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    Association between body mass index and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in an adult Ukrainian population.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 May 22;17(1):120. Epub 2017 May 22.
    D. F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology, NAMS, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Background: Metagenomic studies confirm that obesity is associated with a composition of gut microbiota. There are some controversies, however, about the composition of gut microbial communities in obese individuals in different populations. To examine the association between body mass index and microbiota composition in Ukrainian population, fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio were analyzed in 61 adult individuals. Read More

    Methods and Reporting Studies Assessing Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Systematic Review.
    Ann Intern Med 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    From INSERM U1153, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre d'Epidémiologie Clinique, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, French Cochrane Centre, and Hôpital Cochin, Paris, France, and Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York.
    Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be a novel treatment option for several chronic diseases associated with altered gut microbiota.

    Purpose: To examine the conduct and reporting of studies assessing FMT.

    Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to 31 January 2017. Read More

    Metformin alters the gut microbiome of individuals with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes, contributing to the therapeutic effects of the drug.
    Nat Med 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action. In a double-blind study, we randomized individuals with treatment-naive T2D to placebo or metformin for 4 months and showed that metformin had strong effects on the gut microbiome. Read More

    The Probiotic Compound VSL#3 Modulates Mucosal, Peripheral, and Systemic Immunity Following Murine Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Treatment.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 5;7:167. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Gastrointestinal Microbiology Research Group, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité - University MedicineBerlin, Germany.
    There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B. Read More

    How to: Establish and run a stool bank.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands and also representative of the European Study Group of C. difficile (ESGCD).
    Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation" (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, fecal suspension preparation and transfer of the fecal suspension differ between various countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the fecal suspension product. Read More

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a multi-strain probiotic in treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.
    Inflammopharmacology 2017 May 20. Epub 2017 May 20.
    King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS, UK.
    Background: Diverticular disease is a significant burden on healthcare systems that is managed, surgically or medically, mainly as an emergency or acute condition. There are no standardized treatment recommendations for symptomatic uncomplicated disease. We hypothesized that a probiotic would reduce abdominal pain in such patients. Read More

    Gut homeostasis and regulatory T cell induction depend on molecular chaperone gp96 in CD11c(+) cells.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 19;7(1):2171. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States.
    The intestinal immunity and tolerance are orchestrated by both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. How gut pAPCs maintain mucosal homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Read More

    'Targeting the gut-liver axis in liver disease'.
    J Hepatol 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    University College London, Institute of Hepatology, London, UK.
    The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis. Read More

    Aloin, a Component of the Aloe Vera Plant Leaf, Induces Pathological Changes and Modulates the Composition of Microbiota in the Large Intestine of F344/N Male Rats.
    Toxicol Sci 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Division of Biochemical Toxicology.
    In a previous study, the oral administration of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract induced dose-related mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia in the rat colon after 13-weeks and colon cancer after two years. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether or not the administration of aloin, a component of the Aloe vera plant leaf, would replicate the pathophysiological effects that were observed in rats in the previous study with an Aloe vera whole leaf extract. Groups of 10 male F344/N rats were administered aloin at 0, 6. Read More

    Evaluating the association between body weight and the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets via 16S rRNA sequencing.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Due to the ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in livestock feeds, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the physiology of the host has become very important for improving livestock performance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intestinal microbiota and body weights of weaned piglets. Lighter (n = 9) and heavier (n = 9) 9-week-old weaned piglets were selected from approximately one hundred individuals based on their body weights. Read More

    Hypoxia and Inactivity Related Physiological Changes (Constipation, Inflammation) Are Not Reflected at the Level of Gut Metabolites and Butyrate Producing Microbial Community: The PlanHab Study.
    Front Physiol 2017 4;8:250. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of LjubljanaLjubljana, Slovenia.
    We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133. Read More

    Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory Crohn's disease.
    Intest Res 2017 Apr 27;15(2):244-248. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    Approximately one-third of patients with Crohn's disease do not respond to conventional treatments, and some experience significant adverse effects, such as serious infections and lymphoma, and many patients require surgery due to complications. Increasing evidence suggests that specific changes in the composition of gut microbiota, termed as dysbiosis, are a common feature in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dysbiosis can lead to activation of the mucosal immune system, resulting in chronic inflammation and the development of mucosal lesions. Read More

