21,704 results match your criteria features spatial


Parcellation-Free prediction of task fMRI activations from dMRI tractography.

Med Image Anal 2021 Nov 27;76:102317. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

B-IT and Department of Computer Science, University of Bonn, Friedrich-Hirzebruch-Allee 5, Bonn 53115, Germany. Electronic address:

The relationship between brain structure and function plays a crucial role in cognitive and clinical neuroscience. We present a supervised machine learning based approach that captures this relationship by predicting the spatial extent of activations that are observed with task based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) from the local white matter connectivity, as reflected in diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography. In particular, we explore three different feature representations of local connectivity patterns that do not require a pre-defined parcellation of cortical and subcortical structures. Read More

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November 2021

k-space weighted image average (KWIA) for ASL-based dynamic MR angiography and perfusion imaging.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Laboratory of FMRI Technology (LOFT), USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. Electronic address:

A novel denoising algorithm termed k-space weighted image average (KWIA) was proposed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of dynamic MRI, such as arterial spin labeling (ASL)-based dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (dMRA) and perfusion imaging. KWIA divides the k-space of each time frame into multiple rings, the central ring of the k-space remains intact to preserve the image contrast and temporal resolution, while outer rings are progressively averaged with neighboring time frames to increase SNR. Simulations and in-vivo dMRA and multi-delay ASL studies were performed to evaluate the performance of KWIA under various MRI acquisition conditions. Read More

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December 2021

Correcting Face Distortion in Wide-Angle Videos.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Dec 6;PP. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Video blogs and selfies are popular social media formats, which are often captured by wide-angle cameras to show human subjects and expanded background. Unfortunately, due to perspective projection, faces near corners and edges exhibit apparent distortions that stretch and squish the facial features, resulting in poor video quality. In this work, we present a video warping algorithm to correct these distortions. Read More

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December 2021

An bioelectronic nose for possible quantitative evaluation of odor masking using M/T cell spatial response patterns.

Analyst 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Education Ministry, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Odor masking is a prominent phenomenon in the biological olfactory perception system. It has been applied in industry and daily life to develop masking agents to reduce or even eliminate the adverse effects of unpleasant odors. However, it is challenging to assess the odor masking efficiency with traditional gas sensors. Read More

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December 2021

A Shift in Paradigms: Spatial Genomics Approaches to Reveal Single-Cell Principles of Genome Organization.

Front Genet 2021 19;12:780822. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Centro de Investigación en Medicina Traslacional Severo Amuchastegui (CIMETSA), Instituto Universitario de Ciencias Biomédicas de Córdoba (IUCBC), CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina.

The genome tridimensional (3D) organization and its role towards the regulation of key cell processes such as transcription is currently a main question in biology. Interphase chromosomes are spatially segregated into "territories," epigenetically-defined large domains of chromatin that interact to form "compartments" with common transcriptional status, and insulator-flanked domains called "topologically associating domains" (TADs). Moreover, chromatin organizes around nuclear structures such as lamina, speckles, or the nucleolus to acquire a higher-order genome organization. Read More

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November 2021

Diagnostic Features for Human Categorisation of Adult and Child Faces.

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:775338. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Knowing how humans differentiate children from adults has useful implications in many areas of both forensic and cognitive psychology. Yet, how we extract age from faces has been surprisingly underexplored in both disciplines. Here, we used a novel data-driven experimental technique to objectively measure the facial features human observers use to categorise child and adult faces. Read More

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November 2021

Understanding and Synergy: A Single Concept at Different Levels of Analysis?

Authors:
Mark L Latash

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 18;15:735406. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.

