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Genetics of wild and mass-reared populations of a generalist aphid parasitoid and improvement of biological control.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249893. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

IGEPP, INRAE, Institut Agro, Univ Rennes, Rennes, France.

Due to their ability to parasitize various insect species, generalist parasitoids are widely used as biological control agents. They can be mass-reared and released in agroecosystems to control several pest species in various crops. However, the existence of genetic differentiation among populations of generalist parasitoid species is increasingly recognized and this can be associated with an adaptation to local conditions or to a reduced range of host species. Read More

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Relative snowpack response to elevation, temperature and precipitation in the Crown of the Continent region of North America 1980-2013.

Authors:
Len Broberg

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0248736. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Environmental Studies Program, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States of America.

Water availability in western Canada and the United States is dependent on the accumulation of snowpack in the montane regions and threatened by increased winter temperature and more precipitation as rain linked to climate change. In order to make reasoned decisions to adapt to climate change managers require knowledge of the role of temperature and precipitation in SWE development and data to distinguish the relative retention response of snowpack regions to expected temperature and precipitation regime shifts at the watershed scale. Using the Daymet interpolated 1 km2 dataset, effects of elevation, temperature (Tmax, Tmin and Tavg) and precipitation on April 1 SWE in the Crown of the Continent were tested by linear regression and Kendall correlation. Read More

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Most YouTube Videos About Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Have the Potential to Reinforce Misconceptions.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

R. Goyal, A. E. Mercado, D. Ring, T. J. Crijns, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Care, Dell Medical School, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: Studies of online health information have addressed completeness and adherence to evidence, which can be difficult because current evidence leaves room for debate about etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Fewer studies have evaluated whether online health information can reinforce misconceptions. It can be argued that information with the potential to harm health by reinforcing unhelpful misconceptions ought to be held to a higher standard of evidence. Read More

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Genetic and depressive traits moderate the reward-enhancing effects of acute nicotine in young light smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University.

Rates of light smoking have increased in recent years and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Reducing light smoking is a challenge because it is unclear why some but not others, progress to heavier smoking. Nicotine has profound effects on brain reward systems and individual differences in nicotine's reward-enhancing effects may drive variability in smoking trajectories. Read More

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Distinct clonal evolution of B-cells in HIV controllers with neutralizing antibody breadth.

Elife 2021 Apr 12;10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, United States.

A minor subset of individuals infected with HIV-1 develop antibody neutralization breadth during the natural course of the infection, often linked to chronic, high-level viremia. Despite significant efforts, vaccination strategies have been unable to induce similar neutralization breadth and the mechanisms underlying neutralizing antibody induction remain largely elusive. Broadly neutralizing antibody responses can also be found in individuals who control HIV to low and even undetectable plasma levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that high antigen exposure is not a strict requirement for neutralization breadth. Read More

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ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS AND ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS IN COVID-19 -META-ANALYSIS/META-REGRESSION ADJUSTED FOR CONFOUNDING FACTORS.

CJC Open 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and/or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors could alter mortality of COVID-19, but existing meta-analyses which combined crude and adjusted results may be confounded by comorbidities being more common in ARBs/ACE inhibitors users.

Methods: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE/Embase for cohort studies and meta-analysis reporting mortality by pre-existing ARB/ACE inhibitor treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Random effects meta-regression was used to compute pooled odds ratios for mortality adjusted for imbalance in age, sex and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease between users and non-users of ARBs/ACE inhibitors at the study-level during data synthesis. Read More

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Tropical Parasitic Infections in Individuals Infected with HIV.

Curr Trop Med Rep 2017 Dec 16;4(4):268-280. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Massachusetts General Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Neglected tropical diseases share both geographic and socio-behavioral epidemiological risk factors with HIV infection. In this literature review, we describe interactions between parasitic diseases and HIV infection, with a focus on the impact of parasitic infections on HIV infection risk and disease progression, and the impact of HIV infection on clinical characteristics of tropical parasitic infections. We limit our review to tropical parasitic infections of the greatest public health burden, and exclude discussion of classic HIV-associated opportunistic infections that have been well reviewed elsewhere. Read More

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December 2017

The Effect Of Mild Exercise Induced Dehydration On Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) Scores: A within-subjects design.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Apr 2;16(2):511-517. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

University of Lynchburg.

