7,056 results match your criteria fecal microbiome


Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neurotoxicity induced by clindamycin and propionic acid in juvenile hamsters.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Jul 17. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of probiotics on brain intoxication induced by clindamycin and propionic acid (PPA) in hamsters. Fifty golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into five experimental groups of ten animals each: (A) control group receiving phosphate buffered saline; (B) oral buffered PPA-treated group being administered with a neurotoxic dose of 250 mg/kg PPA during three days; (C) oral clindamycin-treated group receiving a single dose of 30 mg clindamycin/kg; and (D, E) the two therapeutic groups being administered the same doses of clindamycin and PPA followed by probiotics for three weeks at a daily dose of 0.2 g/kg. Read More

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The Effect of Feeding Cocoa Powder and on the Composition and Function of Pig Intestinal Microbiome.

Curr Dev Nutr 2018 May 9;2(5):nzy011. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Dietary habits have been linked with variability of gut microbiota composition and disease risk.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding a cocoa powder with or without a probiotic on the composition and function of the fecal microbiome of pigs.

Methods: Four groups of 8 pigs each were fed a standard growth diet supplemented with cocoa powder, (LGG), cocoa powder + LGG, or an equal amount of fiber similar to that found in cocoa powder (control group). Read More

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Gut Microbiome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Other Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2017 Nov 20;2(2):116-123. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

University of Manitoba IBD Clinical and Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: Since the description of the normal human gut microbiome in healthy individuals using broad-range polymerase chain reaction, there has been great advancement in the techniques used to conduct microbiome research and applications of this research across health, gastrointestinal diseases, and nongastrointestinal diseases.

Summary And Key Messages: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), studies have reported gut dysbiosis meaning that the microbial composition, diversity, and richness are altered. Persons with IBD harbor on average 25% fewer microbial genes than healthy persons. Read More

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November 2017

Effect of virgin and refined olive oil consumption on gut microbiota. Comparison to butter.

Food Res Int 2014 Oct 28;64:553-559. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Área de Microbiología, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Jaén, Spain. Electronic address:

There is increasing evidence of the health benefits of olive oil consumption in the diet. Some authors have studied the effect of high fat/high calorie diets and have detected changes on the microbiota. However, these studies are mainly based on saturated fats. Read More

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October 2014

High Gut Microbiota Diversity Provides Lower Resistance against Infection by an Intestinal Parasite in Bumblebees.

Am Nat 2018 Aug 7;192(2):131-141. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

The microbiome, especially the gut flora, is known to affect the interaction between parasites and their hosts. In this context, a parasitic infection can be viewed as an invasion into the preexisting microbial ecological community. Hence, in addition to the intrinsic defense mechanisms of the host itself, infection success depends on the colonization resistance of the microbiota. Read More

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August 2018
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Recent advances in probiotics as live biotherapeutics against gastrointestinal diseases.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 Jul 16. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Vignan's Foundation for Science, Technology and Research Vadlamudi, Guntur-522213, Andhra Pradesh. India.

Back ground: Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are a major cause of emergency department visits requiring hospitalizations leading to considerable burden on global economy. Several factors contribute to the onset of gastrointestinal diseases such as pathogens (parasites, bacteria, virus, toxins etc.), autoimmune disorders and severe inflammation of intestine. Read More

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[Preliminary Study on Association Between Intestine Microbiota and Blood Glucose,Blood Lipid Metabolism in Middle-aged and Elderly People in Chengdu].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 May;49(3):408-413

Department of Nutrition,Food Safety and Toxicology,West China School of Public Health,Sichuan University,Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate the possible relationship between the gut microbiota and hyperlipidemia,hyperglycemia in middle-aged and elderly people in Chengdu.

Methods: 51 of middle-aged and elderly people participated in this study. The concentration of blood glucose and lipid,and the other physiological parameters of the subjects were analyzed,and their fecal microbiota was also profiled by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technique. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Differences Between the Intestinal Lumen Microbiota of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF)-Bearing and Non-bearing Rats.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Jul 16. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Pathology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan, China.

