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    1 OF 110

    Probiotics in Asthma and Allergy Prevention.
    Front Pediatr 2017 31;5:165. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Salvini Hospital, Milan, Italy.
    Interest in probiotic research and its potential benefits in infant foods are relatively recent but significantly increasing. The evolution of the knowledge in the last 20 years demonstrated that alterations in the microbiome may be a consequence of events occurring during infancy or childhood, including prematurity, cesarean section, and nosocomial infections. Several pieces of evidence prove that a "healthy" intestinal microbiota facilitates the development of immune tolerance. Read More

    Isolation of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Producing the Bioactive Metabolite Isourolithin A from Ellagic Acid.
    Front Microbiol 2017 7;8:1521. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Laboratory of Food and Health, Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, Centre for Applied Soil Science and Biology of the Segura - Spanish National Research CouncilMurcia, Spain.
    Urolithins are intestinal microbial metabolites produced from ellagitannin- and ellagic acid-containing foods such as walnuts, strawberries, and pomegranates. These metabolites, better absorbed than their precursors, can contribute significantly to the beneficial properties attributed to the polyphenols ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA). However, both the ability of producing the final metabolites in this catabolism (urolithins A, B and isourolithin A) and the health benefits associated with ellagitannin consumption differ considerably among individuals depending on their gut microbiota composition. Read More

    The Fungal Frontier: A Comparative Analysis of Methods Used in the Study of the Human Gut Mycobiome.
    Front Microbiol 2017 31;8:1432. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    APC Microbiome Institute, Biosciences Institute, University College CorkCork, Ireland.
    The human gut is host to a diverse range of fungal species, collectively referred to as the gut "mycobiome". The gut mycobiome is emerging as an area of considerable research interest due to the potential roles of these fungi in human health and disease. However, there is no consensus as to what the best or most suitable methodologies available are with respect to characterizing the human gut mycobiome. Read More

    Serotonin Transporter Genotype Modulates the Gut Microbiota Composition in Young Rats, an Effect Augmented by Early Life Stress.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2017 3;11:222. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Neurobiology, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of GroningenGroningen, Netherlands.
    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a vital regulatory role in both the brain and gut. 5-HT is crucial for regulating mood in the brain as well as gastrointestinal motility and secretion peripherally. Alterations in 5-HT transmission have been linked to pathological symptoms in both intestinal and psychiatric disorders and selective 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitors, affecting the 5-HT system by blocking the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) have been successfully used to treat CNS- and intestinal disorders. Read More

    Gavage of Fecal Samples From Patients with Colorectal Cancer Promotes Intestinal Carcinogenesis in Germ-free and Conventional Mice.
    Gastroenterology 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Institute of Digestive Disease, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences and CUHK-Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:
    Background & Aims: Altered gut microbiota is implicated in development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Some intestinal bacteria have been reported to potentiate intestinal carcinogenesis by producing genotoxins, altering the immune response and intestinal micro-environment, and activating oncogenic signaling pathways. We investigated whether stool from patients with CRC could directly induce colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Read More

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2017 Aug;16(4):375-381
    Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to assess the contribution of gut microbiota dysbiosis to the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

    Methods: Forty-seven human feces samples (25 NAFLD patients and 22 healthy subjects) were collected and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing was conducted on Hiseq 2000 platform. Read More

    Gut microbiota trajectory in patients with severe burn: A time series study.
    J Crit Care 2017 Aug 12;42:310-316. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: This time series experiments aimed to investigate the dynamic change of gut microbiomes after severe burn and its association with enteral nutrition (EN).