Background: Sports-related concussions are prevalent in the United States. Various diagnostic tools are utilized in order to monitor deviations from baseline in memory, reaction time, symptoms, and balance. Evidence indicates that dehydration may also alter the results of diagnostic tests. Read More

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Utilization of Host Cell Chromosome Conformation by Viral Pathogens: Knowing When to Hold and When to Fold.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:633762. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, NY, United States.

Though viruses have their own genomes, many depend on the nuclear environment of their hosts for replication and survival. A substantial body of work has therefore been devoted to understanding how viral and eukaryotic genomes interact. Recent advances in chromosome conformation capture technologies have provided unprecedented opportunities to visualize how mammalian genomes are organized and, by extension, how packaging of nuclear DNA impacts cellular processes. Read More

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Analysis of Polymorphisms in microRNAs Deregulated in Alzheimer Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:631852. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and dementia. Findings have revolutionized current knowledge of miRNA in the neurological conditions. Two regulatory mechanisms determine the level of mature miRNA expression; one is miRNA precursor processing, and the other is gene expression regulation by transcription factors. Read More

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Delivery of Alkaline Phosphatase Promotes Periodontal Regeneration in Mice.

J Dent Res 2021 Apr 10:220345211005677. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Oral Connective Tissue Biology, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Factors regulating the ratio of pyrophosphate (PP) to phosphate (P) modulate biomineralization. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is a key promineralization enzyme that hydrolyzes the potent mineralization inhibitor PP. The goal of this study was to determine whether TNAP could promote periodontal regeneration in bone sialoprotein knockout mice ( mice), which are known to have a periodontal disease phenotype. Read More

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Microalgal photosynthesis induces alkalization of aquatic environment as a result of H uptake independently from CO concentration - New perspectives for environmental applications.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 8;289:112546. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, University of Crete, Voutes University Campus, GR-70013, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:

The photosynthetic process in microalgae and the extracellular proton environment interact with each other. The photosynthetic process in microalgae induces a pH increase in the aquatic environment as a result of cellular protons uptake rather than as an effect of CO consumption. The photosynthetic water photolysis and the reduction/oxidation cycle of the plastoquinone pool provide lumen with protons. Read More

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Stressed mitochondria: a target to intrude alzheimer's disease.

Mitochondrion 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 171207, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the inoperable, incapacitating, neuropsychiatric, and degenerative manifestation that drastically affects human life quality. The current medications target extra-neuronal senile plaques, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, cholinergic deficits, and excitotoxicity. Among novel pathways and targets, bioenergetic and resultant mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as essential factors that decide the neuronal fate and consequent neurodegeneration in AD. Read More

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Environmental enrichment applied with sensory components prevents age-related decline in synaptic dynamics: Evidence from the zebrafish model organism.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 7:111346. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Aysel Sabuncu Brain Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Zebrafish Facility, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Psychology, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Progression of cognitive decline with or without neurodegeneration varies among elderly subjects. The main aim of the current study was to illuminate the molecular mechanisms that promote and retain successful aging in the context of factors such as environment and gender, both of which alter the resilience of the aging brain. Environmental enrichment (EE) is one intervention that may lead to the maintenance of cognitive processing at older ages in both humans and animal subjects. Read More

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Unveiling the Pathogenesis of Perineural Invasion from the Perspective of Neuroactive molecules.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114547. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Perineural invasion (PNI) is characterized by an encounter between the cancer cells and neuronal fibers and holds an extremely poor prognosis for malignant tumors. The exact molecular mechanism behind PNI yet remains to be explored. However, it is worth-noting that an involvement of the neuroactive molecules plays a major part in this process. Read More

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Atherogenic Dyslipidemia After Liver Transplantation: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.