Background: Multiple factors including host-microbiota interaction could contribute to the conversion of healthy mucosa to sporadic precancerous lesions. An imbalance of the gut microbiota may be a cause or consequence of this process.

Aim: The goal was to investigate and analyze the composition of gut microbiota during the genesis of precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. Read More

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Minimizing confounders and increasing data quality in murine models for studies of the gut microbiome.

PeerJ 2018 12;6:e5166. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States of America.

Murine models are widely used to explore host-microbe interactions because of the challenges and limitations inherent to human studies. However, microbiome studies in murine models are not without their nuances. Inter-individual variations in gut microbiota are frequent even in animals housed within the same room. Read More

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Metagenomics reveals functional synergy and novel polysaccharide utilization loci in the Castor canadensis fecal microbiome.

ISME J 2018 Jul 16. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Genome Science and Technology Program, University of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) has long been considered an engineering marvel, transforming landscapes and shaping biological diversity through its dam building behavior. While the beaver possesses conspicuous morphological features uniquely adapted for the use of woody plants as construction materials and dietary staples, relatively little is known about the specialized microorganisms inhabiting the beaver gastrointestinal tract and their functional roles in determining host nutrition. Here we use a combination of shotgun metagenomics, functional screening and carbohydrate biochemistry to chart the community structure and metabolic power of the beaver fecal microbiome. Read More

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The murine female intestinal microbiota does not shift throughout the estrous cycle.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(7):e0200729. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Pregnancy is accompanied by maternal physiological adaptations including metabolic, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, skeletomuscular and neurological modifications that facilitate fetal and placental growth and development. Emerging evidence suggests that the maternal intestinal microbiota is modified over the course of healthy pregnancy. We have recently identified a maternal intestinal microbial shift within hours of conception; a shift that continued with advancing gestation. Read More

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July 2018
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Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in patients with solid organ transplants: an institutional experience and review of the literature.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Jul 16:e12967. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215.

Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus, has become the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea, and is associated with increased mortality in all populations. Patients who have received solid organ transplants (SOT) are at increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and CDI recurrence (rCDI). This may be related to chronic immunosuppression, frequent antibiotic exposure, and increased or prolonged hospitalizations. Read More

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July 2018
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Gut microbial and metabolomic profiles after fecal microbiota transplantation in pediatric ulcerative colitis patients.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that carries a significant disease burden in children. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are being explored to help children living with this disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successful in some children with ulcerative colitis. Read More

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July 2018
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Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Reduces Susceptibility to Epithelial Injury and Modulates Tryptophan Metabolism of Microbial Community in a Piglet Model.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Jul 14. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

The Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background And Aims: Fecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] has shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using a piglet model, our previous study indicated that exogenous fecal microbiota can enhance gastrointestinal health through enhancing intestinal barrier. However, specific connections between FMT-induced microbial changes and modulation of intestinal barrier still remain to be fully illustrated. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and Bifidobacterium longum LC67 mitigate alcoholic steatosis in mice by inhibiting LPS-mediated NF-κB activation through restoration of the disturbed gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2018 Jul 16. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Long-term exposure to ethanol simultaneously causes gastrointestinal inflammation, liver injury, and steatosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum LC67, Lactobacillus plantarum LC27, and their mixture (LM) against ethanol-induced steatosis in mice. Exposure to ethanol caused liver damage: it increased ALT, AST, TG, TC, and lipopolysaccharide levels in the blood and induced NF-κB activation in the liver. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Faecal microbiota transplantation with frozen capsules for relapsing Clostridium difficile infections: the first experience from 15 consecutive patients in France.

J Hosp Infect 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Equipe Transversale en Infectiologie et Médecine Interne (ETIMI), Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Beaujon, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, 100 boulevard du Général-Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, France; IAME Research Group, UMR1137, INSERM and University Paris Diderot. Electronic address:

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Screening and selection of Bifidobacterium strains isolated from human feces capable of utilizing resistant starch.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Jul 16. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, 54538, Republic of Korea.