    Materials And Methods: Seven severely burned patients who suffered from a severe metal dust explosion injury were recruited in this study. The dynamic changes of gut microbiome of fecal samples at six time points (1-3days, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6weeks after severe burn) were detected using 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing technology. Read More

    Dysbiosis signature of mycobiota in colon polyp and colorectal cancer.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, No. 301 Yanchang Road, Jingan District, Shanghai, China.
    Microbiota refers to a colony of microorganisms, and they are found in all multicellular organisms. This colony plays a major role in both the physiology and disease of the organism it inhabits. Much attention has been paid to host-microbiota interactions, but there has been little investigation on its role in carcinogenesis. Read More

    The influence of the position of palmitate in infant formula triacylglycerols on health outcomes.
    Nutr Res 2017 Aug 17;44:1-8. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents. Read More

    The effect of storage at ambient temperature on the feline fecal microbiota.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 18;13(1):256. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Background: Feline fecal microbiota analyses can potentially be impacted by a variety of factors such as sample preparation, sequencing method and bioinformatics analyses. Another potential influence is changes in the microbiota from storage of samples prior to processing. This study examined the effect of ambient temperature exposure on the feline fecal microbiota composition. Read More

    Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Aug 17;17(1):175. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, DK-2800, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Background: Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. Read More

    Mosapride Stabilizes Intestinal Microbiota to Reduce Bacterial Translocation and Endotoxemia in CCl4-Induced Cirrhotic Rats.
    Dig Dis Sci 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hangzhou Red Cross Hospital, 208 Huancheng Dong Road, Hangzhou, 310003, China.
    Background: Impaired intestinal motility may lead to the disruption of gut microbiota equilibrium, which in turn facilitates bacterial translocation (BT) and endotoxemia in cirrhosis. We evaluated the influence of mosapride, a prokinetic agent, on BT and DNA fingerprints of gut microbiota in cirrhotic rats.

    Methods: A rat model of cirrhosis was set up via subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Read More

    Effect of barley supplementation on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation in obese db/db mice.
    Eur J Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    School of Food Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.
    Purpose: Barley is a low-glycemic index grain that can help diabetic and obese patients. The effect of barley intake depends on the host and the associated gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of barley intake on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. Read More

    Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA;
    Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined.Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation. Read More

    Faecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
    Med J Aust 2017 Aug;207(4):166-172
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Objectives: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a useful approach for treating Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have recently evaluated its effectiveness, but systematic reviews have focused on evidence from case series. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of FMT for treating CDAD. Read More

    Bacteriophages in the gastrointestinal tract and their implications.
    Gut Pathog 2017 10;9:44. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Laboratory of Bacteriophages, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences (HIIET PAS), 53-114 Wrocław, Poland.
    The gut microbiota plays an essential role in health and disease of humans. Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the gut virobiota and display great diversity. Phages can translocate through the mucosa to lymph and internal organs and play a role as regulators of the bacterial population in the gut. Read More

    Role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated colon cancer protection in high fat diet-fed AOM/DSS mice.
    Clin Transl Oncol 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 4028, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.
    Objective: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. Read More

    Patterns of seasonality and group membership characterize the gut microbiota in a longitudinal study of wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi).
    Ecol Evol 2017 Aug 15;7(15):5732-5745. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology UnitGerman Primate CenterGöttingenGermany.
    The intestinal microbiota plays a major role in host development, metabolism, and health. To date, few longitudinal studies have investigated the causes and consequences of microbiota variation in wildlife, although such studies provide a comparative context for interpreting the adaptive significance of findings from studies on humans or captive animals. Here, we investigate the impact of seasonality, diet, group membership, sex, age, and reproductive state on gut microbiota composition in a wild population of group-living, frugi-folivorous primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Read More

    A simple methodology to collect culturable bacteria from feces of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae).
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil.
    A simple methodology based in a modified mosquito cage with a Petri dish containing culture medium was successfully used as an alternative method to the traditional digestive tract dissection protocol to collect bacteria from the feces of the mosquito Anopheles darlingi. Read More

    Comparative gut microbiota and resistome profiling of intensive care patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination and healthy subjects.
    Microbiome 2017 Aug 14;5(1):88. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown. Read More

    Investigation into the stability and culturability of Chinese enterotypes.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 11;7(1):7947. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest, and Key Laboratory for Food Microbial Technology of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 198 Shiqiao Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310021, P. R. China.
    Although many gut microbial enterotypes have been reported in Europe, Africa and the U.S., their effects on human health are still not yet clear. Read More

    Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) as potential vectors for the dispersal of Vibrio cholerae.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 11;7(1):7973. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel.
    Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a devastating epidemic and pandemic disease. Despite its importance, the way of its global dissemination is unknown. V. Read More

    Stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) product in a mouse model of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
    Anaerobe 2017 Aug 9;48:110-114. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics & Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, UT Health Houston, TX, USA; Kelsey Research Foundation, Houston, TX, USA; University of Texas, McGovern Medical School, USA. Electronic address:
    Freezing donor fecal microbiota has simplified fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). However, the optimal storage time for the frozen FMT products remains unknown. Read More

    Assessment of therapeutic response in Crohn's disease using quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parameters: A preliminary study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Aug;96(32):e7759
    aDepartment of Radiology bCenter of Intestinal Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    The aim of the study was to investigate dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) as a potential marker to assess the therapeutic responses of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to determine the parameter or combination of parameters most strongly associated with changes in clinical indicators after treatment.In 22 CD patients, DCE-MRI was performed with a 3.0T scanner. Read More

    Gut dysbiosis in mice genetically selected for low antibody production.
    Gut Pathog 2017 7;9:43. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biosciences of the State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Campus de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP 18618-961 Brazil.
    Background: Dysbiosis is linked to the cause of several human diseases, many of which having an immunity related component. This work investigated whether mice genetically selected for low or high antibody production display differences in intestinal bacterial communities, and consisted in the comparison of fecal 16SV6-V8 rDNA PCR amplicons resolved by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of five each of low (LIII) and high (HIII) antibody producing mice. 16SV6 rDNA amplicons of 2 mice from each line were sequenced. Read More

    Infant Gut Microbiome Associated With Cognitive Development.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Electronic address:
    Background: Studies in rodents provide compelling evidence that microorganisms inhabiting the gut influence neurodevelopment. In particular, experimental manipulations that alter intestinal microbiota impact exploratory and communicative behaviors and cognitive performance. In humans, the first years of life are a dynamic time in gut colonization and brain development, but little is known about the relationship between these two processes. Read More

    Clostridium difficile infections in young infants: Case presentations and literature review.
    IDCases 2017 24;10:7-11. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    It has been assumed that symptomatic Clostridium difficile infections do not occur in young infants, as this specific group would lack specific C. difficile toxin receptors. As a consequence, it is often current practice not to test for C. Read More

    Free Fatty Acids Profiles Are Related to Gut Microbiota Signatures and Short-Chain Fatty Acids.
    Front Immunol 2017 24;8:823. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Area of Immunology, Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.
    A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. Read More

    Determination of Resistant Starch Assimilating Bacteria in Fecal Samples of Mice by In vitro RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:1331. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Faculty of Medical & Life Sciences, Institute of Precision Medicine, Furtwangen UniversityVillingen-Schwenningen, Germany.
    The impact of the intestinal microbiota on human health is becoming increasingly appreciated in recent years. In consequence, and fueled by major technological advances, the composition of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease has been intensively studied by high throughput sequencing approaches. Observations linking dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota with a number of serious medical conditions including chronic inflammatory disorders and allergic diseases suggest that restoration of the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota may be a treatment option at least for some of these diseases. Read More

    Gut Microbiome Response to Sucralose and Its Potential Role in Inducing Liver Inflammation in Mice.
    Front Physiol 2017 24;8:487. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel Hill, NC, United States.
    Sucralose is the most widely used artificial sweetener, and its health effects have been highly debated over the years. In particular, previous studies have shown that sucralose consumption can alter the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a key role in processes related to host health, such as food digestion and fermentation, immune cell development, and enteric nervous system regulation. Read More

