2,185 results match your criteria farm stage

The changing microbiome of poultry meat; from farm to fridge.

Food Microbiol 2021 Oct 1;99:103823. Epub 2021 May 1.

UCD School of Agriculture Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, Belfield, Dublin 4, D04, V1W8, Ireland; UCD Institute of Food and Health, Belfield, Dublin 4, D04, V1W8, Ireland; UCD Centre for Food Safety, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, D04, V1W8, Ireland.

Chickens play host to a diverse community of microorganisms which constitute the microflora of the live bird. Factors such as diet, genetics and immune system activity affect this complex population within the bird, while external influences including weather and exposure to other animals alter the development of the microbiome. Bacteria from these settings including Campylobacter and Salmonella play an important role in the quality and safety of end-products from these birds. Read More

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October 2021

Study on bisphenol F, a bisphenol A analogue, at a dairy company: Health hazard and risk assessment.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 10;154:112334. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples, Via F. Delpino, 1, 80137, Napoli, Italy. Electronic address:

The occurrence of analogues of bisphenol A (BPA), including bisphenol F(BPF) in milk is still not well known. BPF may enter the milk chain at the farm and during milk processing at the dairy company. This study identified the main BPF contamination pathways using a monitoring model based on the identification of the hazard at three stages along the dairy chain: raw milk from the storage tank, pasteurized milk from the storage tank, and cardboard packaged milk. Read More

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A study on the use of thermal imaging as a diagnostic tool for the detection of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Livestock and One Health, Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, CH64 7TE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Our aims were to (1) determine how interdigital skin temperature (IST), measured using infrared thermography, was associated with different stages of digital dermatitis (DD) lesions and (2) develop and validate models that can use IST measurements to identify cows with an active DD lesion. Between March 2019 and March 2020, infrared thermographic images of hind feet were taken from 2,334 Holstein cows across 4 farms. We recorded the maximum temperature reading from infrared thermographic images of the interdigital skin between the heel bulbs on the hind feet. Read More

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Environmental impacts of animal-based food supply chains with market characteristics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 14;783:147077. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Biosystems & Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Animal-based food supply chains lead to significant environmental impacts, which can be influenced by production systems, distribution networks and consumption patterns. To develop strategy aimed at reducing the environmental impact of animal-based food supply chains, the common environmental hotspots among different types of food, the role of transport logistics and the consequence of end market need to be better understood. Life cycle assessment was adopted to model three types of animal-based food chains (beef, butter and salmon), with specific technologies, high spatial-resolution logistics and typical consumption patterns for three markets: local, regional (intra-European) and international. Read More

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Fifty years of a public cassava breeding program: evolution of breeding objectives, methods, and decision-making processes.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, USA.

This paper reviews and analyzes key features from cassava breeding at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) over 50 years and draws lessons for public breeding efforts broadly. The breeding team, jointly with national program partners and the private processing sector, defined breeding objectives and guiding business plans. These have evolved through the decades and currently focus on four global product profiles. Read More

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Effects of polymorphism of the gene on milk quality traits and its relation to triglyceride metabolism in bovine mammary epithelial cells of dairy cattle.

Arch Anim Breed 2021 29;64(1):35-44. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130062, PR China.

Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase () catalyses the initial and rate-regulated first-stage pathway of glycerol lipid synthesis and helps to allocate acyl-CoA (acyl-coenzyme A) to triglyceride (TG) synthesis and away from degradation pathways in animal lipometabolism-related pathways. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) and gene overexpression were used to examine the correlation between the expression of and adipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Additionally, three novel polymorphisms were identified within the bovine key functional domain of with Sanger sequencing. Read More

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January 2021

Mare's Milk from a Small Polish Specialized Farm-Basic Chemical Composition, Fatty Acid Profile, and Healthy Lipid Indices.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Computer Lab, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołynska 33, 60-637 Poznan, Poland.