Background: Resistant starch (RS) has been studied for its ability to serve as a substrate for the microbiota present in the human large intestine and for its beneficial physiological effects. The aim of this study was to screen and select novel strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the genus Bifidobacterium isolated from human fecal samples for further application as probiotics relying on their utilization of RS3, a prebiotic.

Results: LABs were isolated from human fecal samples, based on their ability to utilize RS3 as a carbon source. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Counting the Countless: Bacterial Quantification by Targeting rRNA Molecules to Explore the Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease.

Front Microbiol 2018 29;9:1417. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Basic Research Department, Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Over the past decade, the advent of next-generation-sequencing tools has revolutionized our approach to understanding the human gut microbiota. However, numerical data on the gut bacterial groups-particularly low-cell-count microbiota, such as indigenous pathobionts, that are otherwise important components of the microbiota-are relatively limited and disparate. As a result, the comprehensive quantitative structure of the human gut microbiota still needs to be fully defined and standardized. Read More

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June 2018
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Microbiome-related metabolite changes in gut tissue, cecum content and feces of rats treated with antibiotics.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Jul 6;355:198-210. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

BASF, SE, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

The metabolic functionality of the gut microbiota contributes to the metabolism and well-being of its host, although detailed insight in the microbiota's metabolism is lacking. Omics technologies could facilitate unraveling metabolism by the gut microbiota. In this study, we performed metabolite profiling of different matrices of the gut, after antibiotic treatment of rats in order to evaluate metabolite changes observed at different dose levels and in different sexes, and to identify the best tissue matrix for further investigations regarding an assessment of metabolic effects of new compounds with antibiotic activity. Read More

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Metabolic Biosynthesis Pathways Identified from Fecal Microbiome Associated with Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: The fecal microbiome is associated with prostate cancer risk factors (obesity, inflammation) and can metabolize and produce various products that may influence cancer but have yet to be defined in prostate cancer.

Objective: To investigate gut bacterial diversity, identify specific metabolic pathways associated with disease, and develop a microbiome risk profile for prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: After prospective collection of 133 rectal swab samples 2 wk before the transrectal prostate biopsy, we perform 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on 105 samples (64 with cancer, 41 without cancer). Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Altered gut microbiome composition in children with refractory epilepsy after ketogenic diet.

Epilepsy Res 2018 Jun 28;145:163-168. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and composition of intestinal microbiota in children with refractory epilepsy after ketogenic diet (KD) therapy and to explore the bacterial biomarkers related to clinical efficacy.

Methods: We prospectively analyzed 20 patients (14 males, 6 females) treated with KD. Clinical efficacy, electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, and laboratory tests were evaluated, and fecal specimens were obtained prior to and 6 months after therapy. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Calprotectin protects against experimental colonic inflammation in mice.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 Jul 14. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmacology, CIBERehd, School of Pharmacy, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA. University of Granada, Spain.

Background And Purpose: Calprotectin (CP) is a heterodimer composed of S100A8 and S100A9 that is highly abundant in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Calprotectin fecal levels are used routinely to monitor inflammatory bowel disease activity.

Experimental Approach: We aimed to assess the role of calprotectin in intestinal inflammation. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Intestinal microbiome as a risk factor for urinary tract infections in children.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescence, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

As urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens originate from the gut, we hypothesized that the gut environment reflected by intestinal microbiome influences the risk of UTI. Our prospective case-control study compared the intestinal microbiomes of 37 children with a febrile UTI with those of 69 healthy children. We sequenced the regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and used the LefSe algorithm to calculate the size of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect. Read More

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Mediation analysis as a means of identifying dietary components that affect the fecal microbiota of infants weaned by modified baby-led, compared to traditional, approaches.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The introduction of 'solids' (i.e. complementary foods) to the milk-only diet of early infancy affects the development of the gut microbiota. Read More

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July 2018
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Real-time monitoring of HT29 epithelial cells as an in vitro model for assessing functional differences among intestinal microbiotas from different human population groups.

