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Sar1b mutant mice recapitulate gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with chylomicron retention disease.

J Lipid Res 2021 May 5:100085. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Center, CHU Ste-Justine; Departments of Pharmacology & Physiology,; Nutrition. Electronic address:

Chylomicron retention disease (CRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with biallelic Sar1b mutations leading to defects in intracellular chylomicron (CM) trafficking and secretion. To date, a direct cause-effect relationship between CRD and Sar1b mutation has not been established, but genetically modified animal models provide an opportunity to elucidate unrecognized aspects of these mutations. To examine the physiological role and molecular mechanisms of Sar1b function, we generated mice expressing either a targeted deletion or mutation of human Sar1b using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Read More

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Risk Factor Analysis for Flap and Donor Site Related Complications in 1274 DIEP Flaps - Retrospective Single Center Study.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2021 Mar-Apr;116(2 Suppl):5-15

Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. In Germany, in almost 70% of cases, women require a complete mastectomy and wish for breast reconstruction which is especially difficult when the breast was previously irradiated. The DIEP flap is then the gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction and shows an overall low complication rate. Read More

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Antidiabetic activities of glycoprotein from pea ( L.) in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

Food Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Engineering/National R&D Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine Processing, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Polysaccharides have hypoglycemic activity and pea protein has high nutritional value. The purified pea glycoprotein PGP2 has been shown to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase and α-amylase in previous studies. To study the mechanism of PGP2-induced blood glucose lowering in vivo, this paper established a diabetic mouse model by intraperitoneal injection of STZ and high-fat diet, and evaluated the blood-glucose-lowering activity of the pea component PGP2 at different doses. Read More

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Increased myocellular lipid and IGFBP-3 expression in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic cancer-related skeletal muscle wasting.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Background: Skeletal muscle wasting (SMW) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, treatment intolerance and discontinuation, and poor quality of life. This is particularly true for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as over 85% experience SMW, which is responsible for ~30% of patient deaths. While the established paradigm to explain SMW posits that muscle catabolism from systemic inflammation and nutritional deficiencies, the cause of death, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Read More

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Gestational high-fat diet impaired demethylation of Pparα and induced obesity of offspring.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Zhejiang University School of Medicine), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou, China.

Gestational and postpartum high-fat diets (HFDs) have been implicated as causes of obesity in offspring in later life. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of gestational and/or postpartum HFD on obesity in offspring. We established a mouse model of HFD exposure that included gestation, lactation and post-weaning periods. Read More

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Uterine Insulin Sensitivity Defects Induced Embryo Implantation Loss Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Triggered Oxidative Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 12;2021:6655685. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Methods And Results: Herein, a comprehensive proteomic analysis was conducted on proliferative endometria from sows with low and normal reproductive performance (LRP and NRP, respectively). Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed alterations in endometrial remodeling, substance metabolism (mainly lipid, nitrogen, and retinol metabolism), immunological modulation, and insulin signaling in LRP sows. Importantly, aberrant lipid metabolite accumulation and dysregulation of insulin signaling were coincidently confirmed in endometria of LPR sows, proving an impaired insulin sensitivity. Read More

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[The roles of gap junctional intercellular communication in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis].

Authors:
Aya Naiki-Ito

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):152-156

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common risk factor for fibrosis, cirrhosis, and a predisposing factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, incidence of NASH has increased due to an increase in metabolic syndrome. Connexin (Cx)32, a hepatocyte gap-junction protein, plays an important role in liver tissue homeostasis; Cx32 dominant-negative transgenic rat (Cx32ΔTg) has much decreased gap-junctional intercellular communication, and high susceptibility to carcinogens. Read More

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January 2021

Psychometric properties of the contextual body image questionnaire for athletes: a replication and extension study in female collegiate athletes.

J Eat Disord 2021 May 5;9(1):59. Epub 2021 May 5.

Trinity University, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: Although the link between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder (ED) pathology is well-established in general female samples, less is known about contextual body image (CBI) among female athletes. CBI refers to female athletes' body image concerns in two contexts: sport and daily life. The Contextual Body Image Questionnaire for Athletes (CBIQA) measures four dimensions of body image (Appearance, Thin-Fat Self-Evaluation, Thin-Fat Others' Evaluation, and Muscularity) in both contexts. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Dietary Influences on Fecal Microbiota Composition and Function among Healthy Humans 1-20 Years of Age.

Adv Nutr 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Diet is a key modulator of fecal microbiota composition and function. However, the influence of diet on the microbiota from toddlerhood to adolescence and young adulthood is less well studied than for infancy and adulthood. We aimed to complete a qualitative systematic review of the impacts of diet on the fecal microbiota of healthy humans 1-20 y of age. Read More

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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): fatter is better? A review on the role of obesity in RCC.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

C Buttigliero, Department of Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano, Italy.