Biological systems differ from the inanimate world in their behaviors ranging from simple movements to coordinated purposeful actions by large groups of muscles, to perception of the world based on signals of different modalities, to cognitive acts, and to the role of self-imposed constraints such as laws of ethics. Respectively, depending on the behavior of interest, studies of biological objects based on laws of nature (physics) have to deal with different salient sets of variables and parameters. Understanding is a high-level concept, and its analysis has been linked to other high-level concepts such as "mental model" and "meaning". Read More

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November 2021

The metabolic landscape in chronic rotator cuff tear reveals tissue-region-specific signatures.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Dec 5. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

Human Genetics Department, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Degeneration of shoulder muscle tissues often result in tearing, causing pain, disability and loss of independence. Differential muscle involvement patterns have been reported in tears of shoulder muscles, yet the molecules involved in this pathology are poorly understood. The spatial distribution of biomolecules across the affected tissue can be accurately obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Read More

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December 2021

iRice-MS: An integrated XGBoost model for detecting multitype post-translational modification sites in rice.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Center for Informational Biology at University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China.

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and enzymatic modification of proteins after protein biosynthesis, which orchestrates a variety of biological processes. Detecting PTM sites in proteome scale is one of the key steps to in-depth understanding their regulation mechanisms. In this study, we presented an integrated method based on eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), called iRice-MS, to identify 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, crotonylation, malonylation, ubiquitination, succinylation and acetylation in rice. Read More

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December 2021

Exploring the spatial scale effects of built environments on transport walking: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Health Place 2021 Dec 2;73:102722. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

We employed a longitudinal distributed lag modeling approach to systematically estimate how associations between built environment features and transport walking decayed with the increase of distance from home to built environment destinations. Data came from a cohort recruited from six U.S. Read More

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December 2021

The external dependence of ecological products: Spatial-temporal features and future predictions.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 1;304:114190. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

The instability of international trade can threaten the resource security of resource-importing countries, while international trade helps address spatial mismatches between regional populations, economies, and resources. Ecological products are the basis for human survival and development, in which agri-livestock products are especially sensitive to trade fluctuation and closely related to human well-being. The external dependence is an important indicator to reveal the external supply risk of regional resources. Read More

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December 2021

Identifying factors that affect mountain lake sensitivity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across multiple scales.

Water Res 2021 Nov 19;209:117883. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, Lewiston Regional Office, Lewiston, ID, USA.

Increased nitrogen (N) deposition rates over the past century have affected both North American and European mountain lake ecosystems. Ecological sensitivity of mountain lakes to N deposition varies, however, because chemical and biological responses are modulated by local watershed and lake properties. We evaluated predictors of mountain lake sensitivity to atmospheric N deposition across North American and European mountain ranges and included as response variables dissolved inorganic N (DIN = NNH + NNO) concentrations and phytoplankton biomass. Read More

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November 2021

Infection evolution and spreading models in non-uniform biological systems.

Authors:
N N Smirnov

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Dec 2:105174. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Moscow Center for Fundamental and Applied Mathematics, Moscow 119991, Russia. Electronic address:

The paper investigates peculiarities of infection evolution and spreading models in non-uniform biological systems of individuals (humans, animals, plants) using the approach of mathematical modeling. The effects of different characteristic features are revealed. A robust tool for prediction of infection evolution (growth and spreading) under different external conditions is developed accounting for spatial non-uniformity of governing parameters. Read More

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December 2021

The assessment of local geological factors for the construction of a Geogenic Radon Potential map using regression kriging. A case study from the Euganean Hills volcanic district (Italy).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 1:152064. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 25131 Padova, Italy.

The assessment of potential radon-hazardous environments is nowadays a critical issue in planning, monitoring, and developing appropriate mitigation strategies. Although some geological structures (e.g. Read More

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December 2021

Quantifying spatial non-stationarity in the relationship between landscape structure and the provision of ecosystem services: An example in the New Zealand hill country.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 1:152126. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

AgResearch, Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Knowing how landscape structure affects the provision of ecosystem services (ES) is an important first step toward better landscape planning. Because landscape structure is often heterogenous across space, modelling the relationship between landscape structure and the provision of ES must account for spatial non-stationarity. This paper examines the relationship between landscape structure and the provision of ES using a hill country and steep-land case farm in New Zealand. Read More