J Microbiol Methods 2018 Jul 10. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA-CSIC), 33300 Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain; Diet, Microbiota and Health Group, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Spain. Electronic address:

Several in vitro screening tests have been used for selecting probiotic strains; however they often show low predictive value and only a limited number of strains have demonstrated functionality in vivo. The most used in vitro tests represent a very simplified version of the gut environment, especially since they do not consider the accompanying microbiota. Therefore, there is a need to develop sensitive and discriminating in vitro models including the microbiota. Read More

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Ingestion of an Inulin-Enriched Pork Sausage Product Positively Modulates the Gut Microbiome and Metabolome of Healthy Rats.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 Jul 13:e1800608. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Kirstinebjergvej 10, 5792, Aarslev, Denmark.

Scope: Processed meat intake is associated with a potential increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. In contrast, dietary fiber consumption has been found to lower CRC risk, possibly via mechanisms involving the gut microbiota (GM) and its metabolites. This study investigated the effect of inulin enrichment of a common pork sausage product on GM composition and activity in healthy rats. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

The Microbiota-Inflammasome Hypothesis of Major Depression.

Bioessays 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Mind and Brain Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, 5001, SA, Australia.

We propose the "microbiota-inflammasome" hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD, a mental illness affecting the way a person feels and thinks, characterized by long-lasting feelings of sadness). We hypothesize that pathological shifts in gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) caused by stress and gut conditions result in the upregulation of pro-inflammatory pathways mediated by the Nod-like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome (an intracellular platform involved in the activation of inflammatory processes). This upregulation exacerbates depressive symptomatology and further compounds gut dysbiosis. Read More

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Characteristics of gut microbiota and its response to a Chinese Herbal Formula in elder patients with metabolic syndrome.

Drug Discov Ther 2018 ;12(3):161-169

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University.

Alterations in gut microbiota have been known to play a critical role in metabolic syndrome. However, the microbial features in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. A traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Yangyin Tiluo Decoction (YTD), can alleviate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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January 2018

Peroral Low-Dose Infection of Human Microbiota-Associated Mice - A Subacute Ileitis Model to Unravel Pathogen-Host Interactions.

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2018 Jun 16;8(2):53-61. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Microbiology and Infection Immunology, Berlin, Germany.

Within 1 week following high-dose infection, mice develop lethal necrotizing ileitis. However, data from a subacute gondii-induced ileitis model are scarce. Therefore, mice harboring a human gut microbiota were perorally infected with one cyst of Within 9 days post-infection, the intestinal microbiota composition shifted towards higher loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci. Read More

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June 2018
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Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Octapeptide NAP in Human Microbiota-Associated Mice Suffering from Subacute Ileitis.

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2018 Jun 23;8(2):34-40. Epub 2018 May 23.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Microbiology and Infection Immunology, Berlin, Germany.

The octapeptide NAP is well known for its neuroprotective properties. We here investigated whether NAP treatment could alleviate pro-inflammatory immune responses during experimental subacute ileitis. To address this, mice with a human gut microbiota were perorally infected with one cyst of (day 0) and subjected to intraperitoneal synthetic NAP treatment from day 1 until day 8 postinfection (p. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Preterm Gut Microbiome Depending on Feeding Type: Significance of Donor Human Milk.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:1376. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council, Valencia, Spain.

Preterm microbial colonization is affected by gestational age, antibiotic treatment, type of birth, but also by type of feeding. Breast milk has been acknowledged as the gold standard for human nutrition. In preterm infants breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development and a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

[Impact on the intestinal microbiota of early antibiotic treatment in preterm neonates].

Authors:
W W Zhu Z L Li

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jul;56(7):505-510

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

To investigate the impact of early antibiotics treatment on intestinal microbiota in preterm infants. The cohort study was performed from January 2015 to June 2015 in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Peking University Third Hospital. A total of 33 preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 25 were antibiotics-exposure group, and 8 were non-exposure group. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Stool Microbiota Composition Differs in Patients with Stomach, Colon, and Rectal Neoplasms.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, P.O. Box 21, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Microbial ecosystems that inhabit the human gut form central component of our physiology and metabolism, regulating and modulating both health and disease. Changes or disturbances in the composition and activity of this gut microbiota can result in altered immunity, inflammation, and even cancer.