    The In-Feed Antibiotic Carbadox Induces Phage Gene Transcription in the Swine Gut Microbiome.
    MBio 2017 Aug 8;8(4). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA
    Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic fed to over 40% of young pigs in the United States that has been shown to induce phage DNA transduction in vitro; however, the effects of carbadox on swine microbiome functions are poorly understood. We investigated the in vivo longitudinal effects of carbadox on swine gut microbial gene expression (fecal metatranscriptome) and phage population dynamics (fecal dsDNA viromes). Microbial metagenome, transcriptome, and virome sequences were annotated for taxonomic inference and gene function by using FIGfam (isofunctional homolog sequences) and SEED subsystems databases. Read More

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the gut microbiota pattern and gastrointestinal characteristics in an adult population.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Jun;117(12):1645-1655
    1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics,Harokopio University,70 El. Venizelou str.,17671 Kallithea,Greece.
    This study aimed to explore the potential associations of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with gut microbiota characteristics and gastrointestinal symptomatology in an adult population. Other long-term dietary habits (e.g. Read More

    Transplanted human fecal microbiota enhanced Guillain Barré syndrome autoantibody responses after Campylobacter jejuni infection in C57BL/6 mice.
    Microbiome 2017 Aug 8;5(1):92. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Comparative Enteric Diseases Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Background: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading antecedent infection to the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is accompanied by an autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibody attack on peripheral nerves. Previously, we showed that contrasting immune responses mediate C. jejuni induced colitis and autoimmunity in interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice, dependent upon the infecting strain. Read More

    Impact of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis upon the intestinal microbiota and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in vaginally delivered full-term neonates.
    Microbiome 2017 Aug 8;5(1):93. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPLA-CSIC), Ctra. Infiesto s/n, 33300, Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.
    Background: Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Read More

    Specificities of the intestinal microbiota in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and Clostridium difficile infection.
    Gut Microbes 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    c Department of Gastroenterology , Saint Antoine Hospital, AP-HP, UPMC Univ Paris 06 , Paris , France.
    Background And Aims: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common complication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has been associated with poor IBD outcome. Intestinal microbiota composition in IBD patients with CDI has not been specifically evaluated to date.

    Methods: The fecal microbiota of 56 IBD patients, including 8 in flare with concomitant CDI, 24 in flare without CDI, and 24 in remission, as well as 24 healthy subjects, was studied using 16S sequencing. Read More

    Ontogenesis of the Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy, Full-Term, Vaginally Born and Breast-Fed Infants over the First 3 Years of Life: A Quantitative Bird's-Eye View.
    Front Microbiol 2017 21;8:1388. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Probiotics Research Laboratory, Juntendo University Graduate School of MedicineTokyo, Japan.
    Early-life intestinal microbiota development is crucial for host's long-term health and is influenced by many factors including gestational age, birth and feeding modes, birth environment, ethnic/geographical background, etc. However, 'quantitative' data on the actual population levels of gut bacterial communities when these influences are controlled for is relatively rare. Herein, we demonstrate a quantitative perspective of microbiota development in natural and healthy milieus, i. Read More

    Short-term treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid improves inflammation and affects colonic differentiation markers and microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 7;7(1):7458. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. In this pilot study we evaluated the effect of Eicosapentaenoic acid as free fatty acid (EPA-FFA) supplementation on mucosal disease activity, colonic differentiation markers and microbiota composition in UC patients. Twenty long-standing UC patients in stable clinical remission and with fecal calprotectin (FC) > 150 µg/g were enrolled (T0) and supplemented with EPA-FFA 2 g/daily for 90 days (T3). Read More

    A Method to Assess Bacteriocin Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Mice.
    J Vis Exp 2017 Jul 25(125). Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC);
    Very intriguing questions arise with our advancing knowledge on gut microbiota composition and the relationship with health, particularly relating to the factors that contribute to maintaining the population balance. However, there are limited available methodologies to evaluate these factors. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by many bacteria that may confer a competitive advantage for food acquisition and/or niche establishment. Read More

    Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 attenuates type 2 diabetes via a gut microbiota dependent mechanism.
    Food Funct 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China. and International Joint Research Center for Probiotics & Gut Health, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P.R. China and Beijing Innovation Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, P. R. China.
    Probiotics, as dietary supplements, transmit their major effects through the regulation of gut microbiota. According to a previous study, one possible mechanism of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 protection against diabetes may involve gut flora. To test this hypothesis, high fat and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J mice were fed L. Read More

    Long-term effects of early antibiotic intervention on blood parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, and fecal microbial fermentation profile in pigs with different dietary protein levels.
    J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2017 1;8:60. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 China.
    Backgroud: This study aimed to determine the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on subsequent blood parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, and fecal fermentation profile in pigs with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Eighteen litters of piglets (total 212) were randomly allocated to 2 groups and were fed a creep feed diet with or without in-feed antibiotics (olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium and kitasamycin) from postnatal d 7 to d 42. On d 42, the piglets within the control or antibiotic group were mixed, respectively, and then further randomly assigned to a normal- (20%, 18%, and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77, d 77 to d 120, and d 120 to d 185, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16%, 14%, and 10% CP from d 42 to d 77, d 77 to d 120, and d 120 to d 185, respectively), generating 4 groups. Read More

    Virome comparisons in wild-diseased and healthy captive giant pandas.
    Microbiome 2017 Aug 7;5(1):90. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Blood Systems Research Institute, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94118, USA.
    Background: The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a vulnerable mammal herbivore living wild in central China. Viral infections have become a potential threat to the health of these endangered animals, but limited information related to these infections is available.

    Methods: Using a viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed viruses in the feces, nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, and different tissues from a wild giant panda that died from an unknown disease, a healthy wild giant panda, and 46 healthy captive animals. Read More

    Fecal markers of inflammation, protein loss, and microbial changes in dogs with the acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS).
    J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
    Background: Idiopathic acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS) is characterized by acute onset of bloody diarrhea, severe dehydration, and increased vascular and intestinal mucosal permeability. Markers of gastrointestinal inflammation, protein loss, and changes in the intestinal microbiota have not been studied extensively in dogs with AHDS.

    Key Findings: For 3 consecutive days, feces were collected from dogs with AHDS, and assayed for calprotectin and S100A12 (both markers of inflammation), α1 -proteinase inhibitor (a marker of gastrointestinal protein loss), and the presence of selected species of bacteria. Read More

    A benign helminth alters the host immune system and the gut microbiota in a rat model system.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(8):e0182205. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
    Helminths and bacteria are major players in the mammalian gut ecosystem and each influences the host immune system and health. Declines in helminth prevalence and bacterial diversity appear to play a role in the dramatic rise of immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) in western populations. Helminths are potent modulators of immune system and their reintroduction is a promising therapeutic avenue for IMIDs. Read More

    Apigenin Impacts the Growth of the Gut Microbiota and Alters the Gene Expression of Enterococcus.
    Molecules 2017 Aug 3;22(8). Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
    Apigenin is a major dietary flavonoid with many bioactivities, widely distributed in plants. Apigenin reaches the colon region intact and interacts there with the human gut microbiota, however there is little research on how apigenin affects the gut bacteria. This study investigated the effect of pure apigenin on human gut bacteria, at both the single strain and community levels. Read More

    Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Beyond Clostridium difficile.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Sep;19(9):31
    Department of Medicine, CEGIIR: Center of Excellence for Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Immunity Research, 7-142 Katz Group Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Purpose Of Review: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of a commensal bacterium, Hafnia alvei CBA7124, isolated from human feces.
    Gut Pathog 2017 27;9:41. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Microbiology and Functionality Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, 61755 Republic of Korea.
    Background: Members of the genus Hafnia have been isolated from the feces of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, as well as from soil, water, sewage, and foods. Hafnia alvei is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. However, its pathogenicity is still unclear. Read More

    Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease.
    Front Microbiol 2017 17;8:1265. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Biology, Concordia UniversityMontréal, QC, Canada.
    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Read More

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