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December 2021

Exploring the presence of multiple abnormal non-motor features in patients with cervical dystonia.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Dec 12;94:315-320. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1211 Medical Center Dr, Nashville TN 37232, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1211 Medical Center Dr, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

This study's aim was to investigate prevalence of four non-motor symptoms in patients with cervical dystonia and healthy controls to explore whether the presence of multiple non-motor features is associated with cervical dystonia diagnosis. Fifteen patients with cervical dystonia and 15 healthy controls underwent non-invasive testing of spatial discrimination threshold, temporal discrimination threshold, vibration-induced illusion of movement, and kinesthesia. All spatial discrimination threshold, temporal discrimination threshold, and vibration-induced illusion of movement measures were converted to standardized Z scores with scores >2. Read More

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December 2021

Retrosplenial cortex in spatial memory: focus on immediate early genes mapping.

Mol Brain 2021 Dec 4;14(1):172. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Spatial Memory, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pasteura 3, 02-093, Warsaw, Poland.

The ability to form, retrieve and update autobiographical memories is one of the most fascinating features of human behavior. Spatial memory, the ability to remember the layout of the external environment and to navigate within its boundaries, is closely related to the autobiographical memory domain. It is served by an overlapping brain circuit, centered around the hippocampus (HPC) where the cognitive map index is stored. Read More

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December 2021

A comprehensive review of machine learning techniques on diabetes detection.

Vis Comput Ind Biomed Art 2021 Dec 3;4(1):30. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, 382426, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

Diabetes mellitus has been an increasing concern owing to its high morbidity, and the average age of individual affected by of individual affected by this disease has now decreased to mid-twenties. Given the high prevalence, it is necessary to address with this problem effectively. Many researchers and doctors have now developed detection techniques based on artificial intelligence to better approach problems that are missed due to human errors. Read More

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December 2021

Mental imagery of object motion in weightlessness.

NPJ Microgravity 2021 Dec 3;7(1):50. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, 00179, Rome, Italy.

Mental imagery represents a potential countermeasure for sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions due to spaceflight. It might help train people to deal with conditions unique to spaceflight. Thus, dynamic interactions with the inertial motion of weightless objects are only experienced in weightlessness but can be simulated on Earth using mental imagery. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of the herbicides metazachlor and flufenacet on phytoplankton communities - A microcosm assay.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Nov 30;228:113036. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Kiel University, 24118 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Agrochemicals are the main pollutants in freshwater ecosystems. Metazachlor and flufenacet are two common herbicides applied in fall (i.e. Read More

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November 2021

Disentangling cortical functional connectivity strength and topography reveals divergent roles of genes and environment.

Neuroimage 2021 Nov 30:118770. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Computational Imaging Research Lab, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, 1090, Austria; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, US. Electronic address:

The human brain varies across individuals in its morphology, function, and cognitive capacities. Variability is particularly high in phylogenetically modern regions associated with higher order cognitive abilities, but its relationship to the layout and strength of functional networks is poorly understood. In this study we disentangled the variability of two key aspects of functional connectivity: strength and topography. Read More

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November 2021

Quantification of biomechanical properties of human corneal scar using acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Dec 3:15353702211061881. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Information Science and Technology of Jiangxi Province and Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory for Optoelectronics Testing Technology, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, P. R. China.

Biomechanical properties of corneal scar are strongly correlated with many corneal diseases and some types of corneal surgery, however, there is no elasticity information available about corneal scar to date. Here, we proposed an acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography system to evaluate corneal scar elasticity. Elasticity quantification was first conducted on rabbit corneas, and the results validate the efficacy of our system. Read More

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December 2021

Opportunities in Phytochemistry, Ecophysiology and Wood Research via Laser Ablation Direct Analysis in Real Time-Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

New Phytol 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY, 12222, USA.