    Increased urinary trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) following Cryptosporidium infection and protein malnutrition independent of microbiome effects.
    J Infect Dis 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    UVA Center for Global Health, University of Virginia, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Charlottesville, VA, US. (DTB and RLG).
    Cryptosporidium infections have been associated with growth stunting even in the absence of diarrhea. Having previously detailed the effects of protein deficiency on both microbiome and metabolome in this model, we now describe the specific gut microbial and biochemical effects of Cryptosporidium infection. Protein deficient mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for 6-13 days and compared to uninfected controls. Read More

    Treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis: past, present and future.
    Eur J Clin Invest 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Service d'hépato-gastroentérologie, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Alcoholic hepatitis manifests as a clinical syndrome characterized by recent jaundice and liver function deterioration in an actively drinking patient. The principal cause of alcoholic hepatitis is alcoholic steatohepatitis defined histologically by the coexistence of steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and satellitosis. While non-severe alcoholic hepatitis usually responds to alcohol abstinence, severe alcoholic hepatitis, identified by Maddrey scoring ≥ 32, has a bad prognosis and is traditionally treated by a 28-day course of prednisone therapy. Read More

    Fecal microbiota transplantation outcomes in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: A single-center experience.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major infectious disease focus for which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used with success in various patient populations.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of FMT in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients to review outcomes at our center, with a focus on identifying risk factors for FMT failure in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. FMT was conducted using universal banked frozen stool via naso-duodenal tube in patients with recurrent CDI of 3 or more episodes per our institutional protocol. Read More

    In vivo fermentation of a Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide and its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immune response.
    Food Funct 2017 May;8(5):1810-1821
    College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China.
    A novel, homogeneous Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide (PEP) (molecular weight 426 kDa, purity 91.25 ± 3.14%) which mainly consisted of glucose with β-type glycosidic linkages was used to investigate in vivo fermentation behavior and effects on immune response in mice. Read More

    Enterobacter aerogenes ZDY01 attenuates choline-induced Trimethylamine N-oxide levels via remodeling gut microbiota in mice.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330047, P. R. China.
    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. Read More

    Ionic liquid-based reagents improve the stability of midterm fecal sample storage.
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 May 13;139:68-73. Epub 2017 May 13.
    BGI Research, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China; China National GeneBank-Shenzhen, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:
    Fecal samples are widely used in metagenomic research, which aims to elucidate the relationship between human health and the intestinal microbiota. However, the best conditions for stable and reliable storage and transport of these samples at room temperature are still unknown, and whether samples stored at room temperature for several days will maintain their microbiota composition is still unknown. Here, we established and tested a preservation method using reagents containing imidazolium- or pyridinium-based ionic liquids. Read More

    Changes in microbial ecology after fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent C. difficile infection affected by underlying inflammatory bowel disease.
    Microbiome 2017 May 15;5(1):55. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    Background: Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD. Read More

    Uncovering the trimethylamine-producing bacteria of the human gut microbiota.
    Microbiome 2017 May 15;5(1):54. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Microbial Interactions and Processes Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstraße 7, Braunschweig, 38124, Germany.
    Background: Trimethylamine (TMA), produced by the gut microbiota from dietary quaternary amines (mainly choline and carnitine), is associated with atherosclerosis and severe cardiovascular disease. Currently, little information on the composition of TMA producers in the gut is available due to their low abundance and the requirement of specific functional-based detection methods as many taxa show disparate abilities to produce that compound.

    Results: In order to examine the TMA-forming potential of microbial communities, we established databases for the key genes of the main TMA-synthesis pathways, encoding choline TMA-lyase (cutC) and carnitine oxygenase (cntA), using a multi-level screening approach on 67,134 genomes revealing 1107 and 6738 candidates to exhibit cutC and cntA, respectively. Read More

    Fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in a patient with concomitant inflammatory bowel disease.
    Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2017 May 16;109. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Gastroenterology Department, Coimbra University Hospital.
    The use of fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and coexistent inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear. A 61-year-old man with ulcerative pancolitis was diagnosed with a third recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection, previously treated with metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Fecal microbiota transplantation of an unrelated healthy donor was performed by the lower route. Read More

