435 results match your criteria faunal record

A Late Cretaceous dinosaur and crocodyliform faunal association-based on isolate teeth and osteoderms-at Cerro Fortaleza Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian) type locality, Santa Cruz, Argentina.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(9):e0256233. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The Late Cretaceous dinosaur record in southern South America has been improved recently; particularly with findings from Chorrillo and Cerro Fortaleza formations, both bearing ankylosaur remains, a clade that was not previously recorded in the Austral Basin. The dinosaur fauna of the type locality of Cerro Fortaleza Formation is known from -and biased to- large-sized sauropod remains and a single described taxon, the titanosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani. Here, we report the taxonomic composition of a site preserving thirteen isolated teeth and several osteoderms belonging to three dinosaur clades (Abelisauridae, Titanosauria, and Nodosauridae), and at least one clade of notosuchian crocodyliforms (Peirosauridae). Read More

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September 2021

Ruminants reveal Eocene Asiatic palaeobiogeographical provinces as the origin of diachronous mammalian Oligocene dispersals into Europe.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 6;11(1):17710. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China.

Faunal provincialism between the North and South parts of Eastern Asia is shown to have been in place since the late Eocene. This provincialism structured the mammalian dispersals across Eurasia for millions of years and provides insights into both palaeonvironments and palaeoclimate zonation. In addition, this study reveals the oldest record of a crown ruminant (Iberomeryx from Shinao, China). Read More

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September 2021

The erroneous chondrichthyan egg case assignments from the Devonian: implications for the knowledge on the evolution of the reproductive strategy within chondrichthyans.

Naturwissenschaften 2021 Aug 25;108(5):36. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

O.D. Earth and History of Life, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, rue Vautier 29, 1000, Brussels, Belgium.

Spiraxis interstrialis, and its junior synonym Fayolia mourloni, an uppermost Famennian (Upper Devonian) fossil first described as algae and subsequently interpreted as the oldest known chondrichthyan egg case, is reinvestigated based on the discovery of several additional specimens in Belgian collections. New data, in particular from micro-CT imaging, allow to refute S. interstrialis, and by extension also Spiraxis major (the type species of Spiraxis Newberry, non Adams) and Spiraxis randalli from the Famennian of New York and Pennsylvania, as chondrichthyan egg cases. Read More

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Environmental DNA preserved in marine sediment for detecting jellyfish blooms after a tsunami.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 20;11(1):16830. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, 3-11 Tsurukabuto, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be a powerful tool for detecting the distribution and abundance of target species. This study aimed to test the longevity of eDNA in marine sediment through a tank experiment and to use this information to reconstruct past faunal occurrence. In the tank experiment, juvenile jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) were kept in flow-through tanks with marine sediment for two weeks. Read More

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The first Jurassic theropod from the Sergi Formation, Jatobá Basin, Brazil.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 4;93(suppl 2):e20201557. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Formação de Professores, Departamento de Ciências (UERJ/FFP/DCIEN), Campus São Gonçalo, Rua Dr. Francisco Portela, 1470, Patronato, 24435-005 São Gonçalo, RJ, Brazil.

Archosaur osteological remains are abundant in Brazil, particularly from the Triassic and Cretaceous strata, but in Jurassic, the record is predominantly represented by ichnofossils. The Upper Jurassic archosaur records comprise the Paralligatoridae Batrachomimus pastosbonensis, from the Pastos Bons Formation (Parnaíba Basin), remains of Mesoeucrocodylia from the Aliança Formation (Jatobá Basin), and fragments of Dinosauria from the Brejo Santo Formation (Araripe Basin) with a dubious assignment. Here, we present the first undoubted Dinosauria record for the Jurassic of Brazil, MCT 2670-LE, a middle to distal caudal vertebra belonging to a theropod. Read More

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Zooarchaeology through the lens of collagen fingerprinting at Denisova Cave.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15457. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Denisova Cave, a Pleistocene site in the Altai Mountains of Russian Siberia, has yielded significant fossil and lithic evidence for the Pleistocene in Northern Asia. Abundant animal and human bones have been discovered at the site, however, these tend to be highly fragmented, necessitating new approaches to identifying important hominin and faunal fossils. Here we report the results for 8253 bone fragments using ZooMS. Read More

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Relict groups of spiny frogs indicate Late Paleogene-Early Neogene trans-Tibet dispersal of thermophile faunal elements.

