20,392 results match your criteria fat distribution


Human-associated scarcity of hosts for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) is related to an increase in prevalence of trypanosome infection in flies in north-eastern Zambia.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 May 5;53(2):305. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Occurrence of nutritional stress (due to depletion of fat reserves) in tsetse flies, associated with inadequate levels of access to blood meals, enhances susceptibility of the flies to trypanosome infection. Thus, in a tsetse-infested area, a spatial gradient of reducing tsetse habitat quality is potentially a gradient of increasing prospects for occurrence of stress in tsetse flies. This study investigated prevalence of trypanosome infection in Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. Read More

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Non-linear association of body composition and its components with bone density in Iranian children and adolescents.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 May 4;16(1):77. Epub 2021 May 4.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Postal Box, Shiraz, 71345-1414, Iran.

Peak bone mass is established during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of the components of overall body mass with areal bone mineral density Z-score in children. The findings of this study showed that children with greater overall body mass had higher aBMD Z-score. Read More

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Visceral adiposity, muscle composition, and exercise tolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Aims: Visceral adipose tissue (AT) promotes inflammation and may be associated with disease progression in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We characterized regional AT distribution in HFpEF patients and controls and analysed associations with co-morbidities and exercise tolerance.

Methods And Results: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to quantify epicardial, liver, abdominal, and thigh skeletal muscle AT. Read More

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Longitudinal changes on liver proton density fat fraction differ between liver segments.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 May;11(5):1701-1709

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: To study the spatial heterogeneity of liver fat fraction changes during a long-term lifestyle intervention study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Thirty-two subjects underwent two MRI-scans in a span of one year. A chemical shift encoding-based water-fat separation method was applied to measure liver proton density fat fraction (PDFF) maps. Read More

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Quantification and Monitoring of the Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Paretic Calf Muscles of Children With Cerebral Palsy With MRI: A Preliminary Study.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:630435. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Muscles from patients with cerebral palsy (CP) are often spastic and form contractures that limit the range of motion. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX) into the calf muscles are an important treatment for functional equinus; however, improvement in gait function is not always achieved. BTX is also used to test muscle weakening for risk evaluation of muscle lengthening surgery. Read More

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Impact of an Infant Formula Containing a Novel Fat Blend (Cow's Milk Fat, Fish and Vegetable Oil) and Prebiotics on Stool Fatty Acid Soaps and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profiles in Full-Term Healthy Newborns.

Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Apr 30:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Introduction: Recently, new commercial infant formulas have been composed considering novel fat blends and oligosaccharides to better resemble the fatty acid (FA) composition and stereospecific distribution (e.g., increased amount of ß-palmitate) as well as probiotics content of human breast milk. Read More

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The 2020 ESPEN Arvid Wretlind lecture: Metabolic response in bariatric surgery - Mechanisms and clinical implications.

Authors:
Anders Thorell

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 20;40(5):2602-2608. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Danderyd Hospital & Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, 116 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Owing to the "obesity-pandemic", an increasing number of individuals are in need of treatment for obesity and obesity-related disorders. For patients with severe disease, results with conventional treatment modalities such as diet regimens, physical activity, and pharmacologic agents most often lack satisfactory efficacy and/or sustainability. In contrast, bariatric surgery has been demonstrated to be associated with marked, long-term weight loss as well as resolution or improvement of co-morbid disease, in particular metabolic aberrations such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Ancestry specific associations of a genetic risk score, dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome: a longitudinal ARIC study.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 May 1;14(1):118. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Asthma Research, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.

Background: Associations have been observed among genetic variants, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A gap in knowledge is whether a genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary patterns interact to increase MetS risk among African Americans. We investigated whether MetS risk was influenced by interaction between a GRS and dietary patterns among Whites and African Americans. Read More

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Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations: The Mediterranean PHIME Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Medical Area-DAME, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100 Udine, Italy.

Few studies provide a detailed description of dietary habits during pregnancy, despite the central role of nutrition for the health of the mother and offspring. This paper describes the dietary habits, energy and nutrient intake in pregnant women from four countries belonging to the Mediterranean PHIME cohort (Croatia, Greece, Italy and Slovenia) and evaluates their adherence to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. A total of 1436 women were included in the present analysis. Read More

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Gut Microbiome of Indonesian Adults Associated with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Asian City, Yogyakarta.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 22;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

Indonesia is a developing country facing the national problem of the growing obesity and diabetes in its population due to recent drastic dietary and lifestyle changes. To understand the link between the gut microbiome, diet, and health of Indonesian people, fecal microbiomes and metabolomes of 75 Indonesian adults in Yogyakarta City, including obese people ( = 21), type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients ( = 25), and the controls ( = 29) were characterized together with their dietary and medical records. Variations of microbiomes showed a triangular distribution in the principal component analysis, driven by three dominant bacterial genera, namely , , and . Read More

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Contribution of Adipose Tissue Oxidative Stress to Obesity-Associated Diabetes Risk and Ethnic Differences: Focus on Women of African Ancestry.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Helmholtz Institute for Metabolic, Obesity and Vascular Research (HI-MAG) of the Helmholtz Zentrum München at the University of Leipzig and University Hospital Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Adipose tissue (AT) storage capacity is central in the maintenance of whole-body homeostasis, especially in obesity states. However, sustained nutrients overflow may dysregulate this function resulting in adipocytes hypertrophy, AT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress. Systemic inflammation may also contribute to the disruption of AT redox equilibrium. Read More

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Association of Body Composition with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Chart Review Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 21;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Neng-Chun Diabetes Clinic, Yilan County 265, Taiwan.

