232,226 results match your criteria familial risks


Narrative review of the influence of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia on colorectal cancer risk and oncological outcomes.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 7;14(7):101089. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 807, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Center for Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Center for Liquid Biopsy and Cohort Research, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia have been shown to have significant effects on the incidence, chemoresistance, and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as the outcomes of localized and metastatic CRC. Inflammation and endocrine effects may act as central mechanisms of DM and cancer and stimulate the insulin-like growth factor 1-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (IGF-1-PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathway. Dysregulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway leads to metabolic imbalance and indicates cancer risk. Read More

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Diabetes in Pregnancy 100 Years after the Discovery of Insulin: Hot Topics and Open Questions to be Addressed in the Coming Years.

Authors:
Ravi Retnakaran

Metabolism 2021 Apr 7:154772. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

By making it possible for women with diabetes to achieve their family planning goals, the discovery of insulin ushered in the field of diabetes in pregnancy. The ensuing century has witnessed tremendous advances, with clinical focus on preconception planning and maternal glycemic control making successful pregnancy an achievable goal. Currently, the global epidemic of overweight/obesity has led to maternal hyperglycemia now affecting one in every six pregnancies worldwide, prompting intense research interest. Read More

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Glucocorticoids suppressed osteoblast differentiation by decreasing Sema3A expression via the PIK3/Akt pathway.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Apr 7:112595. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School and Hospital of Stomatology & Institute of Stomatological Research, Sun Yat-sen University, 510055,Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou 510055, China. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoids(GCs) are extensively used to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Excessive prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by GCs is suggested as a major cause for GCs-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Read More

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The Timed Up and Go test and the ageing heart: Findings from a national health screening of 1,084,875 community-dwelling older adults.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):213-219

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Korea.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between Timed Up and Go test performance and the incidence of older adult heart diseases and mortality.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 1,084,875 older adults who participated in a national health screening program between 2009-2014 (all aged 66 years old). Participants free of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation at baseline were included and were divided into Group 1 (<10 s), Group 2 (10-20 s) and Group 3 (≥20 s) using the Timed Up and Go test scores. Read More

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An international tool to measure perceived stressors in intensive care units: the PS-ICU scale.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Apr 10;11(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Besançon, University of Franche-Comte EA 3920, Besançon, France.

Background: The intensive care unit is increasingly recognized as a stressful environment for healthcare professionals. This context has an impact on the health of these professionals but also on the quality of their personal and professional life. However, there is currently no validated scale to measure specific stressors perceived by healthcare professionals in intensive care. Read More

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Paediatric kidney transplantation in under-resourced regions-a panoramic view.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Pediatric Nephrology, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Kidney transplantation is the ideal choice of kidney replacement therapy in children as it offers a low risk of mortality and a better quality of life. A wide variance in the access to kidney replacement therapies exists across the world with only 21% of low- and low-middle income countries (LLMIC) undertaking kidney transplantation. Pediatric kidney transplantation rates in these under-resourced regions are reported to be as low as < 4 pmcp [per million child population]. Read More

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Circadian rhythm and gestational diabetes: working conditions, sleeping habits and lifestyle influence insulin dependency during pregnancy.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Jena, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

Objective: Management of gestational diabetes (GDM) is currently changing toward a more personalized approach. There  is a growing number of GDM patients requiring only a single dose of basal insulin at night to achieve glucose control. Well-known risk factors like obesity, parity and family history have been associated with GDM treatment requirements. Read More

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Post-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption and risk of prostate cancer progression by smoking history.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: Post-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption and prostate cancer progression is understudied.

Methods: We examined 1,557 men from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor who completed a food frequency questionnaire a median of 28 months post-diagnosis. We estimated associations between post-diagnostic coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea (total, non-herbal, herbal) and risk of prostate cancer progression (recurrence, secondary treatment, bone metastases, or prostate cancer death) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Read More

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Effects of Comorbid Developmental Coordination Disorder and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Physical Activity in Children Aged 4-5 Years.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

INfant and Child Health (INCH) Lab, Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While children with DCD engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to typically developing (TD) children, research pertaining to how ADHD affects this relationship is limited. We investigated the effect of ADHD on MVPA among children at risk for DCD (DCDr). Read More

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Ethnic variation, socioeconomic status, and factors associated with cardio-metabolic multi-morbidity among uncontrolled hypertension in multiethnic Singapore.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Program in Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.

