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Pregnancy and COVID-19: Prevention, Vaccination, Therapy and Beyond.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has alarmed the world since its first emergence. As pregnancy is characterized by significant changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine and immunological systems, there are concerns on issues like the course of disease in pregnant women, safety of medications, route of delivery and risk of obstetric complications. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature in the management of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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September 2021

Observations and report of incidents on how birthing persons are treated during childbirth in two public facilities of Argentina.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Mother and Child Health. Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objective: This study sought to estimate the frequency and types of mistreatment during childbirth and explore health professionals´ opinions on barriers/facilitators to providing respectful childbirth care.

Methods: This prospective mixed-methods investigation consisted of direct observations of childbirth (N=250), at-home surveys with birthing individuals (N=45), and qualitative in-depth health staff interviews (N=6); conducted January-July 2019, in two public facilities in Argentina. Frequencies of clinical practices and mistreatment and 5% confidence intervals were calculated. Read More

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September 2021

Individual and organizational factors of nurses' job satisfaction in long-term care: A systematic review.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Aug 26;123:104073. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

University of Ottawa - School of Nursing, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, General Campus, 501 Smyth Rd, Box 711, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: In long-term care facilities, nurses' job satisfaction predicts staff turnover, which adversely affects resident outcomes. Thus, it is important to develop a comprehensive understanding of factors affecting nurses' job satisfaction in long-term care facilities.

Objectives: To analyze factors associated with job satisfaction among nurses in nursing homes from individual and organizational perspectives utilizing a deductive approach. Read More

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Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process: Promising but a long way to go in the wastewater treatment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 10;805:150212. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9, Canada.

The traditional biological nitrogen removal (BNR) follows the conventional scheme of sequential nitrification and denitrification. In recent years, novel processes such as anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (comammox), heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification (HN-AD), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are gaining tremendous attention after the discovery of metabolically versatile bacteria. Among them, HN-AD offers several advantages because individual bacteria could achieve one-stage nitrogen removal under aerobic conditions in the presence of organic carbon. Read More

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September 2021

New insight on occurrence of liquid crystal monomers: A class of emerging e-waste pollutants in municipal landfill leachate.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 10;423(Pt B):127146. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Energy and Environment and State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) have been proposed as a class of emerging organic pollutants, which were recently detected in indoor dust and sediment samples collected near electronic devices recycling facilities. However, there is a knowledge gap for analytical method, occurrence, and distribution of LCMs in aqueous sample. Herein, a robust method was developed to determine 38 target LCMs in landfill leachate. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of COVID-19 on demand for healthcare in Togo.

Yaovi Tossou

Health Econ Rev 2021 Sep 18;11(1):36. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Member of the Research Centre for Economic Analysis of Public Policies (ANEPP), FASEG/University of Lomé, 01BP1515, Lomé, Togo.

Background: Demand-side barriers to health care are as important as supply-side factors in deterring patients from obtaining effective treatment during COVID-19. Developing countries, including Togo, have focused on reducing the risk of health care utilization during this period by ensuring basic health care services as an important policy to improve health outcomes and meet international obligations to make health services accessible.

Methods: The data used to cover all 44 districts in the six (6) health regions of Togo, are from a national home survey. Read More

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September 2021

An assessment of the air quality in apple warehouses: new records of Aspergillus europaeus, Aspergillus pulverulentus, Penicillium allii and Penicillium sumatraense as decay agents.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Laboratoire de Mycologie, Pathologies et Biomarqueurs (LR16ES05), Département de Biologie, Université de Tunis-El Manar, 2092, Tunis, Tunisia.

Airborne fungi are one of the major components of aeromycobiota known to produce several fungal diseases in fruits. Their presence in indoor environment of warehouses may limit the storage period of apples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of airborne fungal spores were conducted using gravity settling techniques to detect fungal airspora present in the atmosphere of two apple warehouses in Tunisia. Read More

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September 2021

HLA-DPB1 E69 genotype and exposure in beryllium sensitisation and disease.

