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A conceptual approach to the rationale for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allocation prioritisation.

Pathog Glob Health 2021 Jun 9:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine (KCCR), Kumasi, Ghana.

Currently vaccines protecting from COVID-19 are a scarce resource. Prioritising vaccination for certain groups of society is placed in a context of uncertainty due to changing evidence on the available vaccines and changing infection dynamics. To meet accepted ethical standards of procedural justice and individual autonomy, vaccine allocation strategies need to state reasons for prioritisation explicitly while at the same time communicating the expected risks and benefits of vaccination at different times and with different vaccines transparently. Read More

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Autoencoder-based Drug-Target Interaction Prediction by Preserving the Consistency of Chemical Properties and Functions of Drugs.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Computer Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Motivation: Exploring the potential drug-target interactions (DTIs) is a key step in drug discovery and repurposing. In recent years, predicting the probable DTIs through computational methods has gradually become a research hot spot. However, most of the previous studies failed to judiciously take into account the consistency between the chemical properties of drug and its functions. Read More

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Case Studies in Physiology: Untangling the cause of hypoxemia in an obese patient with acute leukemia.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, United Statesgrid.214572.7.

Diagnosing the cause of hypoxemia and dyspnea can be complicated in complex patients with multiple co-morbidities. This Case Study in Physiology describes an obese man admitted to the hospital for relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who experienced progressive hypoxemia, shortness of breath, and dyspnea on exertion during his hospitalization. After initial empirical treatment with diuresis and antibiotics failed to improve his symptoms, we applied a novel, recently described physiological method to estimate the arterial partial pressure of oxygen from the peripheral saturation measurement, and calculate the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference to discern the source of his hypoxemia and dyspnea. Read More

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An organic-inorganic hybrid scaffold with honeycomb-like structures enabled by one-step self-assembly-driven electrospinning.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 27;124:112079. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki Institute of Life Science (HiLIFE), University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Electrospun organic/inorganic hybrid scaffolds have been appealing in tissue regeneration owing to the integrated physicochemical and biological performances. However, the conventional electrospun scaffolds with non-woven structures usually failed to enable deep cell infiltration due to the densely stacked layers among the fibers. Herein, through self-assembly-driven electrospinning, a polyhydroxybutyrate/poly(ε-caprolactone)/58S sol-gel bioactive glass (PHB/PCL/58S) hybrid scaffold with honeycomb-like structures was prepared by manipulating the solution composition and concentration during a one-step electrospinning process. Read More

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Study of the SARS-CoV-2-specific immune T-cell responses in COVID-19-positive cancer patients.

Eur J Cancer 2021 06 26;150:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

INSERM, EFS BFC, UMR1098 RIGHT, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Biotechnology and Immune-oncology Platforme, University Hospital of Besançon, France; Department of Pharmacy, University Hospital of Besançon, France.

Background: Cancer patients are considered highly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, delaying cancer-specific therapies could have a deleterious effect on survival. The potential suppressive effects of chemotherapies or cancer-related microenvironment raised the question on how cancer patients' immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 virus. Read More

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Preoperative imaging optimized for epiretinal membrane surgery.

Int J Retina Vitreous 2021 Apr 13;7(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Ophthalmology Department, AP-HP, Hôpital Lariboisière, Université de Paris, 75010, Paris, France.

Background: To compare imaging modalities for visualizing primary epiretinal membrane (ERM) with each other and with intraoperative digital images (IDI) after blue staining.

Methods: The records of consecutive patients operated for primary ERM over a 12-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative imaging included color fundus photography (CFP), En Face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), 45° infrared- (IR) and blue-reflectance (BR) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Read More

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An Update for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Lupus Nephritis.