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and values of healthy indices of milk from a specialized farm of Polish Coldblood mares of different ages, birth orders, and lactation stages. Milk samples ( = 48) were collected for analysis in weeks 10, 15, and 25 of lactation from mares aged between five and 14 years. The study showed that the stage of lactation has a significant effect on the fatty acid (FA) profile of the milk produced on the farm. Read More

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Systematic Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA in Granulosa Cells during the Hen Ovulatory Cycle.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs are temporally expressed during chicken follicle development. However, follicle transcriptome studies in chickens with timepoints relating to changes in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are rare. In this study, gene expression in Rohman layers was investigated at three distinct stages of the ovulatory cycle: zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0, 9:00 a. Read More

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ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: New frontiers in calf and heifer nutrition-From conception to puberty.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Animal Biosciences, Animal Science and Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 1Y2. Electronic address:

Dairy calf nutrition is traditionally one of the most overlooked aspects of dairy management, despite its large effect on the efficiency and profitability of dairy operations. Unfortunately, among all animals on the dairy farm, calves suffer from the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. These challenges have catalyzed calf nutrition research over the past decade to mitigate high incidences of disease and death, and improve animal health, growth, welfare, and industry sustainability. Read More

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Impact of Wheat on Soybean Cyst Nematode Population Density in Double-Cropping Soybean Production.

Front Plant Sci 2021 10;12:640714. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, United States.

Double-cropping is defined as producing more than one crop on the same parcel of land in a single growing season. It is reported to have many benefits when incorporated in cropping systems, including improving soil health. In some double-cropping systems, soybean is planted following winter wheat. Read More

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Women on the Frontline: A Changed Workforce and the Fight Against COVID-19.

Acad Med 2021 06;96(6):808-812

D.G. Rabinowitz is resident physician, Boston Combined Residency Program, Boston Children's Hospital and Boston Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5437-5719.

COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic, with frontlines that look drastically different than in past conflicts: that is, women now make up a sizeable majority of the health care workforce. American women have a long history of helping in times of hardship, filling positions on the home front vacated by men who enlisted as soldiers during World War I and similarly serving in crucial roles on U.S. Read More

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Gastrointestinal parasites in Swedish pigs: Prevalence and associated risk factors for infection in herds where animal welfare standards are improved.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jul 18;295:109459. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, SVA, 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, Box 7054, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

The global pig production has undergone major changes over the past 30 years with larger farms, more intensified production as well as improved hygiene and biosecurity practices. To investigate whether these changes, along with expanded pig welfare, have had an impact on parasite occurrence, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Sweden on farms where the pigs are always loose-housed, floors are solid and bedding material is provided. A total of 1615 faecal samples were collected on 42 conventional indoor farms from a) post-weaning piglets (n = 337); b) growers (n = 345); c) fatteners (n = 308); d) dry sows (n = 277) and e) pre-partum sows (n = 348). Read More

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Microbial quality of raw cow milk and its predictors along the dairy value chain in Southwest Ethiopia.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jul 4;350:109228. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Environmental Health Science and Technology, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Raw milk may contain pathogenic microorganism that can seriously affect the health of consumers. In Southwest Ethiopia, raw cow milk is consumed more than the processed products, but its microbiological quality and its predictors are not studied well. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial quality of raw cow milk and its predictors along the dairy value chain in Southwest Ethiopia. Read More

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The effects of glutathione ethyl ester in in vitro maturation on the developmental ability of oocytes derived from cattle with liver abnormalities.

Theriogenology 2021 Aug 6;170:85-90. Epub 2021 May 6.

University Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Tochigi, 321-4415, Japan; Department of Animal Production Science, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

The main objectives of this study was to identify the effects of a relationship of hyper-concentration of Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GTP) in follicle fluid (FF) on the levels of glutathione (GSH)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oocytes and subsequent embryo development in cattle with abnormal livers. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of supplementing in vitro maturation medium with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt) on the subsequent developmental potential of oocytes from such cattle. We used a control group of cattle (with normal livers) and a liver disorder (LD) group, in which the liver was diagnosed as being abnormal. Read More

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Influence of Age and Phylogenetic Background on Blood Parameters Associated With Bone Metabolism in Laying Hens.

Front Physiol 2021 29;12:678054. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Neustadt, Germany.