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e11793. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Biosciences, General and Systematic Zoology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Background: The Himalaya-Tibet orogen (HTO) presents an outstanding geologically active formation that contributed to, and fostered, modern Asian biodiversity. However, our concepts of the historical biogeography of its biota are far from conclusive, as are uplift scenarios for the different parts of the HTO. Here, we revisited our previously published data set of the tribe Paini extending it with sequence data from the most western Himalayan spiny frogs and and using them as an indirect indicator for the potential paleoecological development of Tibet. Read More

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New records of nudibranchs and a cephalaspid from Kuwait, northwestern Arabian Gulf (Mollusca, Heterobranchia).

Zookeys 2021 13;1048:91-107. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Ecosystem Based Management of Marine Resources, Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box.1638, Salmiya 22017, Kuwait Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research Salmiya Kuwait.

In this study five new records and two probably undescribed species of heterobranch sea slugs placed in four genera, three families, and two orders are reported from Kuwait, northwestern Arabian / Persian Gulf with details and photographs. The present study increases the heterobranch diversity in Kuwaiti waters from 35 to 40 species. The range of habitats in Kuwait provides a vital opportunity for further investigation to understand the actual faunal diversity. Read More

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A new country record of Raorchestes cangyuanensis Wu, Suwannapoom, Xu, Murphy amp; Che 2019 and additional record of Kurixalus yangi Yu, Hui, Rao amp; Yang 2018 (Anura: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorinae) from India.

Zootaxa 2021 May 20;4974(2):383390. Epub 2021 May 20.

Systematics and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004, Mizoram, India..

Most studies on the diversity of amphibians in northeast India were based on classical morpho-taxonomy, which have a high probability of errors in species identification. DNA barcoding of amphibians using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene has been used successfully for the identification of species and detection of cryptic species. In the present study, we carry out DNA barcoding of two rhacophorid species of the genus Raorchestes and Kurixalus that are not readily identifiable to the species level based on their morphology. Read More

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Deep-time biodiversity patterns and the dinosaurian fossil record of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior, North America.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 06 23;288(1953):20210692. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

In order for palaeontological data to be informative to ecologists seeking to understand the causes of today's diversity patterns, palaeontologists must demonstrate that actual biodiversity patterns are preserved in our reconstructions of past ecosystems. During the Late Cretaceous, North America was divided into two landmasses, Laramidia and Appalachia. Previous work has suggested strong faunal provinciality on Laramidia at this time, but these arguments are almost entirely qualitative. Read More

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Late Miocene megalake regressions in Eurasia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11471. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Paleomagnetic Laboratory Fort Hoofddijk, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The largest megalake in the geological record formed in Eurasia during the late Miocene, when the epicontinental Paratethys Sea became tectonically-trapped and disconnected from the global ocean. The megalake was characterized by several episodes of hydrological instability and partial desiccation, but the chronology, magnitude and impacts of these paleoenvironmental crises are poorly known. Our integrated stratigraphic study shows that the main desiccation episodes occurred between 9. Read More

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Distinguishing African bovids using Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS): New peptide markers and insights into Iron Age economies in Zambia.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(5):e0251061. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Archaeology, Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Assessing past foodways, subsistence strategies, and environments depends on the accurate identification of animals in the archaeological record. The high rates of fragmentation and often poor preservation of animal bones at many archaeological sites across sub-Saharan Africa have rendered archaeofaunal specimens unidentifiable beyond broad categories, such as "large mammal" or "medium bovid". Identification of archaeofaunal specimens through Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry (ZooMS), or peptide mass fingerprinting of bone collagen, offers an avenue for identification of morphologically ambiguous or unidentifiable bone fragments from such assemblages. Read More