Analysis of wood transects in a manner that preserves the spatial distribution of the metabolites present is highly desirable in order to among other things: (1) facilitate ecophysiology studies that reveal the association between chemical makeup and environmental factors or climactic events over time; (2) investigate the mechanisms of the synthesis and trafficking of small molecules within specialized tissues. While a variety of techniques could be applied to achieve these goals, most remain challenging and impractical. LADI-MS was successfully used to survey the chemical profile of wood, while also preserving the small-molecule spatial distribution. Read More

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December 2021

RFARN: Retinal vessel segmentation based on reverse fusion attention residual network.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(12):e0257256. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

College of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou Gansu, China.

Accurate segmentation of retinal vessels is critical to the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of many ocular pathologies. Due to the poor contrast and inhomogeneous background of fundus imaging and the complex structure of retinal fundus images, this makes accurate segmentation of blood vessels from retinal images still challenging. In this paper, we propose an effective framework for retinal vascular segmentation, which is innovative mainly in the retinal image pre-processing stage and segmentation stage. Read More

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December 2021

Dilated and soft attention-guided convolutional neural network for breast cancer histology images classification.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Pneumoconiosis Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Occupational Preventive and Treatment Hospital in Jilin Province, Changchun, China.

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and histopathological imaging is considered the gold standard for its diagnosis. However, the great complexity of histopathological images and the considerable workload make this work extremely time-consuming, and the results may be affected by the subjectivity of the pathologist. Therefore, the development of an accurate, automated method for analysis of histopathological images is critical to this field. Read More

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December 2021

Identifying risk factors of intracerebral hemorrhage stability using explainable attention model.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Segmentation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) helps improve the quality of diagnosis, draft the desired treatment methods, and clinically observe the variations with healthy patients. The clinical utilization of various ICH progression scoring systems has limitations due to the systems' modest predictive value. This paper proposes a single pipeline of a multi-task model for end-to-end hemorrhage segmentation and risk estimation. Read More

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December 2021

Computational Simulation of the Electronic State Transition in the Ternary Hexagonal Compound BaAgBi.

Front Chem 2021 11;9:796323. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Wonkwang University, Iksan, South Korea.

Topological properties in metals or semimetals have sparked tremendous scientific interest in quantum chemistry because of their exotic surface state behavior. The current research focus is still on discovering ideal topological metal material candidates. We propose a ternary compound with a hexagonal crystal structure, BaAgBi, which was discovered to exhibit two Weyl nodal ring states around the Fermi energy level without the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect using theoretical calculations. Read More

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November 2021

Robust prediction of hourly PM from meteorological data using LightGBM.

Natl Sci Rev 2021 Oct 5;8(10):nwaa307. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather and Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry of China Meteorological Administration, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Retrieving historical fine particulate matter (PM) data is key for evaluating the long-term impacts of PM on the environment, human health and climate change. Satellite-based aerosol optical depth has been used to estimate PM, but estimations have largely been undermined by massive missing values, low sampling frequency and weak predictive capability. Here, using a novel feature engineering approach to incorporate spatial effects from meteorological data, we developed a robust LightGBM model that predicts PM at an unprecedented predictive capacity on hourly (R= 0. Read More

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October 2021

Action Intention Understanding EEG Signal Classification Based on Improved Discriminative Spatial Patterns.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 23;2021:1462369. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

School of Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210003, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Action intention understanding EEG signal classification is indispensable for investigating human-computer interactions and intention understanding mechanisms. Numerous investigations on classification tasks extract classification features by using graph theory metrics; however, the classification results are usually not good.

Method: To effectively implement the task of action intention understanding EEG signal classification, we proposed a new feature extraction method by improving discriminative spatial patterns. Read More

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November 2021

Image-based thickener mud layer height prediction with attention mechanism-based CNN.

ISA Trans 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, China; College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, China. Electronic address:

Mud layer height of thickener is the key quality index of thickening process which is difficult to achieve real-time detection with existing methods in reality. While the need of developing a soft sensor model which can be used for real-time detection of mud layer height, we proposed an end-to-end mud layer height prediction method with attention mechanism-based convolutional neural network (CNN). The dynamic features are firstly extracted from the image samples based on CNN, and then two types of attention mechanism are embedded sequentially to contribute to more precise prediction results. Read More

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November 2021