Occup Environ Med 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA

Objectives: Human leukocyte antigen-DP beta 1 (HLA-DPB1) with a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the ß chain (E69) genotype and inhalational beryllium exposure individually contribute to risk of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitisation (BeS) in exposed individuals. This retrospective nested case-control study assessed the contribution of genetics and exposure in the development of BeS and CBD.

Methods: Workers with BeS (n=444), CBD (n=449) and beryllium-exposed controls (n=890) were enrolled from studies conducted at nuclear weapons and primary beryllium manufacturing facilities. Read More

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September 2021

Organizational contextual factors that predict success of a quality improvement collaborative approach to enhance integrated HIV-tuberculosis services: a sub-study of the Scaling up TB/HIV Integration trial.

Implement Sci 2021 Sep 17;16(1):88. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X7 Congella, Durban, 4013, South Africa.

Background: A quality improvement (QI) collaborative approach to enhancing integrated HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) services may be effective in scaling up and improving the quality of service delivery. Little is known of the role of organizational contextual factors (OCFs) in influencing the success of QI collaboratives. This study aims to determine which OCFs were associated with improvement in a QI collaborative intervention to enhance integrated HIV-TB services delivery. Read More

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September 2021

Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) transmission in residential aged care using ultraviolet light (PETRA): a two-arm crossover randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17;21(1):967. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

The South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 poses a considerable threat to those living in residential aged care facilities (RACF). RACF COVID-19 outbreaks have been characterised by the rapid spread of infection and high rates of severe disease and associated mortality. Despite a growing body of evidence supporting airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, current infection control measures in RACF including hand hygiene, social distancing, and sterilisation of surfaces, focus on contact and droplet transmission. Read More

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September 2021

Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in sediments from the Gulf and Omani waters: Status and review.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 15;173(Pt A):112913. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Gulf Geoinformation Solutions, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

This review presents the spatio-temporal distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons including total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total aliphatics, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and total aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments of the Gulf (Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman). The TPH ranged between 0.134 and 48,018 μg g dw where 10-15 μg g dw was considered as a background concentration. Read More

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September 2021

Radiation-Free myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A comparison of outcomes between patients with and without central nervous system involvement.

Leuk Res 2021 Sep 14;111:106703. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Pediatric Cell and Gene Therapy Research Center, Gene, Cell & Tissue Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

For patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), total body irradiation (TBI) has been particularly advocated as a part of the conditioning regimen in case of extramedullary involvement in sanctuary sites such as the central nervous system (CNS), to ensure greater tissue penetration. In resource-limited countries lacking TBI facilities; however, ALL patients undergo radiation-free myeloablative conditioning, though its impacts on post-HSCT outcomes of the patients with pre-HSCT CNS involvement have not been analyzed. In this 14-year series of 278 adult (> 18 y) ALL patients undergoing TBI-free busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning allo-HSCT, we found that the long-term probabilities of overall survival, disease free survival, relapse and non-relapse mortality were not significantly different between CNS-involved and CNS-spared patients. Read More

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September 2021

Adverse Events Following One Dose of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Among US Nursing Home Residents With and Without a Previous SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.

Objectives: To compare rates of adverse events following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination among nursing home residents with and without previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Design: Prospective cohort.

Setting And Participants: A total of 20,918 nursing home residents who received the first dose of messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine from December 18, 2020, through February 14, 2021, in 284 facilities within Genesis Healthcare, a large nursing home provider spanning 24 US states. Read More

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Antigen and checkpoint receptor engagement recalibrates T cell receptor signal strength.