Identifying patients with hypertension at high risk of cardio-metabolic multi-morbidity (CMM) is key for intervention. We examined the independent association of CMM with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) among patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and clinical factors were obtained from 921 patients aged ≥40 years with hypertension in the multiethnic Singapore. Read More

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Magnitude and associated factors of unmet need for family planning among rural women in Ethiopia: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 9;11(4):e044060. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences and Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objective: This study was aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of unmet need for family planning among rural women in Ethiopia.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Ethiopia. Read More

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A BERIBERI UNHEALTHY LATTE: ENCEPHALOPATHY AND SHOCK FROM SEVERE NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY.

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California.

Background: Thiamine deficiency is an uncommon cause of severe illness in the United States that can lead to significant morbidity because of high-output cardiac failure, peripheral neuropathy, and permanent neurologic impairment. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with extreme malnutrition caused by complications of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery who presented with signs and symptoms of severe thiamine deficiency and septic shock.

Case Report: A 43-year-old woman who had undergone RYGB surgery and who had multiple complications presented to the emergency department with agitation, confusion, and lethargy. Read More

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Impact of national guidelines on use of BRCA1/2 germline testing, risk management advice given to women with pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants and uptake of advice.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Apr 9;19(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Parkville Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: This nationwide study assessed the impact of nationally agreed cancer genetics guidelines on use of BRCA1/2 germline testing, risk management advice given by health professionals to women with pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants and uptake of such advice by patients.

Methods: Clinic files of 883 women who had initial proband screens for BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants at 12 familial cancer clinics between July 2008-July 2009 (i.e. Read More

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Child witchcraft confessions as an idiom of distress in Sierra Leone; results of a rapid qualitative inquiry and recommendations for mental health interventions.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2021 Apr 9;15(1):18. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Reports about child witchcraft are not uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we approach child witchcraft as an idiom of distress. In an environment that may prohibit children from openly expressing distress, the shared imagery of witchcraft can provide a cultural idiom to communicate about psychosocial suffering. Read More

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Uncontrolled hypertension among tobacco-users: women of prime childbearing age at risk in India.

BMC Womens Health 2021 Apr 9;21(1):146. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Global Noncommunicable Diseases Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Background: Uncontrolled hypertension and tobacco use are two major public health issues that have implications for reproductive outcomes. This paper examines the association between tobacco-use status and uncontrolled hypertension among prime childbearing age (20-35) women in India.

Methods: We used the India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-2016 to obtain data on hypertension status and tobacco use for 356,853 women aged 20-35. Read More

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Cigarette smoking and all-cause mortality in rural Chinese male adults: 15-year follow-up of the Anqing cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 9;21(1):696. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, smoking is one of the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths in China. We aimed to evaluate the associations of smoking with all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population.

Methods: Male participants over age 45 (n = 5367) from a large familial aggregation study in rural China, were included in the current analyses. Read More

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Dosimetric effects of supine immobilization devices on the skin in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer: a retrospective study.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 9;21(1):384. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, NO 950, Donghai Street, Fengze District, Quanzhou, 362000, Fujian, China.

Background: The dose perturbation effect of immobilization devices is often overlooked in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for breast cancer (BC). This retrospective study assessed the dosimetric effects of supine immobilization devices on the skin using a commercial treatment planning system.

Methods: Forty women with BC were divided into four groups according to the type of primary surgery: groups A and B included patients with left and right BC, respectively, who received 50 Gy radiotherapy in 25 fractions after radical mastectomy, while groups C and D included patients with left and right BC, respectively, who received breast-conservation surgery (BCS) and 40. Read More

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A multispecies outbreak of carbapenem-resistant bacteria harboring the bla gene in a non-classical transposon element.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Apr 9;21(1):107. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratories, Centro Médico San Joaquín, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 3rd floor, Vicuña Mackenna, 4686, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most frequent KPC-producing bacteria. The bla gene is frequently embedded in Tn4401 transposon, and less frequently in non-Tn4401 elements (NTE) variants I-III. The first case of KPC in the UC-CHRISTUS Clinical Hospital was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Read More

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Impacts and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency medicine physicians in the United States.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 2;48:38-47. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians have been on the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and other related factors such as resource availability and institutional support on well-being, burnout and job-satisfaction of EM physicians in the United States.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey study of EM physicians was conducted through the Emergency Medicine Practice Research Network of the ACEP. Read More

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A sequential guide to identify neonates with low bacterial meningitis risk: a multicenter study.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neonatology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To derive and validate a predictive algorithm integrating clinical and laboratory parameters to stratify a full-term neonate's risk level of having bacterial meningitis (BM).

Methods: A multicentered dataset was categorized into derivation (689 full-term neonates aged ≤28 days with a lumbar puncture [LP]) and external validation (383 neonates) datasets. A sequential algorithm with risk stratification for neonatal BM was constructed. Read More

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Gastric symptoms and low perceived maternal warmth are associated with eating disorder symptoms in young adolescent girls.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Objective: This study sought to determine whether gastric symptoms are associated with later eating disorder (ED) symptoms during early adolescence, and whether this relationship is moderated by parental warmth/acceptance and/or the child's sex.