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Natural history collections recapitulate 200 years of faunal change.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Apr 14;8(4):201983. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Zoologisches Museum, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Hegewischstraße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Changing species assemblages represent major challenges to ecosystems around the world. Retracing these changes is limited by our knowledge of past biodiversity. Natural history collections represent archives of biodiversity and are therefore an unparalleled source to study biodiversity changes. Read More

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Using strontium isotopes to determine philopatry and dispersal in primates: a case study from Kibale National Park.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 10;8(2):200760. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87111, USA.

Strontium isotope ratios (Sr/Sr) allow researchers to track changes in mobility throughout an animal's life and could theoretically be used to reconstruct sex-biases in philopatry and dispersal patterns in primates. Dispersal patterns are a life-history variable that correlate with numerous aspects of behaviour and socio-ecology that are elusive in the fossil record. The present study demonstrates that the standard archaeological method used to differentiate between 'local' and 'non-local' individuals, which involves comparing faunal isotopic ratios with environmental isotopic minima and maxima, is not always reliable; aspects of primate behaviour, local environments, geologic heterogeneity and the availability of detailed geologic maps may compromise its utility in certain situations. Read More

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February 2021

New radiometric Ar-Ar dates and faunistic analyses refine evolutionary dynamics of Neogene vertebrate assemblages in southern South America.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9830. Epub 2021 May 10.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The vertebrate fossil record of the Pampean Region of Argentina occupies an important place in South American vertebrate paleontology. An abundance of localities has long been the main basis for constructing the chronostratigraphical/geochronological scale for the late Neogene-Quaternary of South America, as well as for understanding major patterns of vertebrate evolution, including the Great American Biotic Interchange. However, few independently-derived dates are available for constraining this record. Read More

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Macrobrachium/ Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae): New records, range extension and geographic distribution in the Northeastern Caatinga amp; Coastal Drainages, and São Francisco hydrographic ecoregions, Northeast of Brazil.

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 21;4964(1):zootaxa.4964.1.2. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratório de Biologia, Ecologia e Evolução de Crustáceos (LABEEC), Departamento de Botânica e Zoologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Campus Universitário Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072- 970, Natal, Brasil..

This study constitutes the most comprehensive effort ever done to assess the faunal diversity of the Macrobrachium genus within two ecoregions that encompass part of the northeastern Brazil: the Northeastern Caatinga Coastal Drainages, and the São Francisco (Lower-middle and Lower portions). Through sampling in several of their hydrographic basins, bibliographic research, and consulting scientific collections, our results reveal the occurrence of five species along these ecoregions: Macrobrachium acanthurus, M. amazonicum, M. Read More

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Zaraa Uul: An archaeological record of Pleistocene-Holocene palaeoecology in the Gobi Desert.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249848. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Archaeology, Mongolian Academy of Science, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Environmentally-based archaeological research at Zaraa Uul, including zooarchaeology, phytolith analysis, and radiocarbon dating, is the first of its kind in Mongolia and presents critical new insight on the relationship between periods of occupational intensity and climatic amelioration from the earliest anatomically modern humans to the adoption of pastoralism. The palaeoenvironmental and faunal record of Zaraa Uul show that Early-Middle Holocene hydrology and species distributions were distinct from all other periods of human occupation. Holocene hunter-gatherers inhabited an ecosystem characterized by extensive marshes, riparian shrub and arboreal vegetation along the hill slopes and drainages. Read More

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Forensic Entomology in China and Its Challenges.

Insects 2021 Mar 8;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Soochow University, Ganjiang East Road, Suzhou 215000, China.