Kidney Dis (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;7(2):79-89. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Background: Lupus nephritis (LN) is the most severe organ manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although increased knowledge of the disease pathogenesis has improved treatment options, outcomes have plateaued as current immunosuppressive therapies have failed to prevent disease relapse in more than half of treated patients. Thus, there is still an urgent need for novel therapy. Read More

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The Use of 4-mm Implants Splinted to 10-mm Implants for Replacement of Multiple Missing Teeth in the Posterior Maxilla Region with Expanded Maxillary Sinus. An Observational Cases Series: Patient Characteristics and Preliminary Results.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2021 Mar-Apr;41(2):261-268

This study aimed to rehabilitate shortened maxillary dental arch with splinted crowns by connecting ultra-short implants with longer ones. In the posterior maxilla of 11 patients, one 10-mm (n = 11) and one or two ultra-short 4-mm (n = 17) dental implants were inserted. The insertion torque was lower than 20 Ncm in 55% of the 10-mm implants and in 94% of the 4-mm implants ( > . Read More

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Evolving Schema for Employing Network Biology Approaches to Understand Pulmonary Hypertension.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1303:57-69

Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Reductionist approaches have served as the cornerstone for traditional mechanistic endeavors in biomedical research. However, for pulmonary hypertension (PH), a relatively rare but deadly vascular disease of the lungs, the use of traditional reductionist approaches has failed to define the complexities of pathogenesis. With the development of new -omics platforms (i. Read More

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Fluid Biomarkers in Clinical Trials for Alzheimer's Disease: Current and Future Application.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;81(1):19-32

Innovation Center for Neurological Disorders and Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) research is entering a unique moment in which enormous information about the molecular basis of this disease is being translated into therapeutics. However, almost all drug candidates have failed in clinical trials over the past 30 years. These many trial failures have highlighted a need for the incorporation of biomarkers in clinical trials to help improve the trial design. Read More

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January 2021

Inferring drug-target interactions based on random walk and convolutional neural network.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Mar 17;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Computational strategies for identifying drugtarget interactions (DTIs) can guide the process of drug discovery. Most proposed methods predict DTIs via integration of heterogeneous data related to drugs and proteins. However, they have failed to deeply integrate these data and learn deep feature representations of multiple original similarities and interactions. Read More

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Reflecting on the Anthropocene: The Call for Deeper Transformations : This article belongs to Ambio's 50th Anniversary Collection. Theme: Anthropocene.

Authors:
Karen O'Brien

Ambio 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

University of Oslo in Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Research on global environmental change has transformed the way that we think about human-environment relationships and Earth system processes. The four Ambio articles highlighted in this 50th Anniversary Issue have influenced the cultural narrative on environmental change, highlighting concepts such as "resilience," "coupled human and natural systems", and the "Anthropocene." In this peer response, I argue that global change research is still paying insufficient attention to how to deliberately transform systems and cultures to avoid the risks that science itself has warned us about. Read More

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The Influence of Diabetes on Multisensory Integration and Mobility in Aging.

Brain Sci 2021 Feb 25;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurology, Division of Cognitive & Motor Aging, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

(1) Background: one out of every four adults over the age of 65 are living with diabetes, and this alarming rate continues to increase with age. Diabetes in older adults is associated with many adverse health outcomes, including sensory and motor impairments. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether diabetes influences the interplay between multisensory integration processes and mobility in aging. Read More

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February 2021

In vitro investigation of growth factors including MGF and IGF-1 in neural stem cell activation, proliferation, and migration.

Brain Res 2021 May 16;1759:147366. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Genetics, Aziz Sancar Research Institute of Experimental Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Neurogenesis is mainly activated after damage in adult tissues. This destruction activates the neural stem cells (NSCs) by exiting from a quiescent state and initiating proliferation, differentiation, and migration towards the damaged area. Although studies have investigated to clarify the process of NSC biology and neurogenesis, there are still significant artifacts in understanding the primary mechanism. Read More

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PDE10A Inhibitors-Clinical Failure or Window Into Antipsychotic Drug Action?

Front Neurosci 2020 20;14:600178. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Pfizer Innovation and Research Lab Unit, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA, United States.

PDE10A, a phosphodiesterase that inactivates both cAMP and cGMP, is a unique signaling molecule in being highly and nearly exclusively expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. These neurons dynamically integrate cortical information with dopamine-signaled value to mediate action selection among available behavioral options. Medium spiny neurons are components of either the direct or indirect striatal output pathways. Read More

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January 2021

Defective phagocyte association during infection of with is detrimental to both insect host and microbe.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):638-653

Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling , Stirling, UK.