Immunity 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address:

How T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength modulates T cell function and to what extent this is modified by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) are key questions in immunology. Using Nr4a3-Tocky mice, we characterized early quantitative and qualitative changes that occur in CD4 T cells in relation to TCR signaling strength. We captured how dose- and time-dependent programming of distinct co-inhibitory receptors rapidly recalibrates T cell activation thresholds and visualized the immediate effects of ICB on T cell re-activation. Read More

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September 2021

Impairments of cerebral blood flow microcirculation in rats brought on by cardiac cessation and respiratory arrest.

J Biophotonics 2021 Sep 17:e202100216. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Histology, Cytology and Embryology Department, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

The impairments of cerebral blood flow microcirculation brought on by cardiac and respiratory arrest were assessed with multi-modal diagnostic facilities, utilising laser speckle contrast imaging, fluorescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results of laser speckle contrast imaging show a notable reduction of cerebral blood flow in small and medium size vessels during a few minutes of respiratory arrest, while the same effect was observed in large sinuses and their branches during the circulatory cessation. Concurrently, the redox ratio assessed with fluorescence spectroscopy indicates progressing hypoxia, NADH accumulation and increase of FAD consumption. Read More

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September 2021

Bridging the gap between microbial limits and extremes in space: space microbial biotechnology in the next 15 years.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The establishment of a permanent human settlement in space is one of humanity's ambitions. To achieve this, microorganisms will be used to carry out many functions such as recycling, food and pharmaceutical production, mining and other processes. However, the physical and chemical extremes in all locations beyond Earth exceed known growth limits of microbial life. Read More

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September 2021

Study protocol of the PEruvian Registry of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction II (PERSTEMI-II) study.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257618. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centro de Investigación Epidemiológica en Salud Global, Universidad Privada Norbert Wiener, Lima, Peru.

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease globally and is considered a public health problem. In Peru, MI is the second leading cause of death at the national level, with a mortality rate that exceeds 10% in the hospital setting. The study aims to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in tertiary care facilities belonging to the Peruvian public health system. Read More

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September 2021

Community-facility linkage models and maternal and infant health outcomes in Malawi's PMTCT/ART program: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 17;18(9):e1003780. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, 3 community-facility linkage (CFL) models-Expert Clients, Community Health Workers (CHWs), and Mentor Mothers-have been widely implemented to support pregnant and breastfeeding women (PBFW) living with HIV and their infants to access and sustain care for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), yet their comparative impact under real-world conditions is poorly understood.

Methods And Findings: We sought to estimate the effects of CFL models on a primary outcome of maternal loss to follow-up (LTFU), and secondary outcomes of maternal longitudinal viral suppression and infant "poor outcome" (encompassing documented HIV-positive test result, LTFU, or death), in Malawi's PMTCT/ART program. We sampled 30 of 42 high-volume health facilities ("sites") in 5 Malawi districts for study inclusion. Read More

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September 2021

Provider perceptions of lack of supportive care during childbirth: A mixed methods study in Kenya.

Health Care Women Int 2021 Sep 17:1-22. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

UCSF Institute for Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA.

Supportive care is a key component of person-centered maternity care (PCMC), and includes aspects such as timely and attentive care, pain control, and the health facility environment. Yet, few researchers have explored the degree of supportive care delivered or providers' perceptions on supportive care practices during childbirth. The researchers' aim is to evaluate the extent of supportive care provided to women during childbirth and to identify the drivers behind the lack of supportive care from the perspective of maternity providers in a rural county in Western Kenya. Read More

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September 2021

Detection of and spp. DNA in Cutaneous Samples and in Household Dust in Rural Areas, Senegal.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Sep;21(9):659-666

Unité Mixe de Recherche Vecteurs-Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Campus International de Recherche IRD-UCAD Hann, Dakar, Senegal.

Q fever and tick-borne borreliosis are two zoonotic diseases rarely diagnosed in Senegalese health facilities, particularly in rural areas. Our study aims to better understand the circulation of and spp. DNA on human skin and the domestic environment in rural areas. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of Estrogenic, Spectroscopic, and Toxicological Analyses of Pilot-Scale Water, Wastewaters, and Processed Wastewaters at Select Military Installations.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

The Institute of Applied Research, Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr 20200, Israel.