The high laying performance of today's laying hens places enormous demands on their mineral metabolism. While up-to-date data are rare, the present study aimed to describe blood parameters associated with egg laying and bone metabolism during the pre-laying period, in the course of the laying period and the daily egg laying cycle. Ten to 15 laying hens of two high-performing, phylogenetically divergent lines (BLA: brown-egg layer; WLA: white-egg layer), kept in single cages were blood sampled at 17, 25, 29, 49, and 69 weeks of age. Read More

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Antimicrobial-resistance gene transfer of in mono- and dual-species biofilms.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a driving force for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes among , a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide Although HGT is well documented for planktonic cells, the role of biofilms in AMR spread that likely to occur in the environment is poorly understood. Here, we developed a co-cultivation model to investigate the HGT of chromosomally-encoded AMR genes between two F38011 AMR mutants in biofilms. Compared to planktonic cells, biofilms significantly promoted HGT ( < 0. Read More

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Trends in bird abundance differ among protected forests but not bird guilds.

Ecol Appl 2021 May 14:e02377. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824, USA.

Improved monitoring and associated inferential tools to efficiently identify declining bird populations, particularly of rare or sparsely distributed species, is key to informed conservation and management across large spatiotemporal regions. We assess abundance trends for 106 bird species in a network of eight forested national parks located within the northeast United States from 2006 to 2019 using a novel hierarchical model. We develop a multispecies, multiregion, removal-sampling model that shares information across species and parks to enable inference on rare species and sparsely sampled parks and to evaluate the effects of local forest structure. Read More

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A computer vision-based approach for behavior recognition of gestating sows fed different fiber levels during high ambient temperature.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Mar 31;63(2):367-379. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate convolutional neural network models and computer vision techniques for the classification of swine posture with high accuracy and to use the derived result in the investigation of the effect of dietary fiber level on the behavioral characteristics of the pregnant sow under low and high ambient temperatures during the last stage of gestation. A total of 27 crossbred sows (Yorkshire × Landrace; average body weight, 192.2 ± 4. Read More

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Association of body condition with lameness in dairy cattle: a single-farm longitudinal study.

J Dairy Res 2021 May 14;88(2):162-165. Epub 2021 May 14.

Faculty of Life Sciences, Animal Husbandry and Ethology, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

This research communication describes the relationship between the occurrence of lameness and body condition score (BCS) in a sample of 288 cows from a single farm that were repeatedly scored in the course of 9 months while controlling for confounding variables. The relationship between BCS and lameness was evaluated using generalised linear mixed-effects models. It was found that the proportion of lame cows was higher with decreasing but also with increasing BCS, increased with lactation number and decreased with time since the last claw trimming. Read More

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Antioxidant status and their enhancements strategies for water stress tolerance in chickpea.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e237809. Epub 2021 May 10.

Bahauddin Zakariya University, Department of Agronomy, Multan, Pakistan.

Water stress executes severe influences on the plant growth and development through modifying physio-chemical properties. Therefore, a field experiment was designed to evaluate the antioxidant status and their enhancements strategies for water stress tolerance in chickpea on loam and clay loam soils under agro-ecological conditions of Arid Zone Research Institute, Bahawalpur (29.3871 °N, 71. Read More

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A milk transportation problem with milk collection centers and vehicle routing.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Industrial Engineering Program, Universidad Andres Bello, Chile. Electronic address:

In this work, we study, model, and propose two approaches to solve a raw milk transportation problem inspired by a real case of a milk company in Chile. The milk is produced by a set of farms scattered in a large rural area. The company must collect all the production daily using a truck fleet. Read More

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High incidence of multidrug resistance and class 1 and 2 integrons in isolated from broiler chickens in South of Iran.

Vet Res Forum 2021 15;12(1):101-107. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran .

The objective was to investigate the multidrug resistance and presence of class 1 and 2 integrons in 300 isolates obtained from 20 broiler farms during three rearing periods (one-day-old chicks, thirty-day-old chickens, and one day before slaughter) in Fars, South Iran. Results showed that 81.00%, 82. Read More

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Contact rate and risk factors of classical swine fever disease in commercial and smallholder pig farms, Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia.