While the earliest record of forensic entomology originated in China, related research did not start in China until the 1990s. In this paper, we review the recent research progress on the species identification, temperature-dependent development, faunal succession, and entomological toxicology of sarcosaprophagous insects as well as common applications of forensic entomology in China. Furthermore, the difficulties and challenges forensic entomologists face in China are analyzed and possible countermeasures are presented. Read More

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Tapeworms in Rodents from the Lower Anabar River Basin, with a Review of Species Diversity of Cestodes in Yakutia, Russia.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Sep 27;66(3):1012-1020. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 685000, Magadan, Russian Federation.

Purpose: We aimed to explore the first data on the fauna of cestodes in rodents from the Lower Anabar River Basin situated in extreme north-western Yakutia, Russia and to develop a biological and biogeographical framework for examination of the species diversity of cestodes from Yakutia, which is an important faunal transition zone in the eastern Palaearctic.

Methods: Field inventory of cestodes from rodents was conducted for the first time in the region of north-western Yakutia. Species diversity, intensity and prevalence of infection were assessed. Read More

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September 2021

The role of anthropogenic habitats in freshwater mussel conservation.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 19;27(11):2298-2314. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

natur and ëmwelt/Fondation Hëllef fir d'Natur, Heinerscheid, Luxembourg.

Anthropogenic freshwater habitats may provide undervalued prospects for long-term conservation as part of species conservation planning. This fundamental, but overlooked, issue requires attention considering the pace that humans have been altering natural freshwater ecosystems and the accelerated levels of biodiversity decline in recent decades. We compiled 709 records of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) inhabiting a broad variety of anthropogenic habitat types (from small ponds to large reservoirs and canals) and reviewed their importance as refuges for this faunal group. Read More

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Refining the marine reptile turnover at the Early-Middle Jurassic transition.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e10647. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of palaeontology, Natural History Museum Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

Even though a handful of long-lived reptilian clades dominated Mesozoic marine ecosystems, several biotic turnovers drastically changed the taxonomic composition of these communities. A seemingly slow paced, within-geological period turnover took place across the Early-Middle Jurassic transition. This turnover saw the demise of early neoichthyosaurians, rhomaleosaurid plesiosaurians and early plesiosauroids in favour of ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurians and cryptoclidid and pliosaurid plesiosaurians, clades that will dominate the Late Jurassic and, for two of them, the entire Early Cretaceous as well. Read More

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February 2021

Changes in the large carnivore community structure of the Judean Desert in connection to Holocene human settlement dynamics.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3548. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Maritime Civilizations, Charney School of Marine Science & Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Investigating historical anthropogenic impacts on faunal communities is key to understanding present patterns of biodiversity and holds important implications for conservation biology. While several studies have demonstrated the human role in the extinction of large herbivores, effective methods to study human interference on large carnivores in the past are limited by the small number of carnivoran remains in the paleozoological record. Here, we integrate a systematic paleozoological survey of biogenic cave assemblages with the archaeological and paleoenvironmental records of the Judean Desert, to reveal historical changes in the large carnivore community. Read More

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February 2021

Hematite reconstruction of Late Triassic hydroclimate over the Colorado Plateau.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(7)

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964.

Hematite is the most abundant surficial iron oxide on Earth resulting from near-surface processes that make it important for addressing numerous geologic problems. While red beds have proved to be excellent paleomagnetic recorders, the early diagenetic origin of hematite in these units is often questioned. Here, we validate pigmentary hematite ("pigmentite") as a proxy indicator for the Late Triassic environment and its penecontemporaneous origin by analyzing spectrophotometric measurements of a 14. Read More

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February 2021

Offshore marine actinopterygian assemblages from the Maastrichtian-Paleogene of the Pindos Unit in Eurytania, Greece.

