibin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] superfamily, is a suppressor of follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] release through pituitary-gonadal negative feedback loop to regulate follicular development. In this study, Inhibin α-subunit [Inha] gene was knocked down successfully in mice primary anterior pituitary cells at both transcriptional and translational levels by RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen Vector mediated recombinant pshRNA vectors. The results indicated that inhibin silencing significantly promoted apoptosis by up-regulating Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes without affecting p53 both at transcriptional and translational levels. Read More

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Active immunization against GnRH reduces the synthesis of GnRH in male rats.

Theriogenology 2013 Dec 29;80(9):1109-16. Epub 2013 Sep 29.

Isotope Research Lab, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an 625014, People's Republic of China.

We sought to determine the effects of active anti-GnRH immunization on GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus. Adult male rats (n = 36) were randomly and equally allocated into three groups: Control (no treatment), surgically castrated, or immunized against 50 μg D-Lys6-GnRH-tandem-dimer peptide conjugated to ovalbumin in Specol adjuvant at 12 week of age (with a booster 8 week later). Blood samples (for antibody titers and hormone concentrations) were collected at 2-week intervals until rats were killed (20 week). Read More

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December 2013

Kisspeptin regulates gonadotropin genes via immediate early gene induction in pituitary gonadotropes.

Mol Endocrinol 2013 Aug 14;27(8):1283-94. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Center for Reproductive Science and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0674, USA.

Kisspeptin signaling through its receptor, Kiss1R, is crucial for many reproductive functions including puberty, sex steroid feedback, and overall fertility. Although the importance of Kiss1R in the brain is firmly established, its role in regulating reproduction at the level of the pituitary is not well understood. This study presents molecular analysis of the role of kisspeptin and Kiss1R signaling in the transcriptional regulation of the gonadotropin gene β-subunits, LHβ and FSHβ, using LβT2 gonadotrope cells and murine primary pituitary cells. Read More

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Inhibin B levels in hypothyroid males.

Thyroid 2013 Nov 20;23(11):1379-82. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

1 Royal Prince Alfred Hospital , Camperdown, Australia .

Background: The primary role of inhibin B is the regulation of gametogenesis via negative feedback on the production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary.

Methods: We studied 14 males with primary hypothyroidism due to various etiologies to determine if they exhibited hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism involving the reproductive segment of the gonadotrophic axis. Levels of inhibin B, FSH, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin were measured. Read More

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November 2013

Inactivation of AMPKα1 induces asthenozoospermia and alters spermatozoa morphology.

Endocrinology 2012 Jul 11;153(7):3468-81. Epub 2012 May 11.

Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 6175, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (Institut National dela Recherche Agronomique/Centre National dela Recherche Scientifique/Université Tours/Haras Nationaux), 37380 Nouzilly, France.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, is present in metabolic tissues (muscle and liver) and has been identified as a modulator of the female reproductive functions. However, its function in the testis has not yet been clearly defined. We have investigated the potential role of AMPK in male reproduction by using transgenic mice lacking the activity of AMPK catalytic subunit α1 gene [α1AMPK knockout (KO)]. Read More

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A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action.

Aquat Toxicol 2012 Apr 5;110-111:74-83. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204, United States.

Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment. In this study male fathead minnows (FHM) (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two anti-androgens, the herbicide linuron, and the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) individually and as part of a mixture of the two for a 28-day period. Read More

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Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 1 Induction by Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in Pituitary Gonadotrophs.

J Signal Transduct 2012 22;2012:198527. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo 693-8501, Japan.

The frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse secreted from the hypothalamus differently regulates the expressions of gonadotropin subunit genes, luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone β (FSHβ), in the pituitary gonadotrophs. FSHβ is preferentially stimulated at slower GnRH pulse frequencies, whereas LHβ is preferentially stimulated at more rapid pulse frequencies. Several signaling pathways are activated, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C, calcium influx, and calcium-calmodulin kinases, and these may be preferentially regulated under certain conditions. Read More

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The Local Control of the Pituitary by Activin Signaling and Modulation.

Open Neuroendocrinol J 2011 Jan;4:90-101

Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA.

The pituitary gland plays a prominent role in the control of many physiological processes. This control is achieved through the actions and interactions of hormones and growth factors that are produced and secreted by the endocrine cell types and the non-endocrine constituents that collectively and functionally define this complex organ. The five endocrine cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, thyrotropes and gonadotropes, are defined by their primary product, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH). Read More

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January 2011