    The Gut Microbiota and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2017 28;11:120. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    MIND Institute, University of California Davis Medical CenterSacramento, CA, USA.
    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. Read More

    Predictors of failure after single faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: results from a three-year cohort study: authors' reply.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Gastroenterology Area, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

    Vendor effects on murine gut microbiota influence experimental abdominal sepsis.
    J Surg Res 2017 May 14;211:126-136. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Experimental animal models are indispensable components of preclinical sepsis research. Reproducible results highly rely on defined and invariant baseline conditions. Our hypothesis was that the murine gut microbiota varies among different distributors of laboratory animals and that these variations influence the phenotype of abdominal sepsis derived from a bacterial inoculum model (intraperitoneal stool injection). Read More

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota relate to intestinal failure-associated liver disease and central line infections.
    J Pediatr Surg 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Research, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Background: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications.

    Procedure: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. Read More

    Protective Factors in the Intestinal Microbiome Against Clostridium difficile Infection in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Apr;215(7):1117-1123
    Infectious Diseases Service and.
    Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that confer protection against CDI after engraftment.

    Methods: Feces collected from adult recipients allo-HSCT at engraftment were analyzed; 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced and analyzed from each sample. Read More

    Gastrointestinal Colonization of Candida Albicans Increases Serum (1→3)-β-D-Glucan, without Candidemia, and Worsens Cecal Ligation and Puncture Sepsis in Murine Model.
    Shock 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    *Interdisciplinary Program of Medical Microbiology, Graduate school, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand †Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand ‡Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand §Omics Sciences and Bioinformatics Center, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand ||Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Mulawarman University, Indonesia ¶Associates of Cape Cod, Inc., East Falmouth, MA, USA **Center of Excellence in Immunology and Immune-mediated Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand ††STAR on Craniofacial and Skeleton Disorders, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    The role of intestinal Candida albicans in bacterial sepsis, in the absence of candidemia, was investigated in murine models. Live C. albicans or normal saline solution (NSS) was administered orally once, followed by 5 days of daily oral antibiotic-mixtures (ATB). Read More

    Compositional Changes in the Gut Mucus Microbiota Precede the Onset of Colitis-Induced Inflammation.
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017 Jun;23(6):912-922
    *Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; †Bio-Health Informatics Group, School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; and ‡Infection, Injury and Inflammation Research Group, Division of Medicine and Neurosciences, University of Manchester and Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, United Kingdom.
    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an inappropriate immune response to the gut microbiota. Notably, patients with IBD reportedly have alterations in fecal microbiota. However, the colonic microbiota occupies both the gut lumen and the mucus covering the epithelium. Read More

    pH-Mediated Microbial and Metabolic Interactions in Fecal Enrichment Cultures.
    mSphere 2017 May-Jun;2(3). Epub 2017 May 3.
    Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
    pH and fermentable substrates impose selective pressures on gut microbial communities and their metabolisms. We evaluated the relative contributions of pH, alkalinity, and substrate on microbial community structure, metabolism, and functional interactions using triplicate batch cultures started from fecal slurry and incubated with an initial pH of 6.0, 6. Read More

    Association Study of Gut Flora in Coronary Heart Disease through High-Throughput Sequencing.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 9;2017:3796359. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.
    Objectives. We aimed to explore the impact of gut microbiota in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients through high-throughput sequencing. Methods. Read More

    Intestinal microbiota contributes to colonic epithelial changes in simulated microgravity mouse model.
    FASEB J 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Sciences Center, Beijing, China;
    Exposure to microgravity leads to alterations in multiple systems, but microgravity-related changes in the gastrointestinal tract and its clinical significance have not been well studied. We used the hindlimb unloading (HU) mouse model to simulate a microgravity condition and investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and colonic epithelial cells. Compared with ground controls (Ctrls), HU affected fecal microbiota composition with a profile that was characterized by the expansion of Firmicutes and decrease of Bacteroidetes The colon epithelium of HU mice showed decreased goblet cell numbers, reduced epithelial cell turnover, and decreased expression of genes that are involved in defense and inflammatory responses. Read More

    [Changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine].
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2017 Apr;25(4):291-296
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Guizhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Guiyang 550004, China.
    Objective: To investigate the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure and identify characteristic bacteria, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acute liver failure with intestinal microbiota disorders. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were used in this study, including 25 mice in the model group and 5 mice in the control group. An acute liver failure model was induced by D-galactosamine. Read More