This study analyzed the body composition of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this retrospective chart review study, body composition was measured through multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (InBody 770). Body composition assessments were conducted in individuals with T2DM, who were aged ≥18 years. Read More

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Effects of Lifestyle Intervention in Tissue-Specific Lipidomic Profile of Formerly Obese Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 1;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Barcelona, Spain.

Lipids are highly diverse in their composition, properties and distribution in different biological entities. We aim to establish the lipidomes of several insulin-sensitive tissues and to test their plasticity when divergent feeding regimens and lifestyles are imposed. Here, we report a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) study of lipid abundance across 4 tissues of male mice that includes the changes in the lipid profile after every lifestyle intervention. Read More

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Effect of Eggplant Powder on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Pork Sausages.

Foods 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

National Center of Meat Quality and Safety Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

In this study, we investigated the effects of soybean oil, water, and 1, 2, and 3% eggplant powder (EP) as substitutes for pork back fat (a decrease from 30% to 15%) on the proximate composition, water- and fat-binding properties, colour, water distribution, texture, and sensory properties of pork sausages. The replacement of fat with soybean oil in sausages decreased the fat and cholesterol proportions and increased the moisture content, but the water- and fat-binding properties, texture properties, and sensory properties became worse. By adding EP, sausages displayed remarkably better water- and fat-binding properties, texture properties, and sensory properties. Read More

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Distribution Patterns of Intra- and Extramyocellular Fat by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Diabetes, Prediabetes and Normoglycemic Controls.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Aims: Intramuscular fat contributes to peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intra- and extramyocellular lipids (IMCLs&EMCLs) may be quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serve as imaging biomarkers in impaired glucose metabolism.

Materials & Methods: Subjects from a population-based cohort were classified with T2DM, prediabetes or normoglycemic controls. Read More

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Relationships between hormonal parameters, body fat distribution and bone mineral density in women with functional menstrual disorders.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolic and Internal Diseases, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

Objectives: Available evidence implies that unfavorable changes in the distribution of adipose tissue resulting from hormonal imbalance associated with ovarian insufficiency might influence bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of our study was to verify if volumes of visceral (VAT), female (FAT) and android (AAT) body fat as determined by densitometry determined influence BMD in women with functional menstrual disorders, and if these correlates some endocrine factors.

Material And Methods: We examined 293 women (mean age 26. Read More

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The relationship between quadriceps fat pad syndrome and patellofemoral morphology: a case-control study.

J Orthop Traumatol 2021 Apr 28;22(1):17. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Kazım Karabekir Cd., Soguksu, 70100, Muratpaşa, Turkey.

Background: The purpose of this prospective case-control study is to investigate the relationship between quadriceps fat pad syndrome (QFPS) and patellofemoral morphology.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-two patients with QFPS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. The diagnosis of QFPS was supported both clinically and radiologically. Read More

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Effects of Insoluble Cereal Fibre on Body Fat Distribution in the Optimal Fibre Trial (OptiFiT).

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Apr 28:e2000991. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, Nuthetal, 14558, Germany.

Aims: The Optimal Fibre Trial investigated metabolic effects of insoluble cereal fibre in subjects with high-risk prediabetes. As the study shows dose-dependent moderate glycemic and anti-inflammatory benefits, especially in subjects with an obesity-related phenotype, the putative mechanism of action of this particular food component warrants clarification. A sub-group of the OptiFiT cohort received detailed body imaging throughout the study, permitting the analysis of effects on body fat distribution by fibre supplementation. Read More

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Role of 2‑series prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (Review).

Int J Mol Med 2021 Jun 28;47(6). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Guangdong Metabolic Diseases Research Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, P.R. China.

Nowadays, metabolic syndromes are emerging as global epidemics, whose incidence are increasing annually. However, the efficacy of therapy does not increase proportionately with the increased morbidity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are two common metabolic syndromes that are closely associated. Read More

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Genome-wide association study of neck circumference identifies sex-specific loci independent of generalized adiposity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background/objectives: Neck circumference, an index of upper airway fat, has been suggested to be an important measure of body-fat distribution with unique associations with health outcomes such as obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic disease. This study aims to study the genetic bases of neck circumference.

Methods: We conducted a multi-ethnic genome-wide association study of neck circumference, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 15,090 European Ancestry (EA) and African American (AA) individuals. Read More

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Associations of circulating irisin with 24-h blood pressure, total and visceral fat, and metabolic parameters in young adult hypertensives.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Objective: Some experimental and clinical studies suggest a possible role of irisin in central and peripheral regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between serum irisin levels, total and visceral fat, metabolic parameters, and blood pressure pattern during 24-h monitoring (ABPM).