Adhesins facilitate bacterial colonization and invasion of host tissues and are considered virulence factors, but their impact on immune-mediated damage as a driver of pathogenesis remains unclear. encodes for a ultivalent dhesion olecule (MAM), a mammalian cell entry (MCE) family protein and adhesin. MAMs are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and enable enteric bacteria to colonize epithelial tissues. Read More

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December 2021

A Novel Brain-Computer Interface Virtual Environment for Neurofeedback During Functional MRI.

Front Neurosci 2020 11;14:593854. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical School, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Virtual environments (VEs), in the recent years, have become more prevalent in neuroscience. These VEs can offer great flexibility, replicability, and control over the presented stimuli in an immersive setting. With recent developments, it has become feasible to achieve higher-quality visuals and VEs at a reasonable investment. Read More

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January 2021

Design and analysis of a compliant 3D printed energy harvester housing for knee implants.

Med Eng Phys 2021 02 4;88:59-68. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada.

Instrumented implants have the potential to detect abnormal loading patterns which could be deleterious to implant longevity, indicating a need for intervention which could reduce the need for more complicated revision surgeries. Reliably powering such devices has been one obstacle preventing widespread usage of instrumented implants in clinical populations. This study presents a 3D-printed titanium interpositional device designed to integrate triboelectric generators (TEGs) into a commercially available total knee replacement (TKR). Read More

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February 2021

Advancing automatic guidance in virtual science inquiry: from ease of use to personalization.

Authors:
Xiaoming Zhai

Educ Technol Res Dev 2021 Jan 13:1-4. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Mathematics and Science Education, University of Georgia, 105J Aderhold Hall, 110 Carlton Street, Athens, GA 30602 USA.

This article is in response to the review entitled "Identifying potential types of guidance for supporting student inquiry when using virtual and remote labs in science: a literature review" (Zacharia et al. in Educ Technol Res Dev 63(2): 257-302). As COVID-19 alerts us to shift science education to digital when in-person schooling is not viable, one approach to facilitate this shift, as reviewed by Zacharia et al. Read More

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January 2021

Early detection and personalized medicine: Future strategies against Alzheimer's disease.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2021 3;177:157-173. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Mesulam Center for Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and sixth cause of death in elderly adults. AD poses a huge economic burden on society and constitutes an unprecedented challenge for caregivers and families affected. Aging of the population is projected to drastically aggravate the situation in the near future. Read More

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December 2020

Admission avoidance in acute epistaxis: A prospective national audit during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors:
John C Hardman

Clin Otolaryngol 2021 May 4;46(3):577-586. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: To report changes in practice brought about by COVID-19 and the implementation of new guidelines, and to explore factors relating to unscheduled re-presentations for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED).

Design: Prospective multicentre national audit over 12 weeks from 6th April 2020.

Setting: UK secondary care ENT departments. Read More

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Treatment of knee osteoarthritis by intra-articular injection of concentrated autologous adipose tissue: a twenty four month follow-up study.

Int Orthop 2021 03 4;45(3):627-633. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, University of Genoa, Corso Benedetto XV 6, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous concentrated adipose tissue for the treatment of knee OA.

Methods: Eighty-seven patients with knee arthritis from grade 1 to 3, according to Kellgren-Lawrence scale, have been treated with knee arthroscopy and successive intra-articular injection of concentrated adipose tissue. The efficacy of the treatment has been evaluated by the Knee Society Score, Lysholm Score, Forgotten Joint Score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Noise Reporting Scale. Read More

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The Long and Winding Road of Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Challenges in Developing an Intervention for Difficult-to-Treat Mood Disorders.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 14;16:3081-3093. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

Purpose: The Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) Therapy System has been studied for more than 20 years in patients with severe, treatment-resistant, chronic mood disorder, i.e., difficult-to-treat depression (DTD). Read More

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December 2020

What are Optimal Bacteriological Screening Test Cut-Offs for Pasteurized Donor Human Milk Intended for Feeding Preterm Infants?