Obesity represents a well-known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma development. Several studies evaluated the relationship between obesity and outcome in patients with non-metastatic and metastatic renal cell carcinoma using different parameters such as body mass index, visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area. These studies suggest that obesity is associated with a better prognosis in renal cell carcinoma patients. Read More

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Radiomics Nomograms Based on Non-enhanced MRI and Clinical Risk Factors for the Differentiation of Chondrosarcoma from Enchondroma.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Background: Differentiating chondrosarcoma from enchondroma using conventional MRI remains challenging. An effective method for accurate preoperative diagnosis could affect the management and prognosis of patients.

Purpose: To validate and evaluate radiomics nomograms based on non-enhanced MRI and clinical risk factors for the differentiation of chondrosarcoma from enchondroma. Read More

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Non-linear association of body composition and its components with bone density in Iranian children and adolescents.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 May 4;16(1):77. Epub 2021 May 4.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Postal Box, Shiraz, 71345-1414, Iran.

Peak bone mass is established during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of the components of overall body mass with areal bone mineral density Z-score in children. The findings of this study showed that children with greater overall body mass had higher aBMD Z-score. Read More

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Transitional states of sarcopenia: the trajectory of fat accumulation and glucose fluctuation on risk of metabolic syndrome.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Family Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

The association between sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been well established. Nevertheless, the transition process between normal and low muscle mass (LMM) states and the effect of this transition on MetS has been less explored. Our study here examined whether the direction toward or away from LMM alters the risks of MetS. Read More

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Associations of sarcopenic obesity versus sarcopenia alone with functionality.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 12;40(5):2851-2859. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, 34390, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background & Aims: There have been several attempts to come up with a global operational definition of sarcopenia (S), and consequently, a definition of S has been established, to some extent. That said, the definition of sarcopenic obesity (SO), which is defined as the presence of obesity + sarcopenia, remains obscure, hindering evaluations of the prevalence and relevance of SO. It has yet to be elucidated whether SO is associated with worse functionality when compared to S alone (S without obesity). Read More

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An adiponectin receptor agonist promote osteogenesis via regulating bone-fat balance.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 3:e13035. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

Objectives: Adiponectin signalling has been considered to be a promising target to treat diabetes-related osteoporosis. However, contradictory results regarding bone formation were observed due to the various isoforms of adiponectin. Therefore, it would be necessary to investigate the effect of adiponectin receptor signals in regulating bone-fat balance. Read More

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Simultaneous hepatic iron and fat quantification with dual-energy CT in a rabbit model of coexisting iron and fat.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 May;11(5):2001-2012

Department of Radiology, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Background: Liver iron and fat are often co-deposited, synergistically aggravating the progression of chronic liver disease. Accurate determination of liver iron and fat content is helpful for patient management. To assess the accuracy of hepatic iron/fat decomposition using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for simultaneously quantifying hepatic iron and fat when both are present. Read More

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Symptomatic gallstones and HIV in black South African women: Changing trends of gallstone disease?

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 25;22(1):1208. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The incidence of metabolic disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic settings is a prevailing burden in developing countries. Cholesterol homeostasis and fat metabolism are altered by HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART), thereby possibly contributing to complications such as gallstone formation.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate established risk factors for the formation of cholesterol gallstones in black South African women living with HIV (WLHIV). Read More

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Association of Childhood Fat Mass and Weight With Adult-Onset Type 2 Diabetes in Denmark.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e218524. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Population Health Research Institute, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Childhood obesity, defined by cutoffs based on the weight-based marker of body mass index, is associated with adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Whether childhood fat mass (FM) is the driver of these associations is currently unknown.

Objective: To quantify and compare height-independent associations between childhood FM and weight with adult T2D risk in a historic Danish cohort. Read More

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Sulforaphane Balances Ca Homeostasis Injured by Excessive Fat via Mitochondria-Associated Membrane (MAM).

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Apr 30:e2001076. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Public Health and Management, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, China.

Scope: Mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) connecting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and Ca homeostasis. Albeit sulforaphane (SFN) shows potential in ameliorating excessive fat accumulation and mitochondrial function, whether MAM is a target of SFN and its underling mechanisms are still unclear.

