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Performance characteristics of high-frequency percussive ventilation under hyperbaric conditions.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):157-168

Hyperbaric Medicine and Chronic Wound Clinic, Legacy Emanuel Medical Center, Portland, Oregon U.S.

Introduction: Safe administration of critical care hyperbaric medicine requires specialized equipment and advanced training. Equipment must be tested in order to evaluate function in the hyperbaric environment. High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has been used in intensive care settings effectively, but it has never been tested in a hyperbaric chamber. Read More

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Prevention of middle ear barotrauma with oxymetazoline/fluticasone treatment.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):149-152

University of Florida, Department of Anesthesiology, Gainesville, Florida U.S.

Middle ear barotrauma (MEB) is a common complication of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. It has been reported in more than 40% of HBO2 treatments and can interrupt the sequence of HBO2. MEB may lead to pain, tympanic membrane rupture, and even hearing loss. Read More

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Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Improve Chronic Disease Care: Methods and Application to Pharmacotherapy Decision Support for Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Methods Inf Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

Objectives:  Artificial intelligence (AI), including predictive analytics, has great potential to improve the care of common chronic conditions with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are still many challenges to achieving this vision. The goal of this project was to develop and apply methods for enhancing chronic disease care using AI. Read More

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Asset map in a Chilean Health Promoting University: 'a strategy for revitalization'.

Health Promot Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Public Health Research Group, University of Alicante, Campus San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante 03690, Spain.

Health Promoting Universities (HPUs) are more likely to perform actions intended to change habits and increase personal empowerment, than they are to develop community actions. The objective of this research is to create an asset map to visualize collective actions in a Chilean HPU. A qualitative study, based on the ABCD model was conducted. Read More

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Work and life in the sport industry - A comparison of work-life interface experiences among athletic employees. A Review.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

†University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Objective: To review the work-life interface literature from the sport industry, especially focusing on coaches, athletic trainers, athletes, and other sport personnel.

Data Sources: Studies were identified utilizing SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar. Sample search terms included "Work-Family Balance," "Work-Life Balance," "Work-Family Conflict," "Work-Life Conflict," "Work-Family Enrichment," and "Work-Life Enrichment. Read More

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Paternal coping and psychopathology during the perinatal period: A mixed studies systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 Apr 2;86:102028. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Deakin University, Centre for Social and Early Emotional Development, School of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Geelong, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Centre for Adolescent Health, Melbourne, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

How fathers cope with stress may be critical to their mental health during the perinatal period. Using a sequential explanatory design for systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to identify associations and causal relations between higher- and lower-order avoidant and approach coping strategies and paternal psychopathology. We searched five electronic databases and grey literature, and used random-effects models to calculate pooled effects from 11 quantitative studies. Read More

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Obatoclax, the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to promote the anti-tumor efficacy in combination with immune checkpoint blockade.

Transl Oncol 2021 May 8;14(8):101116. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of anesthesiology, Linyi Central Hospital, Shandong 276400, China. Electronic address:

Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in regulating lymphocyte development and maintain homeostasis, and have also been proved to be involved in various cancer types development. However, the role of Bcl-2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has not been clearly studied. Here, we reported the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor, obatoclax could directly inhibit HCC growth in vitro. Read More

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The association between familial death in childhood or adolescence and subsequent substance use disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Addict Behav 2021 Mar 26;120:106936. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Ireland. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to childhood adversity has been linked to long-term negative mental health consequences in adulthood.

Purpose: This review examined the association between exposure to the death of a family member (i.e. Read More

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Comparative effectiveness of five fecal immunochemical tests using colonoscopy as the gold standard: Study protocol.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 May 8:106430. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States of America.

Background: There are nearly 50,000 colorectal cancer (CRC) deaths in the United States each year. CRC is curable if detected in its early stages. Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) can detect precursor lesions and many can be analyzed at the point-of-care (POC) in physician offices. Read More

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Verification of Ferroptosis and Pyroptosis and Identification of PTGS2 as the Hub Gene in Human Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis and pyroptosis have not been fully studied in atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the expression of ferroptosis-related and pyroptosis-related proteins in human coronary arteries and analyse correlation with severity of atherosclerosis and clarify the interactions between proteins and possible mechanisms of atherosclerosis. 40 human coronary artery specimens were employed. Read More

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Taxonomic annotation of 16S rRNA sequences of pig intestinal samples using MG-RAST and QIIME2 generated different microbiota compositions.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 May 8:106235. Epub 2021 May 8.