J Hum Lact 2021 Feb 22;37(1):43-51. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

216919 Australian Red Cross Lifeblood, Australia.

Background: Definitive criteria for microbial screening of pasteurized donor human milk are not well established and international recommendations vary.

Aims: (1) To review pasteurized donor human milk batch discard due to failed microbial screening criteria at our milk bank (following United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines), and (2) to compare our known milk discard proportion with estimated milk discard proportions that would be required by other international milk bank guidelines.

Methods: We reviewed our microbial screening results ( = 783) over 18-months (July 2018-December 2019) and compared our known milk discard proportion with estimated milk discard proportions using other international milk bank guidelines. Read More

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February 2021

Micronutrients early in critical illness, selective or generous, enteral or intravenous?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021 Mar;24(2):165-175

Hospital de Clínicas, University Hospital, UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Purpose Of Review: Micronutrients have essential antioxidant and immune functions, while low blood concentrations are frequently observed in critically ill patients. This has led to the concepts of complementation, repletion, or even pharmacological supplementation. Over the last three decades, many clinical studies have tested the latter strategy, with controversial or negative results. Read More

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Chromosomal localization of Ewing sarcoma EWSR1/FLI1 protein promotes the induction of aneuploidy.

J Biol Chem 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, United States.

Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric bone cancer that expresses the chimeric protein EWSR1/FLI1. We previously demonstrated that EWSR1/FLI1 impairs the localization of Aurora B kinase to the midzone (the midline structure located between segregating chromosomes) during anaphase. While localization of Aurora B is essential for faithful cell division, it is unknown whether interference with midzone organization by EWSR1/FLI1 induces aneuploidy. Read More

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December 2020

Graph Convolutional Autoencoder and Fully-Connected Autoencoder with Attention Mechanism Based Method for Predicting Drug-Disease Associations.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 May 11;25(5):1793-1804. Epub 2021 May 11.

Predicting novel uses for approved drugs helps in reducing the costs of drug development and facilitates the development process. Most of previous methods focused on the multi-source data related to drugs and diseases to predict the candidate associations between drugs and diseases. There are multiple kinds of similarities between drugs, and these similarities reflect how similar two drugs are from the different views, whereas most of the previous methods failed to deeply integrate these similarities. Read More

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External Cardioversion-Defibrillation with Pushing Down on the Chest Wall to Increase the Success Rate in Obese Patients.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Nov 16;21:e927009. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Memorial Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Memorial Regional Hospital, Memorial HealthCare System, Hollywood, FL, USA.

BACKGROUND The energy delivered by a defibrillator is expressed in joules (J). However, current is what actually defibrillates the heart and is related to the voltage-to-impedance ratio. With the same energy, the lower the transthoracic impedance, the higher the current delivered. Read More

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November 2020

Exploring biological motion perception in two-stream convolutional neural networks.

Vision Res 2021 Jan 19;178:28-40. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, United States. Electronic address:

Visual recognition of biological motion recruits form and motion processes supported by both dorsal and ventral pathways. This neural architecture inspired the two-stream convolutional neural network (CNN) model, which includes a spatial CNN to process appearance information in a sequence of image frames, a temporal CNN to process optical flow information, and a fusion network to integrate the features extracted by the two CNNs and make final decisions about action recognition. In five simulations, we compared the CNN model's performance with classical findings in biological motion perception. Read More

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January 2021

Potential for Virus Endogenization in Humans through Testicular Germ Cell Infection: the Case of HIV.

J Virol 2020 11 23;94(24). Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Université Rennes, INSERM, EHESP, IRSET (Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail)-UMR_S1085, Rennes, France

Viruses have colonized the germ line of our ancestors on several occasions during evolution, leading to the integration in the human genome of viral sequences from over 30 retroviral groups and a few nonretroviruses. Among the recently emerged viruses infecting humans, several target the testis (e.g. Read More

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November 2020