Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    5883 results match your criteria fecal microbiome

    1 OF 118

    The Hygiene Hypothesis in the Age of the Microbiome.
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Nov;14(Supplement_5):S348-S353
    Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich and Comprehensive Pneumology Centre Munich, German Centre for Lung Research, Munich, Germany.
    The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. Examples were endemic fecal-oral infections by viral, bacterial, or protozoic pathogens, such as hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, or Toxoplasma gondii. Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene hypothesis was extended to inflammatory diseases in general. Read More

    Gut Microbiome and Obesity. How to Prove Causality?
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Nov;14(Supplement_5):S354-S356
    Institut Micalis, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
    In recent years, the gut microbiota (the microorganisms that live in our digestive tract) has become an area of great interest. Indeed, this intestinal microbial community performs essential functions in maintaining our health, and has been proven to influence host physiology and metabolism. Thereby, dysregulation of this gut microbiota may be implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity. Read More

    Assessment of Bifidobacterium Species Using groEL Gene on the Basis of Illumina MiSeq High-Throughput Sequencing.
    Genes (Basel) 2017 Nov 21;8(11). Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.
    The next-generation high-throughput sequencing techniques have introduced a new way to assess the gut's microbial diversity on the basis of 16S rRNA gene-based microbiota analysis. However, the precise appraisal of the biodiversity of Bifidobacterium species within the gut remains a challenging task because of the limited resolving power of the 16S rRNA gene in different species. The groEL gene, a protein-coding gene, evolves quickly and thus is useful for differentiating bifidobacteria. Read More

    Successful treatment by fecal microbiota transplantation for Japanese patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection: A prospective case series.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2017 Nov 5. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.
    We prospectively enrolled four Japanese patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and were treated with a single fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The average age of the patients was 83.7 years. Read More

    Modulation of the gut microbiota by metformin improves metabolic profiles in aged obese mice.
    Gut Microbes 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    a College of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University , Seoul 01795 , Korea.
    The gut microbiota is a contributing factor in obesity-related metabolic disorders. The effect of metformin on the gut microbiota has been reported; however, the relationship between the gut microbiota and the mechanism of action of metformin in elderly individuals is unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on the gut microbiota was investigated in aged obese mice. Read More

    A synbiotic-containing amino acid-based formula improves gut microbiota in non-IgE-mediated allergic infants.
    Pediatr Res 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Great North Children's Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Background: Prebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA).

    Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an AAF including synbiotic blend on percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) in feces from infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA. Feces from age matched healthy breastfed infants were used as reference (HBR) for primary outcomes. Read More

    Evaluation of sampling and storage procedures on preserving the community structure of stool microbiota: A simple at-home toilet-paper collection method.
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Departments of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Centre for Human Microbiome and Probiotics, London, Ontario, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada; Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: The increasing interest on the impact of the gut microbiota on health and disease has resulted in multiple human microbiome-related studies emerging. However, multiple sampling methods are being used, making cross-comparison of results difficult. To avoid additional clinic visits and increase patient recruitment to these studies, there is the potential to utilize at-home stool sampling. Read More

    Total Lipopolysaccharide from the Human Gut Microbiome Silences Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.
    mSystems 2017 Nov-Dec;2(6). Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Developmental and Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Cohabitation of microbial communities with the host enables the formation of a symbiotic relationship that maintains homeostasis in the gut and beyond. One prevailing model suggests that this relationship relies on the capacity of host cells and tissues to remain tolerant to the strong immune stimulation generated by the microbiota such as the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indeed, gut microbial LPS is thought to be one of the most potent activators of innate immune signaling and an important mediator of the microbiome's influence on host physiology. Read More

    Fecal microbiota transplantation against irritable bowel syndrome? Rigorous randomized clinical trials are required.
    World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2017 Nov;8(4):208-209
    Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115, Iran.
    Halkjær et al searched systematically nine articles including 48 patients, and concluded that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be an ideal treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subjects. Regardless of the few successes in current traditional therapies (change in diet, herbal medicine and antibiotics) in IBS, a sharp increase in interests in the FMT option has been reported in the current century. However, there is a long list of unclear issues concerning the application of FMT for the treatment of IBS. Read More