Scotland's Rural College, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Environmental microbiome studies rely on fast and accurate bioinformatics tools to characterize the taxonomic composition of samples based on the 16S rRNA gene. MetaGenome Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) and Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology 2 (QIIME2) are two of the most popular tools available to perform this task. Their underlying algorithms differ in many aspects, and therefore the comparison of the pipelines provides insights into their best use and interpretation of the outcomes. Read More

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EphA4 is highly expressed in the atria of heart and its deletion leads to atrial hypertrophy and electrocardiographic abnormalities in rats.

Life Sci 2021 May 8:119595. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, National Health Commission of China (NHC), Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking Union Medicine College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021, China. Electronic address:

Aims: EphA4 is a member of the Eph receptor family, and expressed mainly in central nervous system (CNS), which is involved in CNS development and multiple diseases. Due to the variability in EphA4 expression, we wondered if EphA4 is expressed in other tissues, and what role does EphA4 play?

Materials And Methods: We generated an EphA4 knockout (KO) rat line with red fluorescent marker protein encoded by the mCherry cassette inserted downstream of the EphA4 promoter as a reporter. Using this system, we observed high expression of EphA4 in the heart atria and in the brain. Read More

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Cecidology: Anatomy of a biohack.

Curr Biol 2021 May;31(9):R430-R433

Florian Maderspacher is Current Biology's Senior Reviews Editor. Electronic address:

Galls are abnormal plant growths induced by animals, especially insects, to foster their own developing offspring. Which molecular malware gall-inducers use to hack into the plant's genetic programs is unclear. In an aphid, a gene affecting gall color has been discovered, part of a large family of putative effectors. Read More

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Copper biology.

Curr Biol 2021 May;31(9):R421-R427

Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Metals are vital for life as they are necessary for essential biological processes. Traditionally, metals are categorized as either dynamic signals or static cofactors. Redox-inactive metals such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) signal through large fluctuations in their metal-ion pools. Read More

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NRF2 activates macropinocytosis upon autophagy inhibition.

Cancer Cell 2021 May;39(5):596-598

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Su et al. demonstrate that upon inhibiting autophagy, an intracellular nutrient recycling pathway, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells upregulate NRF2-mediated transcription of macropinocytosis pathway components, thereby triggering an alternate route for tumors to scavenge nutrients from extracellular sources. Accordingly, the combined inhibition of autophagy and macropinocytosis may improve cancer treatment. Read More

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Evaluation of the ERA5 reanalysis-based Universal Thermal Climate Index on mortality data in Europe.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111227. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; The Centre on Climate Change and Planetary Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Centre for Statistical Methodology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Air temperature has been the most commonly used exposure metric in assessing relationships between thermal stress and mortality. Lack of the high-quality meteorological station data necessary to adequately characterize the thermal environment has been one of the main limitations for the use of more complex thermal indices. Global climate reanalyses may provide an ideal platform to overcome this limitation and define complex heat and cold stress conditions anywhere in the world. Read More

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Association between long-term exposure to high levels of ambient air pollution and incidence of lung cancer in a population-based cohort.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111214. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cancer Control and Population Health, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi, 10408, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Although outdoor air pollution including particulate matter (PM) was classified as carcinogenic to humans based on accumulating epidemiological evidence, these findings were suggested mostly from low-dose environments in North America and Europe. We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to PM ≤ 10 and 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM and PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO) with lung cancer incidence using a population-based cohort in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea. Read More

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Effective removal of heavy metals from industrial effluent wastewater by a multi metal and drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RA-14 using integrated sequencing batch reactor.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111240. Epub 2021 May 8.

Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, 330-801, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is useful in removal of both non-biodegradable and biodegradable contaminants from wastewater. The main aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the potential of biocatalyst strain RA-14 on heavy metal removal under SBR. The selected strain was screened from the soil sediment contaminated with heavy metals. Read More

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Multilevel Influences on Black Cancer Patient Experiences With Care: A Qualitative Analysis.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e645-e653

Department of Preventive Medicine, The Gehr Family Center for Health Systems Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Purpose: Black patients with cancer report worse experiences with health care compared with White patients; however, little is known about what influences these ratings. The objective of this study is to explore the multilevel factors that influence global ratings of care for Black cancer survivors.

Methods: We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with 18 Black cancer survivors. Read More

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Barriers to and Facilitators of Recruitment of Adult African American Men for Colorectal Cancer Research: An Instrumental Exploratory Case Study.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e686-e694

Mixed Methods Program and Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.