Aim: To compare the composition and diversity of gut microbiota in stool samples from patient groups based on the site of neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and to assess the possible contribution of the bacterial composition to tumorigenesis. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

The composition of the perinatal intestinal microbiota in cattle.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 11;8(1):10437. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Recent research suggests that the microbial colonization of the mammalian intestine may begin before birth, but the observations are controversial due to challenges in the reliable sampling and analysis of low-abundance microbiota. We studied the perinatal microbiota of calves by sampling them immediately at birth and during the first postnatal week. The large size of the bovine newborns allows sampling directly from rectum using contamination-shielded swabs. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Is Effective in Relieving Visceral Hypersensitivity in a Postinfectious Model.

Biomed Res Int 2018 30;2018:3860743. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, China.

Aim: To investigate the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on visceral hypersensitivity compared with .

Methods: Mice visceral hypersensitivity was induced by . After 8 weeks, they were divided into three groups (controls, , and fecal microbiota transplantation) and were daily treated by gavage with 0. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Update on Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Authors:
Paul Moayyedi

Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y) 2018 May;14(5):319-322

Audrey Campbell Chair in Ulcerative Colitis Research Farncombe Institute Division of Gastroenterology McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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Gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the development of murine transfusion-related acute lung injury.

Blood Adv 2018 Jul;2(13):1651-1663

Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a syndrome of respiratory distress upon blood transfusion and is the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities. Whether the gut microbiota plays any role in the development of TRALI is currently unknown. We observed that untreated barrier-free (BF) mice suffered from severe antibody-mediated acute lung injury, whereas the more sterile housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice and gut flora-depleted BF mice were both protected from lung injury. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Fecal Microbiota and Screening for Colorectal Cancer.

Clin Chem 2018 Jul 10. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

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Cholecystectomy Damages Aging-Associated Intestinal Microbiota Construction.

Front Microbiol 2018 25;9:1402. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

The intestinal microbiome is essential in humans to maintain physiological balance and nutrition metabolism. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to gallstone disease and cholecystitis can cause intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and following bile acid metabolism dysfunction, positions the patient at high risk of colorectal cancer. However, little is known regarding intestinal microbiota characteristics in post-cholecystectomy patients. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Urban Diets Linked to Gut Microbiome and Metabolome Alterations in Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:1345. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Loss of traditional diets by food globalization may have adverse impact on the health of human being through the alteration of gut microbial ecosystem. To address this notion, we compared the gut microbiota of urban ( = 17) and rural ( = 28) school-aged children in Thailand in association with their dietary habits. Dietary records indicated that children living in urban Bangkok tended to consume modern high-fat diets, whereas children in rural Buriram tended to consume traditional vegetable-based diets. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Exploratory Analysis of the Microbiological Potential for Efficient Utilization of Fiber Between Lantang and Duroc Pigs.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:1342. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

There is growing interest in the use of unconventional feed ingredients containing higher dietary fiber for pig production due to increasing prices of cereal grains and the potential health benefits of dietary fiber on host animals. This study aimed to gain insight into the community-wide microbiome population between the Chinese native Lantang pigs and the commercial Duroc pigs to uncover the microbiological mechanisms for the degradation capacity of fiber in pigs. Utilizing the metagenomics approach, we compared the phylogeny and functional capacity of the fecal microbiome from approximately 150-day-old female Lantang and Duroc pigs fed a similar diet. Read More