    Evaluation and optimization of microbial DNA extraction from fecal samples of wild Antarctic bird species.
    Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2017 26;7(1):1386536. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Introduction: Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Read More

    Toll-like receptor-4 differentially mediates intestinal and extra-intestinal immune responses upon multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa association of IL10(-/-) mice with chronic colitis.
    Gut Pathog 2017 7;9:61. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have become a serious threat particularly in hospitalized patients with immunopathological co-morbidities. The well-balanced interplay between immune cells, pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 sensing lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including PA, and evolving pathways is crucial to prevent the host from invading (opportunistic) pathogens. Information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between intestinal carriage of MDR PA and host immunity during chronic large intestinal inflammation is scarce, however. Read More

    A Two-Week Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Course in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 Nov 19. Epub 2017 Nov 19.
    Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Dysbiosis plays a major role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new promising option for IBD treatment. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a two-week FMT course in children with IBD. Read More

    Depletion of Stercobilin in Fecal Matter from a Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Metabolomics 2017 Nov 3;13(11). Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Chemistry, Natural Sciences Complex, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.
    Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders lacking a clinical biomarker for diagnosis. Emerging evidence shows that intestinal microflora from ASD subjects can be distinguished from controls, suggesting metabolite differences due to the action of intestinal microbes may provide a means for identifying potential biomarkers for ASD.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if quantitative differences in levels of stercobilin and stercobilinogen, metabolites produced by biological action of intestinal microflora, exist in the fecal matter between an ASD mouse model population and controls. Read More

    Comparison of (R)-ketamine and lanicemine on depression-like phenotype and abnormal composition of gut microbiota in a social defeat stress model.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 16;7(1):15725. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan.
    Accumulating evidence suggests a key role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis in the antidepressant actions of certain compounds. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, showed rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. In contrast, another NMDAR antagonist, lanicemine, did not exhibit antidepressant effects in such patients. Read More

    Normalization of the microbiota in patients after treatment for colonic lesions.
    Microbiome 2017 Nov 16;5(1):150. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Background: Colorectal cancer is a worldwide health problem. Despite growing evidence that members of the gut microbiota can drive tumorigenesis, little is known about what happens to it after treatment for an adenoma or carcinoma. This study tested the hypothesis that treatment for adenoma or carcinoma alters the abundance of bacterial populations associated with disease to those associated with a normal colon. Read More

    Difference in clinical course, genetics, and the microbiome between familial and sporadic inflammatory bowel diseases.
    J Crohns Colitis 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objective: Family history is the strongest risk factor for developing Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated whether the proximity of relationship with the affected relative and concordance for type of IBD modifies the effect of family history on phenotype and disease severity.

    Design: This cross-sectional study included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IBD in a clinical registry. Read More

    Digestion under saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from the flowers of Camellia sinensis induced by human gut microbiota.
    Food Funct 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China.
    In the present study, digestion under saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from the flowers of Camellia sinensis (TFPS) by human gut microbiota were investigated. The results indicated that human saliva and simulated gastric and intestinal juices had no effect on TFPS, while TFPS could be utilized by human fecal microbiota, which was proved from the decreased molecular weight and lower content of total or reducing sugars after fermentation under anaerobic conditions. It was found that pH in the fermentation system decreased, and the production of short-chain fatty acids was significantly enhanced. Read More

    Body size phenotypes comprehensively assess cardiometabolic risk and refine the association between obesity and gut microbiota.
    Int J Obes (Lond) 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Vidarium -Nutrition, Health and Wellness Research Center, Grupo Empresarial Nutresa, Medellin, Colombia.
    Background: The gut microbiota associates with obesity and related disorders, but recent meta-analyses have found that this association is, at best, of small effect. We argue that such analyses are flawed by the use of BMI as sole proxy for disease, and explore a classification method that distinguishes the cardiometabolic health status of individuals to look for more comprehensive associations between gut microbes and health.