Liver Transpl 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Hepatology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly atherosclerosis-associated CVD, is a major cause of long-term mortality after liver transplantation (LT). The liver is central in lipid homeostasis and changes associated with insulin resistance, weight gain, adipose tissue inflammation, and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after LT promote atherogenesis. These factors synergistically alter lipid homeostasis, thereby leading to production of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins, which contribute to heighted risk of CVD associated events observed in LT recipients. Read More

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Transfer- or "transmission"- RNA fragments? The roles of tsRNAs in the reproductive system.

Mol Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Reproductive Health/Center of Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, P. R. China.

Transfer-RNAs (tRNAs) help ribosomes decode mRNAs and synthesize proteins; however, tRNA fragments produced under certain conditions, known as tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs), have been found to play important roles in pathophysiological processes. In the reproductive system, tsRNAs are abundant in gametes and embryos and at the maternal-fetal interface, as well as in microvesicles like epididymosomes, seminal plasma exosomes, and syncytiotrophoblast-derived extracellular vesicles. tsRNAs can affect gamete cell maturation, zygote activation, and early embryonic development. Read More

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Interactions between PDA-associated polymorphisms and genetic ancestry alter ductus arteriosus gene expression.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: DNA polymorphisms in PTGIS and TFAP2B have been identified as risk factors for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a population composed of preterm infants with European genetic ancestry but not in more genetically diverse populations.

Goal: To determine if the effects of TFAP2B and PTGIS polymorphisms on ductus arteriosus (DA) gene expression differ based on genetic ancestry.

Methods: DA from 273 human second trimester fetuses were genotyped for TFAP2B and PTGIS polymorphisms and for polymorphisms distributing along genetic ancestry lines. Read More

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Novel Predictors of Coronavirus Protective Behaviors among US adults: The role of trait reactance, conspiracy beliefs, and belief in the apocalypse.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Health Communications Research, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, North Campus Research Complex, Building 162800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, US.

Background: A central component of the public health strategy to control the 2019 Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus involves encouraging mask wearing and social distancing to protect individuals from acquiring and transmitting the virus.

Objective: Understanding the psychologic factors that drive adoption or rejection of these protective behaviors can inform public health interventions to control the pandemic.

Methods: We conducted an online survey of a representative sample of 1,074 U. Read More

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The impact of gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks on survival of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

Am J Surg 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Department of General and Oncological Surgery - Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) leaks after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is a known life-threatening complication that may alter patients' outcomes. Our aim is to investigate risk factors associated with GI leaks and evaluate the impact of GI leaks on patient's oncological outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of perioperative and oncological outcomes of patients with and without GI leaks after CRS/HIPEC. Read More

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ddcP, pstB, and excess D-lactate impact synergism between vancomycin and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecium 1,231,410.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249631. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens that cause life-threatening infections. To control hospital-associated infections, skin antisepsis and bathing utilizing chlorhexidine is recommended for VRE patients in acute care hospitals. Previously, we reported that exposure to inhibitory chlorhexidine levels induced the expression of vancomycin resistance genes in VanA-type Enterococcus faecium. Read More

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Soil bacterial communities and their associated functions for forest restoration on a limestone mine in northern Thailand.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248806. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Opencast mining removes topsoil and associated bacterial communities that play crucial roles in soil ecosystem functioning. Understanding the community composition and functioning of these organisms may lead to improve mine-rehabilitation practices. We used a culture-dependent method, combined with Illumina sequencing, to compare the taxonomic richness and composition of living bacterial communities in opencast mine substrates and young mine-rehabilitation plots, with those of soil in adjacent remnant forest at a limestone mine in northern Thailand. Read More

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Risk factors for delirium among hospitalized patients in Zambia.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249097. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia.