    Characterization of the juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas) microbiome throughout an ontogenetic shift from pelagic to neritic habitats.
    PLoS One 2017 11;12(5):e0177642. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States of America.
    The gut microbiome of herbivorous animals consists of organisms that efficiently digest the structural carbohydrates of ingested plant material. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) provide an interesting model of change in these microbial communities because they undergo a pronounced shift from a surface-pelagic distribution and omnivorous diet to a neritic distribution and herbivorous diet. As an alternative to direct sampling of the gut, we investigated the cloacal microbiomes of juvenile green turtles before and after recruitment to neritic waters to observe any changes in their microbial community structure. Read More

    Current challenges in the treatment of severe Clostridium difficile infection: early treatment potential of fecal microbiota transplantation.
    Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 8;10(4):373-381. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a very effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Less is known about the application of FMT as a curative treatment of severe or complicated CDI. In this review, we present and discuss evidence supporting the curative use of FMT in severe or complicated CDI. Read More

    Sodium bisulfate and a sodium bisulfate/tannin mixture decreases pH when added to an in vitro incubated poultry cecal or fecal contents while reducing Salmonella Typhimurium marker strain survival and altering the microbiome.
    J Environ Sci Health B 2017 May 10:1-9. Epub 2017 May 10.
    a Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science , University of Arkansas , Fayetteville , Arkansas , USA.
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of animal feed-grade sodium bisulfate (SBS) and a mixture of sodium bisulfate/tannin to inhibit the growth of Salmonella using an anerobic in vitro mixed cecal culture to mimic the conditions within the chicken cecum. An initial inoculum of Salmonella Typhimurium was introduced to an anerobic dilution solution containing 1/3000 diluted cecal bacteria and solids consisting of ground chicken feed and different percentages of solid SBS or SBS/tannin, and surviving organisms were enumerated. Two different experimental designs were employed. Read More

    Protective Effect of Carvacrol against Gut Dysbiosis and Clostridium difficile Associated Disease in a Mouse Model.
    Front Microbiol 2017 21;8:625. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Animal Science, University of ConnecticutStorrs, CT, USA.
    This study investigated the effect of carvacrol (CR), a phytophenolic compound on antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and C. difficile infection in a mouse model. Five to six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (challenge and control) of eight mice each. Read More

    Total fecal microbiota transplantation alleviates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice via beneficial regulation of gut microbiota.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 8;7(1):1529. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Center for Fatty Liver, Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.
    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an epidemic metabolic disease with limited therapeutic strategies. Cumulative data support the pivotal role of gut microbiota in NASH. Here, we investigated the hypothesis regarding whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in attenuating high-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatohepatitis in mice. Read More

    Cancer killers in the human gut microbiota: diverse phylogeny and broad spectra.
    Oncotarget 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Systemomics Center, College of Pharmacy, and Genomics Research Center, State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.
    Cancer as a large group of complex diseases is believed to result from the interactions of numerous genetic and environmental factors but may develop in people without any known genetic or environmental risks, suggesting the existence of other powerful factors to influence the carcinogenesis process. Much attention has been focused recently on particular members of the intestinal microbiota for their potential roles in promoting carcinogenesis. Here we report the identification and characterization of intestinal bacteria that exhibited potent anti-malignancy activities on a broad range of solid cancers and leukemia. Read More

    Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: a Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
    Gastroenterology 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background & Aims: Probiotics can reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about their effects on psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 (BL) on anxiety and depression in patients with IBS.

    Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 44 adults with IBS and diarrhea or a mixed-stool pattern (based on Rome III criteria) and mild to moderate anxiety and/or depression (based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale) at McMaster University in Canada, from March 2011 to May 2014. Read More

    No evidence for a bovine mastitis Escherichia coli pathotype.
    BMC Genomics 2017 May 8;18(1):359. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Münster, Mendelstrasse 7, 48149, Münster, Germany.
    Background: Escherichia coli bovine mastitis is a disease of significant economic importance in the dairy industry. Molecular characterization of mastitis-associated E. coli (MAEC) did not result in the identification of common traits. Read More