    Methods: We analyzed a 441 community-dwelling cohort on which we obtained demographic and health information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry data that served to categorize participants according to BMI, cardiometabolic health status and body size phenotypes. Read More

    A role for bacterial urease in gut dysbiosis and Crohn's disease.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 Nov;9(416)
    Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Gut dysbiosis during inflammatory bowel disease involves alterations in the gut microbiota associated with inflammation of the host gut. We used a combination of shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics to analyze fecal samples from pediatric patients with Crohn's disease and found an association between disease severity, gut dysbiosis, and bacterial production of free amino acids. Nitrogen flux studies using (15)N in mice showed that activity of bacterial urease, an enzyme that releases ammonia by hydrolysis of host urea, led to the transfer of murine host-derived nitrogen to the gut microbiota where it was used for amino acid synthesis. Read More

    Intestinal microbiota profiles associated with low and high residual feed intake in chickens across two geographical locations.
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(11):e0187766. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.
    Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE) of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34) and high (n = 35) RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Read More

    Evaluating the impact of domestication and captivity on the horse gut microbiome.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 14;7(1):15497. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldade 5-7, 1350 K, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified. Read More

    Exposure to the fungicide propamocarb causes gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorder in mice.
    Environ Pollut 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:
    Propamocarb (PM) is a widely used fungicide with property of affecting fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis in funguses. In this study, we explored its effects on mice gut microbiota and metabolism by exposing mice to 3, 30, and 300 mg/L PM through drinking water for a duration of 28 days. We observed that the transcription of hepatic genes related to regulate lipid metabolism were perturbed by PM exposure. Read More

    In Vitro Fermentation Patterns of Rice Bran Components by Human Gut Microbiota.
    Nutrients 2017 Nov 12;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 12.
    Department of Food Science, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.
    Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Read More

    Dietary Pea Fiber Supplementation Improves Glycemia and Induces Changes in the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Serum Short Chain Fatty Acid Profile and Expression of Mucins in Glucose Intolerant Rats.
    Nutrients 2017 Nov 12;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 12.
    Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H7, Canada.
    Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and cooked pea seed coats (PSC) on glucose tolerance, microbial composition of the gut, select markers of intestinal barrier function, and short chain fatty acid profile in glucose intolerant rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks to induce glucose intolerance, followed by four weeks of feeding PSC-supplemented diets. Read More

    Phylogenic inference using alignment-free methods for applications in microbial community surveys using 16s rRNA gene.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(11):e0187940. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States of America.
    The diversity of microbiota is best explored by understanding the phylogenetic structure of the microbial communities. Traditionally, sequence alignment has been used for phylogenetic inference. However, alignment-based approaches come with significant challenges and limitations when massive amounts of data are analyzed. Read More

    Fecal Transplantation for Treatment of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Elderly and Debilitated Patients.
    Dig Dis Sci 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Digestive Diseases Institute, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new technique recently introduced to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Little is known about the efficacy and risks of FMT in elderly and ill patients.

    Aim: To investigate FMT efficacy in ill and elderly patients compared to conventional treatment. Read More

    Enteric Delivery of Regenerating Family Member 3 alpha Alters the Intestinal Microbiota and Controls Inflammation in Mice With Colitis.
    Gastroenterology 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    INSERM, U1193, Paul-Brousse University Hospital, Hepatobiliary Centre, Villejuif 94800, France; Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Faculté de Médecine Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pôle de Biologie Médicale, Paul-Brousse University Hospital, Villejuif, France.
    Background & Aims: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice.

    Methods: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter. Read More

    Clinical effects of probiotics in cystic fibrosis patients: A systematic review.
    Clin Nutr ESPEN 2017 Apr 22;18:37-43. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:
    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by a build-up of thick, intransient mucus linings of the digestive and respiratory mucosa, which disrupts digestive system functioning and microbiota composition. In view of the potential for probiotics to enhance microbiota composition in other contexts, this study investigated the current evidence for probiotics as an adjunct to usual therapy for CF. Electronic clinical databases were interrogated for human randomised, controlled, intervention trials (1985-2015) testing the effects of probiotics on clinical endpoints in CF were reviewed. Read More