Method: Longitudinal data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study were utilized. Participants ages 9-10 years old (N = 4,950; 2,370 female) completed measures at baseline and 1 year later (Y1). Read More

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Self-testing for HIV, HBV, and HCV using finger-stick whole-blood multiplex immunochromatographic rapid test: A pilot feasibility study in sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249701. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratoire de virologie médicale et oncologique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: The burden of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections remains disproportionately high in sub-Saharan Africa, with high rates of co-infections. Multiplex rapid diagnostic tests for HIV, HBV and HCV serological testing with high analytical performances may improve the "cascade of screening" and quite possibly the linkage-to-care with reduced cost. Based on our previous field experience of HIV self-testing, we herein aimed at evaluating the practicability and acceptability of a prototype finger-stick whole-blood Triplex HIV/HCV/HBsAg self-test as a simultaneous serological screening tool for HIV, HBV, and HCV in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Read More

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Significance of extended sports cardiology screening of elite handball referees.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249923. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

The significance of cardiology screening of referees is not well established. Cardiovascular risk factors and diseases were examined in asymptomatic Hungarian elite handball referees undergoing extended screening: personal/family history, physical examination, 12-lead ECG, laboratory tests, body-composition analysis, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Holter-ECG (n = 8), blood pressure monitorization (n = 10), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR; n = 27) and computer tomography (CCT; n = 4) were also carried out if needed. Read More

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Knowledge, preventive behaviors and risk perception of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Turkish health care workers.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0250017. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Private Gynecologic Oncology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak spread to over 100 countries with a total of 100,000 cases during the first week of March 2020. Health care workers, as those on the frontline of the COVID-19 pandemic, are more susceptible to infection. Inadequate related knowledge and preventive behaviors among health care workers might lead to delayed treatment and result in the rapid spread of the infection. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence and Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: 2020 Summative Review.

Pancreas 2021 Mar;50(3):251-279

Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Abstract: Despite considerable research efforts, pancreatic cancer is associated with a dire prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 10%. Early symptoms of the disease are mostly nonspecific. The premise of improved survival through early detection is that more individuals will benefit from potentially curative treatment. Read More

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Impact of a Genomic Test on Treatment Decision in a Predominantly African American Population With Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2002997. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: The Genomic Prostate Score (GPS), performed on biopsy tissue, predicts adverse outcome in prostate cancer (PCa) and has shown promise for improving patient selection for active surveillance (AS). However, its impact on treatment choice in high-risk populations of African Americans is largely unknown and, in general, the effect of the GPS on this difficult decision has not been evaluated in randomized trials.

Methods: Two hundred men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network very low to low-intermediate PCa from three Chicago hospitals (70% Black, 16% college graduates) were randomly assigned at diagnosis to standard counseling with or without a 12-gene GPS assay. Read More

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The benefits and challenges of family genetic testing in rare genetic diseases-lessons from Fabry disease.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Apr 9:e1666. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Family genetic testing of patients newly diagnosed with a rare genetic disease can improve early diagnosis of family members, allowing patients to receive disease-specific therapies when available. Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by pathogenic variants in GLA, can lead to end-stage renal disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and stroke. Diagnostic delays are common due to the rarity of the disease and non-specificity of early symptoms. Read More

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Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor rs6265 G>A polymorphism and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder susceptibility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brain Behav 2021 Apr 9:e02118. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 G > A polymorphism is closely related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk. However, the results were not consistent. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to explore the underlying relationships between BDNF rs6265 G > A polymorphism and PTSD risk. Read More

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Service Coordination to Address Maternal Mental Health, Partner Violence, and Substance Use: Findings from a National Survey of Home Visiting Programs.

Prev Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Population, Family, & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, U21201, USA.

Maternal risks such as poor mental health, partner violence, and substance misuse can undermine child health and development. Maternal and early childhood home visiting programs address these risks primarily through referral and coordination with community-based services, yet effects on these outcomes have been small. This study assessed the strengths of local home visiting sites' systems to support coordination of mental health, partner violence, and substance use services. Read More

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Which Risk Factors Are Associated with Pain and Patient-reported Function in Patients with a Rotator Cuff Tear?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

N. G. Lemaster, N. Heebner, Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Patient-reported measures guide physicians in clinical decision making and therefore it is critical to determine what clinical factors are associated with these scores. Psychological and physical factors are commonly studied separately in patients with rotator cuff tears to determine their influence on outcomes. It is well established that psychological distress and scapular motion change in the presence of a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Read More

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