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Differentiation of Brain Tumor Microvasculature From Normal Vessels Using Optical Coherence Angiography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.

Background And Objectives: Despite rapid advances and discoveries in medical imaging, monitoring therapeutic efficacy for malignant gliomas and monitoring tumor vasculature remains problematic. The purpose of this study is to utilize optical coherence angiography for vasculature characterization inside and surrounding brain tumors in a murine xenograft brain tumor model. Features included in our analysis include fractional blood volume, vessel tortuosity, diameter, orientation, and directionality. Read More

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Effects of Ultrashort Wave Therapy on Inflammation and Macrophage Polarization after Acute Lung Injury in Rats.

Bioelectromagnetics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Rehabilitation Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, People's Republic of China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) features dysregulated pulmonary inflammation. Ultrashort waves (USWs) exert anti-inflammatory effects but no studies have evaluated their activity in ALI. Herein, we used an in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI model to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory activity of USWs is mediated by altering the polarization of M1 to M2 macrophages. Read More

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Is Lupus Anticoagulant a Significant Feature of COVID-19? A Critical Appraisal of the Literature.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

The term "lupus anticoagulant (LA)" identifies a form of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) causing prolongation of clotting tests in a phospholipid concentration-dependent manner. LA is one of the laboratory criteria identified in patients with antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS). The presence of LA in patients with APS represents a significant risk factor for both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. Read More

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COVID-19 and Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Time for a Reality Check?

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) comprise a panel of autoantibodies that reflect a potential prothrombotic risk in several autoimmune conditions, most notably antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS). aPL can be divided into those that form part of the laboratory criteria for APS, namely, lupus anticoagulant (LA), as well as anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) of the immunoglobulin G and M classes, and those that form a group considered as "noncriteria antibodies." The noncriteria antibodies include, for example, antiphosphatidylserine antibodies (aPS), antiprothrombin antibodies (aPT), and antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex antibodies (aPS/PT). Read More

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Drug-Induced Vanishing Bile Duct Syndrome: From Pathogenesis to Diagnosis and Therapeutics.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET-UNR), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina.

The most concerned issue in the context of drug/herb-induced chronic cholestasis is vanishing bile duct syndrome. The progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to ductopenia is usually not dose dependent, and has a delayed onset that should be suspected when abnormal serum cholestasis enzyme levels persist despite drug withdrawal. Immune-mediated cholangiocyte injury, direct cholangiocyte damage by drugs or their metabolites once in bile, and sustained exposure to toxic bile salts when biliary epithelium protective defenses are impaired are the main mechanisms of cholangiolar damage. Read More

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Calcineurin Inhibitor Toxicity in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Pharmacology 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department for Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital Insel Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have a substantial role in maintaining immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation (SOT). These drugs have a narrow therapeutic window, and individual doses and drug treatment monitoring are necessary. Still, a substantial proportion of patients suffer from short- or long-term calcineurin inhibitor toxicity (CNT), including kidney function impairment, hypertension, neurotoxicity, and metabolic disturbances. Read More

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Zebrafish Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 5 Gene Regulates the Development and Migration of Facial Motor Neurons via Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling.

Dev Neurosci 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Department of Pathology, Development and Regeneration Key Lab of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.

Minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5), a member of the microchromosomal maintenance protein family, plays an important role in the initiation and extension of DNA replication. However, its role in neural development in zebrafish remains unclear. Here, we used morpholino (MO) and CRISPR/Cas9 to knock down mcm5 and investigated the developmental features of facial motor neurons (FMNs) in the hindbrain of zebrafish. Read More

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Online detection of movement during natural and self-initiated reach-and-grasp actions from EEG signals.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16/IV, Graz, Steiermark, 8010, AUSTRIA.

Movement intention detection using electroencephalography (EEG) is a challenging but important component of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for people with motor disabilities. Objective​: The goal of this study is to exploit low-frequency time-domain EEG signals, concretely movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), to perform asynchronous online detection of movement. The experimental paradigm must be easily transferable to people without any residual upper-limb movement function. Read More

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Radiological findings of e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury: A systematic review.

Heart Lung 2021 Jun 12;50(5):736-741. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia; Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne VIC, 3010, Australia.

Introduction: Chest radiology provides an opportunity to better understand the diagnostic characteristics of e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury (EVALI). This systematic review aimed to summarize the radiological findings associated with EVALI reported in the literature.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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Significance of detecting postmortem serum IgE in frozen corpses for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis in forensic.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 9;53:101930. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to detect the postmortem serum total IgE levels in frozen corpses and identify whether the death incident caused by an anaphylaxis in forensic medicine. Autopsy cases with pathological death (total, n = 106; 4-214 h postmortem) include cardiac disease (n = 15), pulmonary infection (n = 12), central nervous system disorder (n = 6), pulmonary emboliszn (n = 7), hapetic disease (n = 5), kidney disease (n = 6), enteric disease (n = 10), necrotizing pancreatitis (n = 7), diffuse peritonitis (n = 6), MODS (n = 6), toxicosis (n = 5:), anaphylactic shock (n = 7), bronchial asthma (n = 8) and other disease (n = 6) were examined. Results showed that there was no significant difference between serum IgE levels and ages, postmortem intervals (PMIs), gender as well as survival time. Read More