Vet World 2021 Mar 24;14(3):758-763. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Disease Investigation Center Wates, Yogyakarta 55651, Indonesia.

Background And Aim: Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the primary diseases in animals in Indonesia, particularly areas that supply pig meat to the country, such as Karanganyar district, Central Java. The government has tried to prevent and control the disease by vaccination, but it has not yet given effective results. Therefore, another attempt to prevent the recurrence of CSF cases is to apply biosecurity in pig farms by looking for risk factors associated with on-farm and off-farm contact. Read More

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The first report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on Thai basil in Florida, United States.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, 14625 CR672, Wimauma, Florida, United States, 33598;

Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora) is an important ethnic aromatic herb native to Southeast Asia. According to the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida 2020-2021, Asian vegetables are currently grown on more than 4,000 ha in Florida, and Thai basil is one of the most commonly grown among these. Read More

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Ante-Natal and Post-Natal Influences on Neonatal Immunity, Growth and Puberty of Calves-A Review.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

RUM&N Sas, Via Sant'Ambrogio, 42123 Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy.

Calf immunity, growth and puberty are important factors affecting heifer productivity. The first four weeks of age are critical for reducing calf morbidity and mortality. It is well documented that colostrum is paramount to neonatal nutrition and passive immunity, however, adaptation to extra-uterine life starts early during embryonic development. Read More

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Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Infection in Sheep and Goats in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 17;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig City 44511, Egypt.

() is intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium that cause enzootic abortion in sheep and goats. Information on seroprevalence and flock management risk factors associated with seropositivity in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The objectives of this study were to (i) estimate the animal, flock, and within-flock seroprevalence of among Eastern Province sheep and goat flocks and (ii) identify the flock management and animal risk factors associated with seropositivity in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Read More

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Genomic Structure of the Porcine Locus and Expression of the Paralog.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Proper, tissue-specific regulation of , the gene encoding aromatase, the key enzyme of estrogen synthesis, is essential for reproductive processes. Here, we analyzed transcriptional regulation of the porcine in female and male gonads and brain by 5'RACE and RT-PCR and comprehensively mapped the pig locus by in silico analysis. Our data revealed that the complete locus, including three paralogous copies, , and , spans approximately 330 kb of the porcine chromosome 1. Read More

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Heat Stress and Goat Welfare: Adaptation and Production Considerations.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Centre for Climate Resilient Animal Adaptation Studies, ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560030, India.

This review attempted to collate and synthesize information on goat welfare and production constraints during heat stress exposure. Among the farm animals, goats arguably are considered the best-suited animals to survive in tropical climates. Heat stress was found to negatively influence growth, milk and meat production and compromised the immune response, thereby significantly reducing goats' welfare under extensive conditions and transportation. Read More

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Dairy Cows' Health during Alpine Summer Grazing as Assessed by Milk Traits, Including Differential Somatic Cell Count: A Case Study from Italy.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.

Extensive summer grazing is a dairy herd management practice frequently adopted in mountainous areas. Nowadays, this activity is threatened by its high labour demand, but it is fundamental for environmental, touristic and economic implications, as well as for the preservation of social and cultural traditions. Scarce information on the effects of such low-input farming systems on cattle health is available. Read More

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Occurrence of Salmonella Typhimurium and its monophasic variant (4, [5],12:i:-) in healthy and clinically ill pigs in northern Italy.

Porcine Health Manag 2021 Apr 26;7(1):34. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia-Romagna "Bruno Ubertini", via Bianchi 9, 25124, Brescia, Italy.

Background: The serovar Typhimurium (4, [5],12:i:1,2), is the most frequently isolated serovar in case of salmonellosis in pigs in Europe and its monophasic variant (4, [5],12:i:-) has been increasingly responsible for Salmonella outbreaks in humans. A total of 25,215 samples were collected, during the years 2002-2017, from 1359 pig farms located in Northern Italy. Samples were collected from different material sources including fecal samples, rectal swabs, gut content and different organs. Read More

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