Purpose: Racial and ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in research and clinical trials. Better understanding of the components of effective minority recruitment into research studies is critical to understanding and reducing health disparities. Research on recruitment strategies for cancer-specific research-including colorectal cancer (CRC)-among African American men is particularly limited. Read More

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Saikosaponin-d protects against liver fibrosis by regulating Estrogen receptor-β/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

Biochem Cell Biol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Gastroenterology, 274 Middle Zhijiang Road, Jing 'an District, Shanghai, Shanghai, China, 200071;

Liver fibrosis is the ultimate common pathway in most types of chronic liver damage characterized by imbalance of extracellular matrix degradation and synthesis. Saikosaponin-d (SSd) possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-liver fibrosis effects. However, the underlying mechanism of SSd in repressing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation remains unclear. Read More

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Relationships Between Daily Device Use and Early Communication Outcomes in Young Children With Cochlear Implants.

Ear Hear 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

1Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing, School of Behavioral and Brain Science, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, USA 2Pediatric Cochlear Implant Program, Callier Center for Communication Disorders, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Objectives: Children with significant hearing loss can gain access to sound via a cochlear implant (CI), but they must wear the device to reap the communication benefits of the device. That is, poor daily device use may result in underdeveloped perceptual and language skills in children and adolescents using CIs. This retrospective study focuses on the relationship between daily CI use and communication performance (auditory skills, speech recognition, expressive and receptive language) in young children, with the hypothesis that greater daily device use coincides with better communication outcomes. Read More

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January 2021

Prevention of Neonatal Hypoglycemia With Oral Glucose Gel for High-Risk Newborns.

WMJ 2021 Apr;120(1):51-53

University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Neonatal hypoglycemia (glucose <47) is the most common metabolic problem in newborns (incidence 5% - 15%) and can cause adverse outcomes, even in the absence of noticeable symptoms. Oral glucose gel (OGG) is safe and effective for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia. In order to reduce interventions such as intravenous (IV) dextrose administration and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) transfer, in October 2017, we implemented a protocol in our Level 1 rural community hospital to identify newborns with asymptomatic hypoglycemia based on risk factors and treat them with OGG. Read More

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Incorporating Guanidinium as Perovskitizer-Cation of Two-Dimensional Metal Halide for Crystal-Array Photodetector.

Chem Asian J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Yangqiao West Road 155, GuLou District, 350002, Fuzhou, CHINA.

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid perovskites are recently emerging as a potential family of semiconductors for versatile optoelectronic applications. Currently, the "perovskitizer" moieties are rigidly limited to the small-size cations, while few 2D metal-halides composing of guanidinium cation inside perovskite cages have been studied for photodetection. Herein, we present a new 2D hybrid perovskite, (i -BA)2GPb 2 I 7 (where G is guanidinium and i -BA is isobutylammonium), which adopts the bilayered frameworks of {GPb 2 I 7 }. Read More

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Is substance use among young cancer survivors the result of emotional and physical pain?

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

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Factors explaining the fear of being infected with COVID-19.

Health Expect 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Talca, Talca, Chile.

Background: The prevalence of COVID-19 has a social and economic impact on people, leaving them distressed and fearful of getting infected.

Objective: To determine the variables attributable to the fear of contracting COVID-19.

Design: This is a quantitative study based on an online cross-sectional self-administered survey in Chile between 10 July 2020 and 10 August 2020. Read More

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Institutional and behaviour-change interventions to support COVID-19 public health measures: a review by the Lancet Commission Task Force on public health measures to suppress the pandemic.

Int Health 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The Lancet COVID-19 Commission Task Force for Public Health Measures to Suppress the Pandemic was launched to identify critical points for consideration by governments on public health interventions to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drawing on our review of published studies of data analytics and modelling, evidence synthesis and contextualisation, and behavioural science evidence and theory on public health interventions from a range of sources, we outline evidence for a range of institutional measures and behaviour-change measures. We cite examples of measures adopted by a range of countries, but especially jurisdictions that have, thus far, achieved low numbers of COVID-19 deaths and limited community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Read More

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In search of the still unknown function of FW2.2 / CELL NUMBER REGULATOR, a major regulator of fruit size in tomato.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE, UMR1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, F-33882 Villenave d'Ornon, France.

The FW2.2 gene is associated with the major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) governing fruit size in tomato, and acts by negatively controlling cell division during fruit development. FW2. Read More

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