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Removal of trace DNA toxic compounds using a Poly(deep eutectic solvent)@Biomass based on multi-physical interactions.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126369. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Institute of Life Science and Green Development, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China. Electronic address:

DNA toxic compounds (DNA-T-Cs), even in trace amounts, seriously threaten human health and must be completely eliminated. However, the currently used separation media face great challenges in removing trace DNA-T-Cs. Based on the functional advantages of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and the natural features of biomass (BioM), a series of Poly(DES)@BioMs functioning as adsorbents were prepared for the removal of aromatic/hetero-atomic DNA-T-Cs at the ppm level. Read More

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Stroke Mechanism in COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 1;30(8):105919. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurology, Hacettepe University Hospitals Turkey.

Background: The characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection have not been fully clarified. We prospectively studied the phenotypic and etiological features of acute stroke occurring in COVID-19 infection.

Patients & Methods: Within nine months starting from April-2020, the presence of COVID-19 infection was determined by thoracic CT and SARS-CoV-2 PCR in all acute stroke cases managed in a single tertiary center. Read More

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Clinicopathological characteristics of androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) expression in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 12;14(9):101145. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Cancer center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310058, China. Electronic address:

Background:  Studies have shown that AR-V7 may be correlated with the poor prognosis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), however, clinicopathological characteristics of AR-V7 have not been fully elucidated.

Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the clinicopathological features of AR-V7 in CRPC patients.

Materials And Methods: To evaluate the clinicopathological features of AR-V7 in CRPC patients. Read More

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Effects of semantic variables on word production in aphasia.

Cortex 2021 Apr 20;141:363-402. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Words differ in the complexity of their semantic representations and their relationships to other words and these differences can be operationalised as a variety of semantic variables. The research presented here investigates how word production in aphasia is influenced by six feature-based semantic variables (number of near semantic neighbours, semantic similarity, number of semantic features, typicality, intercorrelational density, and distinctiveness). Previous research has reported inconsistent findings for some of the semantic variables, while others have not been previously studied in aphasia. Read More

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Metabolic and conformational stabilization of a VEGF-mimetic beta-hairpin peptide by click-chemistry.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 26;222:113575. Epub 2021 May 26.

Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche "Giulio Natta", CNR, Via M. Bianco 9, 20131, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

HPLW is a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-mimicking beta-hairpin peptide endowed of proangiogenic effect and showing valuable biomedical application in the proangiogenic therapy. However, the translational potential of HPLW is limited by its low metabolic stability, which would shorten the in vivo efficacy of the molecule. Here, we developed a peptide analog of HPLW, named HPLW2, that retains the structural and biological properties of the original peptide but features an impressive resistance to degradation by human serum proteases. Read More

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Feature engineering and machine learning for causality assessment in pharmacovigilance: Lessons learned from application to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 8;135:104517. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Our objective was to support the automated classification of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) reports for their usefulness in assessing the possibility of a causal relationship between a drug product and an adverse event.

Method: We used a data set of 326 redacted FAERS reports that was previously annotated using a modified version of the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria for drug causality assessment by a group of SEs at the FDA and supported a similar study on the classification of reports using supervised machine learning and text engineering methods. We explored many potential features, including the incorporation of natural language processing on report text and information from external data sources, for supervised learning and developed models for predicting the classification status of reports. Read More

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Clinical features and prognostic factors of pediatric glioblastoma: Report of 38 Cases.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We reviewed cases to better characterize children with glioblastoma (GBM), assess outcomes and identify prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in a relatively large cohort from one institution.

Methods: We selected thirty-eight pediatric patients diagnosed with GBM at The First Affiliated Hospital, University of Zhengzhou between January 2015 and January 2020 for retrospective review. Comparisons were made among clinical and pathological characteristics, images, treatment, and survival variables. Read More

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Voxel-to-voxel predictive models reveal unexpected structure in unexplained variance.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 12;238:118266. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Encoding models based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) predict BOLD responses to natural scenes in the human visual system more accurately than many other currently available models. However, DCNN-based encoding models fail to predict a significant amount of variance in the activity of most voxels in all visual areas. This failure could reflect limitations in the data (e. Read More

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Combining gene expression signature with clinical features for survival stratification of gastric cancer.

Genomics 2021 Jun 12;113(4):2683-2694. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, P.R. China; Institute of Gastroenterology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, P.R. China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, P.R. China; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ONM5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

The AJCC staging system is considered as the golden standard in clinical practice. However, it remains some pitfalls in assessing the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) patients with similar clinicopathological characteristics. We aim to develop a new clinic and genetic risk score (CGRS) to improve the prognosis prediction of GC patients. Read More

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A multicenter study to develop a non-invasive radiomic model to identify urinary infection stone in vivo using machine-learning.