Methods: In 206 patients with essential hypertension receiving standard antihypertensive treatments, we assessed anthropometric indices; serum irisin, blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides), glucose and insulin; body composition including lean mass and total, visceral, android and gynoid fat using a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; ABPM; and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Read More

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February 2021

Implementing capnography to help improve patient safety during procedural sedation: quality improvement in a high-volume gastroenterology department.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

aDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UZ Leuven, Belgium bCoreva Scientific, Königswinter, Germany cDepartment of Pneumology dDepartment of Pediatrics, UZ Leuven, Belgium eMedasense Biometrics, Raman Gat fAt the time of writing at Medtronic, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objective: Respiratory compromise is a major cause of adverse events during procedural sedation; continuous monitoring is vital for identifying and halting decompensation. We performed a quality improvement investigation to assess patient safety during procedural sedation in gastroenterology and the impact of implementing capnography monitoring.

Patients And Methods: Sedation-related adverse events and interventions were prospectively recorded during the endoscopic procedure and in recovery. Read More

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[Curative claw trimming for mechanical relief of sole ulcers - an ex-vivo study].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2021 Apr 26;49(2):92-100. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Veterinär-Anatomisches Institut, Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Universität Leipzig.

Objective: Overloading or excessive mechanical stress to the claws may damage the sensitive claw tissues and subsequently lead to sole ulcers. Corrective treatment can prevent complications of these sole ulcers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a wedge-shaped relief incision from the bulb to the tip of the outer claw of the pelvic limb on the pressure distribution beneath the pertaining claw. Read More

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Comparisons of Daily Energy Intake vs. Expenditure Using the GeneActiv Accelerometer in Elite Australian Football Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 May;35(5):1273-1278

Bond Institute of Health and Sport, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine Bond University, Robina, Queensland, Australia.

Abstract: Salagaras, BS, Mackenzie-Shalders, KL, Nelson, MJ, Fraysse, F, Wycherley, TP, Slater, GJ, McLellan, C, Kumar, K, and Coffey, VG. Comparisons of daily energy intake vs. expenditure using the GeneActiv accelerometer in elite Australian Football athletes. Read More

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Different Indicators of Adiposity and Fat Distribution and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 May;29(5):837-845

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adiposity and fat distribution on the odds of elevated cardiovascular risk factors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study included 2,427 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Read More

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Genetics of Obesity: What We Have Learned Over Decades of Research.

Authors:
Claude Bouchard

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 May;29(5):802-820

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

There is a genetic component to human obesity that accounts for 40% to 50% of the variability in body weight status but that is lower among normal weight individuals (about 30%) and substantially higher in the subpopulation of individuals with obesity and severe obesity (about 60%-80%). The appreciation that heritability varies across classes of BMI represents an important advance. After controlling for BMI, ectopic fat and fat distribution traits are characterized by heritability levels ranging from 30% to 55%. Read More

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Effects of sesame, canola and sesame-canola oils on body weight and composition in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized triple-blind cross-over clinical trial.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Recent investigations have proposed that sesame and canola oils might affect body fat distribution. This study aimed to examine the effects of sesame, canola, and sesame-canola (a blend of sesame and canola oils) oils on body weight and composition in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the context of a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, cross-over clinical trial.

Results: Eligible participants were randomized to replace their regular dietary oil with sesame oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and sesame-canola oil (SCO) (with 40% SO and 60% CO). Read More

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Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Key Genes and Pathways Activated in Response to Fat Deposition in Two Sheep Breeds With Distinct Tail Phenotype.

Front Genet 2021 8;12:639030. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory of Sheep Genetic Improvement and Healthy Production, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural and Reclamation Sciences, Shihezi, China.

Fat tail in sheep presents a valuable energy reserve that has historically facilitated adaptation to harsh environments. However, in modern intensive and semi-intensive sheep industry systems, breeds with leaner tails are more desirable. In the present study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was applied to determine the transcriptome profiles of tail fat tissues in two Chinese sheep breeds, fat-rumped Altay sheep and thin-tailed Xinjiang fine wool (XFW) sheep, with extreme fat tail phenotype difference. Read More

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The vertical dimension of obesity: adverse pregnancy outcomes in the short obese versus tall obese parturient.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Apr 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of maternal height on adverse perinatal outcomes in obese parturients. This retrospective study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients with BMI ≥ 35. Read More

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Association between body mass index and macronutrients differs along the body mass index range of German adults: results from the German National Nutrition Survey II.

J Nutr Sci 2021 4;10:e8. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Nutritional Behaviour, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between body mass index (BMI) and the intake of macronutrients varies along the BMI distribution of German adults. Based on a sample of 9214 men and women aged 18-80 years from the representative cross-sectional German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II, quantile regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the intake of macronutrients independent of energy intake and other predictors. In both sexes, BMI was positively associated with the intake of total protein and animal protein over its entire range and negatively associated with vegetable protein. Read More

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February 2021