Methods And Results: High-fat-intake models are established both in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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Overview of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and the Role of Sugary Food Consumption and Other Dietary Components in Its Development.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Rosselló 149, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

NAFLD is the world's most common chronic liver disease, and its increasing prevalence parallels the global rise in diabetes and obesity. It is characterised by fat accumulation in the liver evolving to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an inflammatory subtype that can lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no effective pharmacotherapeutic treatment for NAFLD. Read More

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Otitis Media and Obesity-An Unusual Relationship in Children.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Pediatrics Department, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

Otitis media (OM) represents a public health matter, being the main cause of preventable hearing loss in pediatric patients. Besides well-established risk factors for developing OM, such as craniofacial abnormalities, prematurity, low birth weight, or tobacco exposure, there is evidence that obesity could be associated with a high incidence of OM. Our aim is to perform a literature review on the state of current published research on the relationship between OM and obesity and to discuss the interconnectivity between these two entities. Read More

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The Addition of Microencapsulated or Nanoemulsified Bioactive Compounds Influences the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of a Fresh Cheese.

Molecules 2021 Apr 9;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Av. Rancho Universitario s/n Km. 1., Tulancingo Hidalgo C.P. 43600, Mexico.

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the incorporation of microcapsules or nanoemulsions with on the quality of fresh cheese. Three treatments were established: Control, cheese with microcapsules (Micro), and cheese with nanoemulsion (Nano). The parameters evaluated were physicochemical (moisture, ash, fat, proteins, and pH), microbiological (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, mold-yeast, and total coliforms), functional (total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity), and texture (hardness, elasticity, cohesion, and chewiness) during storage for 45 days at 4 °C. Read More

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The effects of an acute resistance exercise bout on appetite and energy intake in healthy older adults.

Appetite 2021 Apr 26;164:105271. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, LS6 3QS, UK. Electronic address:

Ageing is associated with reductions in appetite and food intake leading to unintentional weight loss. Such weight loss, particularly through muscle mass reduction, is associated with muscle weakness and functional decline, which represent predictors of poor health outcomes and contribute to frailty in older adults. Exercise-induced anorexia is an established phenomenon in young adults; however appetite and energy intake (EI) responses to resistance exercise are unknown in older adults. Read More

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Nr2e1 deficiency aggravates insulin resistance and chronic inflammation of visceral adipose tissues in a diet-induced obese mice model.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 26;278:119562. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Endocrinology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To investigate the nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group E member 1 (Nr2e1) expression in adipose tissues of obese mice and assess the role of Nr2e1 in insulin resistance and chronic inflammation of the adipose tissues.

Main Methods: An obese model was established in Nr2e1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates through a long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding regime. The epididymal fat weight, body weight, and daily food intake were recorded. Read More

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Comorbidity burden may explain adiponectin's paradox as a marker of increased mortality risk in hemodialysis patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 27;11(1):9087. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Nephrology Division, Yitzhak Shamir Medical Center, Zerifin, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Zerifin, Israel.

Despite experimental evidence of beneficial metabolic, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effects of the 30 kDa adipokine, adiponectin, maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with high adiponectin blood levels have paradoxically high mortality rates. We aimed to examine the direction of the associations between adiponectin and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as with markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and nutrition in MHD patients with varying degrees of comorbidities. A cohort of 261 MHD patients (mean age 68. Read More

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Elucidation of SIRT-1/PGC-1α-associated mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Apr 26;20(1):40. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Medical College of Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, Guangxi, China.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to chronic liver diseases associated with mitochondrial damages. However, the exact mechanisms involved in the etiology of the disease are not clear.

Methods: To gain new insights, the changes affecting sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1) during liver fat accumulation was investigated in a NAFLD mouse model. Read More

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How does antenatal lifestyle affect the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus? A secondary cohort analysis from the GeliS trial.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Else Kröner-Fresenius-Centre for Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the predictive potential of early pregnancy factors such as lifestyle, gestational weight gain (GWG) and mental well-being on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) beyond established risk factors.

Methods: GDM risk was investigated in the cohort of the German 'Gesund leben in der Schwangerschaft'/healthy living in pregnancy study. Women were recruited up to the 12 week of gestation. Read More

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Bone Mineral Density and Content Among Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Comparative Study.

Am J Med Sci 2020 Nov 23. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya, Galle, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: Some studies indicate an association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined the association between body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) among patients with CAD.

Materials And Methods: A group of men (n = 73) with established CAD and age and sex matched controls (n=65) were included in the study. Read More

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November 2020

Three-dimensional-arterial spin labeling perfusion correlation with diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction and vascular endothelial growth factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus rat.

World J Diabetes 2021 Apr;12(4):499-513

Institute for Health Sciences, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, Yunnan Province, China.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been strongly associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The mechanisms of diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction (DACD) have not been fully elucidated to date. Some studies proved lower cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hippocampus was associated with poor executive function and memory in T2DM. Read More

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