Kidney Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmacy, the First People's Hospital of Kashi Prefecture; Affiliated Kashi Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Kashi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Urolithiasis is a common urological disease, and treatment strategy options vary between different stone types. However, accurate detection of stone composition can only be performed in vitro. The management of infection stones is particularly challenging with yet no effective approach to pre-operatively identify infection stones from non-infection stones. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence and Cellular Segmentation in Tissue Microscopy Images.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology and Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, 60637. Electronic address:

With applications in object detection, image feature extraction, image classification, and image segmentation, artificial intelligence is enabling high-throughput analysis of image data in a variety of biomedical imaging disciplines, ranging from radiology and pathology to cancer biology and immunology. Specifically, a growth in research surrounding deep learning has led to widespread application of computer vision techniques to analyze and mine data from biomedical images. The availability of open-source software packages and the development of novel, trainable deep neural network architectures has led to an increase in accuracy of cell detection and segmentation algorithms. Read More

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Unusual morphology in the mid-Cretaceous lizard Oculudentavis.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Oculudentavis khaungraae was described based on a tiny skull trapped in amber. The slender tapering rostrum with retracted narial openings, large eyes, and short vaulted braincase led to its identification as the smallest avian dinosaur on record, comparable to the smallest living hummingbirds. Despite its bird-like appearance, Oculudentavis showed several features inconsistent with its original phylogenetic placement. Read More

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Discontinued alcohol consumption elicits withdrawal symptoms in honeybees.

Biol Lett 2021 Jun 16;17(6):20210182. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland.

The honeybee continues to be developed as a model species in many research areas, including studies related to the effects of alcohol. Here, we investigate whether workers display one of the key features of alcoholism, namely withdrawal symptoms. We show that workers fed for a prolonged time on food spiked with ethanol, after discontinuation of access to such food, exhibited a marked increase in the consumption of ethanol and a slight increase in mortality. Read More

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Implant failure following pedicle based dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):191-196

Pedicle-based dynamic stabilization (PBDS) devices such as Dynesys are promoted as an alternative and less invasive option for rigid stabilization of one and even more levels of the lumbar spine. Promising features of the Dynesys system, as well as shortcomings, became obvious in several clinical studies. Since 2012, we started using a new PBDS device as an alternative for the Dynesys, to avoid the screw loosening and the kyphosing effect. Read More

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Differential Clinical Diagnosis and Prevalence Rate of Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among COVID-19 Patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 15:e14532. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-suef University, Beni-suef, Egypt.

Background: There is a great need to make a rapid differential clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 among respiratory disease patients and determining the prevalence rate of these diseases among the COVID-19 population.

Method: Approximately 522 patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, COPD, and COVID-19 were analyzed for demographic and clinical features. Radiological features were analyzed only for COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Features of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection electrocoagulation syndrome for early gastric neoplasm.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background And Aim: Post-endoscopic submucosal dissection electrocoagulation syndrome (PECS) has become a common adverse event after colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and esophageal ESD. However, little is known about PECS after gastric ESD. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the clinical features of PECS after gastric ESD. Read More

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Evaluation of liver tissue extraction protocol for untargeted metabolomics analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

National Key Discipline Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, P. R. China.

The aim of untargeted metabolomics study is to obtain a global metabolome coverage from biological samples. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematic protocol for tissue metabolite extraction is highly desirable. In this study, we evaluated a comprehensive liver pretreatment strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to obtain more metabolites using four different protocols. Read More

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Anatomically aided PET image reconstruction using deep neural networks.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Purpose: The developments of PET/CT and PET/MR scanners provide opportunities for improving PET image quality by using anatomical information. In this paper, we propose a novel co-learning 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract modality-specific features from PET/CT image pairs and integrate complementary features into an iterative reconstruction framework to improve PET image reconstruction.

Methods: We used a pre-trained deep neural network to represent PET images. Read More

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Unraveling the Interplay of Image Formation, Data Representation and Learning in CT-based COPD Phenotyping Automation: The Need for a Meta-Strategy.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Siemens Healthineers, CT R&D Image Analytics, Forchheim, Germany.

Purpose: In the literature on automated phenotyping of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), there is a multitude of isolated classical machine learning and deep learning techniques, mostly investigating individual phenotypes, with small study cohorts and heterogeneous meta-parameters, e.g. different scan protocols or segmented regions. Read More

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Segmentation and recognition of breast ultrasound images based on an expanded U-Net.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253202. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

UItrasonic Diagnosis Department, Chengcheng County Hospital, Weinan, Shanxi province, China.

This paper establishes a fully automatic real-time image segmentation and recognition system for breast ultrasound intervention robots. It adopts the basic architecture of a U-shaped convolutional network (U-Net), analyses the actual application scenarios of semantic segmentation of breast ultrasound images, and adds dropout layers to the U-Net architecture to reduce the redundancy in texture details and prevent overfitting. The main innovation of this paper is proposing an expanded training approach to obtain an expanded of U-Net. Read More

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