    Emerging Topics in Gastroenterology.
    Prim Care 2017 Dec 5;44(4):733-742. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, 1010 North Kansas, Wichita, KS 67214, USA.
    The bacteria and fungi in the human gut make up a community of microorganisms that lives in symbiosis with humans, engaging in numerous diverse interactions that influence health. This article outlines the current knowledge on emerging topics in gastroenterology, including microbiome and probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and microscopic colitis. Read More

    Probiotics for fibromyalgia: study design for a pilot double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
    Nutr Hosp 2017 Oct 24;34(5):1246-1251. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Departamento de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Medicina, Universidad de Almería. Departamento de Enfermería, Universidad de Almería.
    Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, generalized and diffuse pain disorder accompanied by other symptoms such as emotional and cognitive deficits. The FMS patients show a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently it has been found that microbes in the gut may regulate brain processes through the gut-microbiota-brain axis, modulating thus affection, motivation and higher cognitive functions. Read More

    [Current research progress and thinking of fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders].
    Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017 Oct;20(10):1104-1108
    Intestinal Microenvironment Treatment Center, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China.
    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI. Read More

    Optimization of GC/TOF MS analysis conditions for assessing host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions: Chinese rhubarb alters fecal aromatic amino acids and phenol metabolism.
    Anal Chim Acta 2017 Dec 19;995:21-33. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Center for Instrumental Analysis, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:
    In this paper, an optimized method based on gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) platform has been developed for the analysis of gut microbial-host related co-metabolites in fecal samples. The optimization was performed with proportion of chloroform (C), methanol (M) and water (W) for the extraction of specific metabolic pathways of interest. Loading Bi-plots from the PLS regression model revealed that high concentration of chloroform emphasized the extraction of short chain fatty acids and TCA intermediates, while the higher concentration of methanol emphasized indole and phenyl derivatives. Read More

    Recipe for IBD: can we use food to control inflammatory bowel disease?
    Semin Immunopathol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. Read More

    Alteration of Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Cytokine/Chemokine Profiles in 5-Fluorouracil Induced Intestinal Mucositis.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 26;7:455. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Compound Chinese Medicines, The Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Disturbed homeostasis of gut microbiota has been suggested to be closely associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) induced mucositis. However, current knowledge of the overall profiles of 5-Fu-disturbed gut microbiota is limited, and so far there is no direct convincing evidence proving the causality between 5-Fu-disturbed microbiota and colonic mucositis. In mice, in agreement with previous reports, 5-Fu resulted in severe colonic mucositis indicated by weight loss, diarrhea, bloody stool, shortened colon, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Read More

    Clostridium difficile infection in the elderly: an update on management.
    Clin Interv Aging 2017 24;12:1799-1809. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA.
    The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. Read More

    Influence of vitamin D on key bacterial taxa in infant microbiota in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(11):e0188011. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Epidemiology, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Read More

    A Microbiomic Analysis in African Americans with Colonic Lesions Reveals Streptococcus sp.VT162 as a Marker of Neoplastic Transformation.
    Genes (Basel) 2017 Nov 9;8(11). Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Pathology and Department of Medicine, Microbiology and Cancer Center, College of Medicine, Howard University, 2041 Georgia Avenue, Washington, DC 20060, USA.
    Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA) and genomic content (metagenomics). Read More

    The effects of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides on the gastric transcriptome profile of 2- or 3-week-old cesarean delivered piglets.
    J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2017 2;8:82. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    DISTAL, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin 46, 40127 Bologna, Italy.
    Background: The stomach is an underestimated key interface between the ingesta and the digestive system, affecting the digestion and playing an important role in several endocrine functions. The quality of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides may affect porcine gastric maturation. Two trials (T1, T2) were carried out on 12 and 24 cesarean-delivered piglets (birth, d0), divided over two microbiota treatments, but slaughtered and sampled at two or three weeks of age, respectively. Read More

    Diets Alter the Gut Microbiome of Crocodile Lizards.
    Front Microbiol 2017 25;8:2073. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China.
    The crocodile lizard is a critically endangered reptile, and serious diseases have been found in this species in recent years, especially in captive lizards. Whether these diseases are caused by changes in the gut microbiota and the effect of captivity on disease remains to be determined. Here, we examined the relationship between the gut microbiota and diet and disease by comparing the fecal microbiota of wild lizards with those of sick and healthy lizards in captivity. Read More