PeerJ 2021 20;9:e10676. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The fossil record of marine ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) from the time interval surrounding the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction is scarce at a global scale, hampering our understanding of the impact, patterns and processes of extinction and recovery in the marine realm, and its role in the evolution of modern marine ichthyofaunas. Recent fieldwork in the K-Pg interval of the Pindos Unit in Eurytania, continental Greece, shed new light on forgotten fossil assemblages and allowed for the collection of a diverse, but fragmentary sample of actinopterygians from both late Maastrichtian and Paleocene rocks. Late Maastrichtian assemblages are dominated by Aulopiformes (†Ichthyotringidae, †Enchodontidae), while †Dercetidae (also Aulopiformes), elopomorphs and additional, unidentified teleosts form minor components. Read More

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January 2021

The marine fishes of St Eustatius Island, northeastern Caribbean: an annotated, photographic catalog.

Zookeys 2020 30;1007:145-180. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Washington United States of America.

Sint Eustatius (Statia) is a 21 km island situated in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. The most recent published sources of information on that island's marine fish fauna is in two non-governmental organization reports from 2015-17 related to the formation of a marine reserve. The species-list in the 2017 report was based on field research in 2013-15 using SCUBA diving surveys, shallow "baited underwater video surveys" (BRUVs), and data from fishery surveys and scientific collections over the preceding century. Read More

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December 2020

Wallace's line, Wallacea, and associated divides and areas: history of a tortuous tangle of ideas and labels.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 06 27;96(3):922-942. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL, 60605-2496, U.S.A.

Due to its position between the highly distinct Oriental and Australasian biogeographical realms, much effort has been spent demarcating associated separations and transitions in the faunal assemblages of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Initially, sharp boundary lines were proposed, with the earliest dating from the mid-1800s. Notably, the one published by Alfred R. Read More

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Examining Natural History through the Lens of Palaeogenomics.

Trends Ecol Evol 2021 03 14;36(3):258-267. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Otago Palaeogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The many high-resolution tools that are uniquely applicable to specimens from the Quaternary period (the past ~2.5 Ma) provide an opportunity to cross-validate data and test hypotheses based on the morphology and distribution of fossils. Among these tools is palaeogenomics - the genome-scale sequencing of genetic material from ancient specimens - that can provide direct insight into ecology and evolution, potentially improving the accuracy of inferences about past ecological communities over longer timescales. Read More

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Patterns of animal and plant discoveries, distribution and endemism in India-implications on the effectiveness of the protected area network.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 14;193(2):62. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Forest Biodiversity and Ecology Division, National Remote Sensing Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Balanagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500 037, India.

The main focus in biodiversity is to conserve species diversity with specific emphasis on endemic species. This study has analysed the distribution of endemic floral and faunal species and their representativeness in protected areas of India. The number of endemic species has been estimated as 29787 (30. Read More

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January 2021

Reconstructing Late Pleistocene paleoclimate at the scale of human behavior: an example from the Neandertal occupation of La Ferrassie (France).

Sci Rep 2021 01 14;11(1):1419. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Human Evolution, Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Exploring the role of changing climates in human evolution is currently impeded by a scarcity of climatic information at the same temporal scale as the human behaviors documented in archaeological sites. This is mainly caused by high uncertainties in the chronometric dates used to correlate long-term climatic records with archaeological deposits. One solution is to generate climatic data directly from archaeological materials representing human behavior. Read More

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January 2021

Exploring meat processing in the past: Insights from the Nunamiut people.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(1):e0245213. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

CNRS UMR 5608 TRACES, Université de Toulouse-Jean Jaurès, Maison de la Recherche, Toulouse, France.

Improving our knowledge of subsistence strategies and food processing techniques of past societies is of prime interest for better understanding human cultures as well as multiple aspects of human evolution. Beyond the simple matter of food itself, a substantial portion of socio-economic behavior is expressed in what, how, when, and with whom we eat. Over the last few decades, diverse methodologies for the analysis and interpretation of cut marks have progressively provided new insights for past butchery practices. Read More

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