    TCDD influences reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in murine gut microbiome.
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, East Lansing, Michigan 48824.
    Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome via antibiotics, changes in diet, and infection can select for bacterial groups that more frequently harbor antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). However, the impact of environmental toxicants on the reservoir of ARGs in the gut microbiome has received less attention. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist with multiple toxic health effects including immune dysfunction. Read More

    Effects of different oligosaccharides at various dosages on the composition of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in mice with constipation.
    Food Funct 2017 May;8(5):1966-1978
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different kinds of oligosaccharides (a fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) formulation consisting of 95% FOS (FOS95); a galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) formulation consisting of 90% GOS (GOS90) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) formulation consisting of 90% IMO (IMO90)) at dosages of 0.8, 4 g per d per kg bw and 8 g per d per kg bw on the composition and activity of the microbiota in the gut of mice with constipation induced by loperamide. Oligosaccharides were intragastrically administered to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice once per day for 17 days. Read More

    Gut Microbiota as a Trigger of Accelerated Directional Adaptive Evolution: Acquisition of Herbivory in the Context of Extracellular Vesicles, MicroRNAs and Inter-Kingdom Crosstalk.
    Front Microbiol 2017 20;8:721. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und BiodiversitätsforschungBerlin, Germany.
    According to a traditional view, the specific diet in vertebrates is one of the key factors structuring the composition of the gut microbiota. In this interpretation, the microbiota assumes a subordinate position, where the larger host shapes, through evolution and its fitness, the taxonomical composition of the hosted microbiota. The present contribution shows how the evolution of herbivory, framed within the new concept of holobiont, the possibility of inter-kingdom crosstalk and its epigenetic effects, could pave the way to a completely reversed interpretation: instead of being passively shaped, the microbiota can mold and shape the general host body structure to increase its fitness. Read More

    Comprehensive Diagnosis of Bacterial Infection Associated with Acute Cholecystitis Using Metagenomic Approach.
    Front Microbiol 2017 20;8:685. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Surgery, Toho University Ohashi Medical CenterTokyo, Japan.
    Acute cholecystitis (AC), which is strongly associated with retrograde bacterial infection, is an inflammatory disease that can be fatal if inappropriately treated. Currently, bacterial culture testing, which is basically recommended to detect the etiological agent, is a time-consuming (4-6 days), non-comprehensive approach. To rapidly detect a potential pathogen and predict its antimicrobial susceptibility, we undertook a metagenomic approach to characterize the bacterial infection associated with AC. Read More

    A Metagenomics Investigation of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Saudi Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 20;8:666. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    The digestive microbiota of humans and of a wide range of animals has recently become amenable to in-depth studies due to the emergence of DNA-based metagenomic techniques that do not require cultivation of gut microbes. These techniques are now commonly used to explore the feces of humans and animals under the assumption that such samples are faithful proxies for the intestinal microbiota. Sheep (Ovis aries) are ruminant animals particularly adapted to life in arid regions and in particular Najdi, Noaimi (Awassi), and Harrei (Harri) breeds that are raised in Saudi Arabia for milk and/or meat production. Read More

    Tracking microbial colonization in fecal microbiota transplantation experiments via genome-resolved metagenomics.
    Microbiome 2017 May 4;5(1):50. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Section of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and shows promise for treating other medical conditions associated with intestinal dysbioses. However, we lack a sufficient understanding of which microbial populations successfully colonize the recipient gut, and the widely used approaches to study the microbial ecology of FMT experiments fail to provide enough resolution to identify populations that are likely responsible for FMT-derived benefits.

    Methods: We used shotgun metagenomics together with assembly and binning strategies to reconstruct metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from fecal samples of a single FMT donor. Read More

    Effect of Synbiotic on the Gut Microbiota of Caesarean Delivered Infants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study.
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    *KK Women's and children's Hospital, Singapore†Danone Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands‡Danone Nutricia Research, Singapore§King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital||Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand¶Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16 V on the gut microbiota of caesarean born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16 V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Read More

    A Retrospective Comparison of Fecal Microbial Transplantation Methods for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2016 Oct;18(10):594-599
    Departments of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases.
    Background: Antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has a high failure rate. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proven very effective in treating these recurrences.

    Objectives: To determine which method of fecal microbiota transplantation (upper or lower gastrointestinal) and which type of donor (a relative or unrelated) is superior. Read More

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