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Body Mass Index Differences in the Gut Microbiota Are Gender Specific.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:1250. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the development of obesity, but the influence of gender remains elusive. Using a large cohort of Chinese adults, our study aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota as a function of body mass index (BMI) and investigate gender specific features within these differences. Five hundred fifty-one participants were categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese, based on their BMI. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Compositional differences in gastrointestinal microbiota in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen axis-targeted therapies.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2018 Jul 9. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: It is well known that the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota can influence the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of cancer therapies. Conversely, the effect of cancer treatments on the composition of the GI microbiota is poorly understood. We hypothesized that oral androgen receptor axis-targeted therapies (ATT), including bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and abiraterone acetate, may be associated with compositional differences in the GI microbiota. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Dietary fiber increases the butyrate-producing bacteria and improves growth performance of weaned piglets.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Jul 9. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

The study investigated the impact of dietary fibers on performance, fecal short-chain fatty acids, nutrients digestibility and bacterial community in weaned piglets with control group (CON), dietary supplementation of 5% corn bran (CB), 5% wheat bran (WB) or 5% soybean hulls (SB). The piglets in CB and WB groups showed greater weight gain and feed efficiency (P < 0.05) in comparation with piglets in CON and SB groups. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

The microbial reproductive ecology of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

Am J Primatol 2018 Jul 9:e22896. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Changes in reproductive status influence energy and nutrient requirements in female primates. The gut microbiota may buffer changes in energy demands, with shifts in community composition increasing the energy production potential of the gut during pregnancy and lactation. In this study, we examine changes in the gut microbiome of wild, female white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) across different reproductive states. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Consumption of Black Legumes Glycine soja and Glycine max Lowers Serum Lipids and Alters the Gut Microbiome Profile in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Jul 9;66(28):7367-7375. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Marine Agriculture Research Center , Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , 11 Keyuanjingsi Road , Laoshan, Qingdao , Shandong 266101 , People's Republic of China.

This study investigated the potential health benefits of two different species of black legume [ Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. and Glycine max (L. Read More

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Green tea extract and black tea extract differentially influence cecal levels of short-chain fatty acids in rats.

Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jun 1;6(4):728-735. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Bio-Science and Engineering Shibaura Institute of Technology Minuma-ku Saitama-shi Saitama Japan.

Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a critical role to maintain the host's health. The biological function of microbially produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) becomes the focus of attention. This study aimed to compare the effects of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) on cecal levels of SCFA in rats. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Exacerbation of Type 1 Diabetes in Perinatally Genistein Exposed Female Non-Obese Diabetic (Nod) Mouse is Associated with Alterations of Gut Microbiota and Immune Homeostasis.

Toxicol Sci 2018 Jul 5. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Despite various hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) from soy-based products, many questions surrounding GEN's immunotoxic effects, especially during perinatal exposure, have yet to be answered. The objective of the study was to determine if there existed a sex specific effect of GEN on type 1 diabetes (T1D) following perinatal exposure. We exposed offspring of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice to GEN per oral at a physiological dose (20 mg/kg body weight) from embryonic day 7 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Inulin-Type Fructan Supplementation of 3 to 6 Year-Old Children Is Associated with Higher Fecal Bifidobacterium Concentrations and Fewer Febrile Episodes Requiring Medical Attention.

J Nutr 2018 Jul 3. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Paediatrics, Clinical Center of the University of Pécs.

Background: Inulin-type fructans used in formula have been shown to promote microbiota composition and stool consistency closer to those of breastfed infants and to have beneficial effects on fever occurrence, diarrhea, and incidence of infections requiring antibiotic treatment in infants.

Objectives: The primary study aim was to explore whether prophylactic supplementation with prebiotic fructans is able to influence the frequency of infectious diseases in kindergarten children during a winter period. A secondary objective was to ascertain the effect on the intestinal microbiota. Read More

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Analysis of temporal fecal microbiota dynamics in weaner pigs with and without exposure to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

J Anim Sci 2018 Jul 3. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

The primary aim of this work was to study potential effects of sub-clinical enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) exposure on porcine fecal microbiota composition, with a secondary aim of profiling temporal shifts in bacterial communities over the weaning transition period. 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to profile the fecal microbiota and quantify ETEC excretion in the feces, respectively. Temporal shifts in fecal microbiota structure and stability were observed across the immediate post-weaning period (P < 0. Read More

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July 2018
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