    Gut remediation: a potential approach to reducing chromium accumulation using Lactobacillus plantarum TW1-1.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 8;7(1):15000. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Tianshuinanlu #222, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, People's Republic of China.
    Some lactobacilli have protective effects against some heavy metals in mammals, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To evaluate the remediation potency and the mechanism of Lactobacillus against chromium (Cr) in mice, Lactobacillus plantarum TW1-1 was orally administrated to Kunming mice for 7 weeks during exposure to 1 mM K2Cr2O7 in drinking water. Results showed that TW1-1 helped to decrease Cr accumulation in tissues and increase Cr excretion in feces, and may also attenuate alterations in oxidative stress and histopathological changes caused by Cr exposure. Read More

    Impact of Lactobacillus reuteri colonization on gut microbiota, inflammation, and crying time in infant colic.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 8;7(1):15047. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, 3052, Australia.
    Infant colic is a distressing condition of unknown etiology. An aberrant gastrointestinal microbiota has been associated, and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation has been shown to reduce crying and/or fussing time ('crying time') in some infants with colic. The relationship between L. Read More

    Distinct Campylobacter fetus lineages adapted as livestock pathogens and human pathobionts in the intestinal microbiota.
    Nat Commun 2017 Nov 8;8(1):1367. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Host-Microbiota Interactions Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, CB10 1SA, Hinxton, UK.
    Campylobacter fetus is a venereal pathogen of cattle and sheep, and an opportunistic human pathogen. It is often assumed that C. fetus infection occurs in humans as a zoonosis through food chain transmission. Read More

    Critical analysis of excessive utilization of crude protein in ruminants ration: impact on environmental ecosystem and opportunities of supplementation of limiting amino acids-a review.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.
    Protein quality plays a key role than quantity in growth, production, and reproduction of ruminants. Application of high concentration of dietary crude protein (CP) did not balance the proportion of these limiting amino acids (AA) at duodenal digesta of high producing dairy cow. Thus, dietary supplementation of rumen-protected AA is recommended to sustain the physiological, productive, and reproductive performance of ruminants. Read More

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Exacerbated in High-Fat Diet-Fed Gnotobiotic Mice by Colonization with the Gut Microbiota from Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.
    Nutrients 2017 Nov 6;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    National Laboratory Animal Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 115, Taiwan.
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious liver disorder associated with the accumulation of fat and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the gut microbiota composition that might influence the progression of NAFLD. Germ-free mice were inoculated with feces from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or from healthy persons (HL) and then fed a standard diet (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

    Effects of kestose on gut mucosal immunity in an atopic dermatitis mouse model.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma Atopy Center, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea; Environmental Health Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is recently increasing among populations, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Interactions between the gut microbiota and mucosal immunity are considered to be a crucial etiology. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), prebiotics have been reported as activators of the gut microbiota. Read More

    Recent Issues in Pediatric Clostridium difficile Infection.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Nov 7;19(12):49. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: We focus on two recent aspects of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children, namely the emergence of community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and the incidence and prevention of recurrent CDI.

    Recent Findings: Current surveys suggest that a large proportion of all pediatric CDI is acquired in the community. Risk factors and frequency estimates of pediatric CA-CDI, however, are confounded in babies and toddlers by a high rate of asymptomatic excretion, whose detection likely is exaggerated by the wide use of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. Read More

    Obesogenic diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction and pathobiont expansion aggravate experimental colitis.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(11):e0187515. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. Read More

    Insights into a possible influence on gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function during chronic exposure of mice to imazalil.
    Toxicol Sci 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China.
    The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is widely used to prevent and treat fungal diseases in plants and animals. Here, male adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.1, 0. Read More

    Proton pump inhibitor alters oral microbiome in gastrointestinal tract of healthy volunteers.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.
    Background And Aim: Acid suppressive agents including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as first-line treatment for various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Although known to profoundly reduce gastric acid production, their influence on inhibition of acid secretion as part of the function of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of PPI usage on oral and gut microbiota in healthy volunteers. Read More

    1 OF 118