Objective: To identify risk factors for delirium among hospitalized patients in Zambia.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, from October 2017 to April 2018. We report associations of exposures including sociodemographic and clinical factors with delirium over the first three days of hospital admission, assessed using a modified Brief Confusion Assessment Method (bCAM). Read More

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Epigenetic Lens to Visualize the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:581726. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Herpes Neuropathogenesis Research Group, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In <20 years, we have witnessed three different epidemics with coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in human populations, causing widespread mortality. SARS-CoV-2, through its rapid global spread, has led to the pandemic that we call COVID-19. As of February 1, 2021, the global infections linked to SARS-CoV-2 stand at 103,503,340, with 2,236,960 deaths, and 75,108,099 recoveries. Read More

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Whose shoulders is health research standing on? Determining the key actors and contents of the prevailing biomedical research agenda.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(4):e0249661. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEyN), Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular (DFBMC), Instituto de Biociencias, Biotecnología y Biología Traslacional (iB3), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Conflicts of interest in biomedical research can influence research results and drive research agendas away from public health priorities. Previous agenda-setting studies share two shortfalls: they only account for direct connections between academic institutions and firms, as well as potential bias based on researchers' personal beliefs. This paper's goal is to determine the key actors and contents of the prevailing health and biomedical sciences (HBMS) research agenda, overcoming these shortfalls. Read More

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Investigation of long interspersed element-1 retrotransposons as potential risk factors for idiopathic temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: To determine if long interspersed element-1 (L1) retrotransposons convey risk for idiopathic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: Surgically resected temporal cortex from individuals with TLE (N = 33) and postmortem temporal cortex from individuals with no known neurological disease (N = 33) were analyzed for L1 content by Restriction Enzyme Based Enriched L1Hs sequencing (REBELseq). Expression of three KCNIP4 splice variants was assessed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Read More

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Julie Denekamp: A personal appreciation.

Authors:
Fiona Stewart

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Apr 7:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Biological Stress Response, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam (retired 2014).

Conclusion: Julie Denekamp was a talented and charismatic scientist and teacher. She was a major contributor to our understanding of the effects of fractionation schedules on the response of tumours and normal tissues to radiotherapy and of factors that could be manipulated to alter these responses. She was also one of the first to recognise that the fragile state of tumour vasculature could be exploited in targeted radiotherapy. Read More

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Normal tissue architecture determines the evolutionary course of cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2060. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Integrated Mathematical Oncology Department, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Cancer growth can be described as a caricature of the renewal process of the tissue of origin, where the tissue architecture has a strong influence on the evolutionary dynamics within the tumor. Using a classic, well-studied model of tumor evolution (a passenger-driver mutation model) we systematically alter spatial constraints and cell mixing rates to show how tissue structure influences functional (driver) mutations and genetic heterogeneity over time. This approach explores a key mechanism behind both inter-patient and intratumoral tumor heterogeneity: competition for space. Read More

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Complicated by Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Case Series.

Pediatrics 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

In rare instances, severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections of the lower respiratory tract can cause life-threatening extrapulmonary complications. In this report, we describe 4 previously healthy, term and late-preterm infants admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure due to RSV bronchiolitis who developed necrotizing enterocolitis shortly after admission. All infants exhibited progressive abdominal distention, had typical radiographic findings, and developed simple or complex ascites. Read More

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Gas Phase Modification of Silica Nanoparticles in a Fluidized Bed: Tailored Deposition of Aminopropylsiloxane.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Mechanics of Solids, Surfaces & Systems (MS3), Chair of Elastomer Technology and Engineering, P.O. Box 217, 7500 Enschede, The Netherlands.

Functionalized nanoparticles have various applications, for which grafting of a chemical moiety onto the surface to induce/improve certain properties is needed. When incorporated in polymeric matrices, for instance, the modified nanoparticles can alter the interfacial characteristics leading to improvements ofthe macroscopic properties of the nanocomposites. The extent of these improvements is highly dependent on the thickness, morphology and conformity of the grafted layer. Read More

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