Reuse of water requires the removal of contaminants to ensure human health. We report the relative estrogenic activity (REA) of reuse treatment design scenarios for water, wastewaters, and processed wastewaters before and after pilot-scale treatment systems tested at select military facilities. The comparative relationships between REA, several composite toxicological endpoints, and spectroscopic indicators were evaluated for different reuse treatment trains. Read More

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September 2021

Factors associated with non-utilization of postnatal care among newborns in the first 2 days after birth in Pakistan: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

Glob Health Action 2021 Jan;14(1):1973714

School of Health Sciences, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Background: Recent data indicated that approximately four in every ten newborns in Pakistan do not receive postnatal care (PNC) services in the first 48 hours after delivery.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the non-utilization of PNC for newborns in Pakistan using the 2017-18 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study utilizing data from 3887 live-born newborns recorded in the 2017-18 PDHS. Read More

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January 2021

Sex Differences in Trends and In-Hospital Outcomes Among Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia: A Nationwide Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 17:e022043. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Medicine Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar Doha Qatar.

Background Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the most severe form of peripheral artery disease and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Contemporary data comparing the sex differences in trends, revascularization strategies, and in-hospital outcomes among patients with CLI are scarce. Methods and Results Using the National Inpatient Sample database years 2002 to 2015, we identified hospitalizations for CLI. Read More

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September 2021

Hospital admissions and place of death of residents of care homes receiving specialist healthcare services: A systematic review without meta-analysis.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Aim: To synthesize evidence on the ability of specialist care home support services to prevent hospital admission of older care home residents, including at end of life.

Design: Systematic review, without meta-analysis, with vote counting based on direction of effect.

Data Sources: Fourteen electronic databases were searched from January 2010 to January 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Improving Care Transitions: An Initiative between the Emergency Department and Senior Care Facilities.

Spartan Med Res J 2021 30;6(2):26862. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

St Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, MI.

Introduction: The transfer of individuals (i.e., residents) between senior care facilities (SCF) and the emergency department (ED) remains an ongoing healthcare quality gap as communication of key resident information is often lost. Read More

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Self-rated Changes of Health Status during Stay-at-home Orders among Older Adults Using the Long-term Care Insurance System of Japan: A Cross-sectional Study.

Phys Ther Res 2021 1;24(2):170-175. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Physical Therapy, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.

Objectives: To reveal self-rated changes of health status during stay-at-home orders among older adults and to verify whether decrease in frequency of going outdoors during these orders was related to self-rated changes in health status.

Method: A self-completed questionnaire for older adults was provided in 2 dayservice facilities and a nursing station. We operationally defined health status with 4 domains (motor function, oral and swallowing function, depression, and social networks) and designed the questionnaire to determine self-rated changes in health status using factor analysis. Read More

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Interventional Spine and Pain Procedure Credentialing: Guidelines from the American Society of Pain & Neuroscience.

J Pain Res 2021 8;14:2777-2791. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

The Spine & Nerve Centers of the Virginias, Charleston, WV, USA.

Background: The discipline of interventional pain management has changed significantly over the past decade with an expected greater evolution in the next decade. Not only have the number of procedures increased, some of the procedures that were created for spine surgeons are becoming more facile in the hands of the interventional pain physician. Such change has outpaced academic institutions, societies, and boards. Read More

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September 2021

Early outcome detection for COVID-19 patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18464. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

With the outbreak of COVID-19 exerting a strong pressure on hospitals and health facilities, clinical decision support systems based on predictive models can help to effectively improve the management of the pandemic. We present a method for predicting mortality for COVID-19 patients. Starting from a large number of clinical variables, we select six of them with largest predictive power, using a feature selection method based on genetic algorithms and starting from a set of COVID-19 patients from the first wave. Read More

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September 2021

Association between facility-level adherence to phosphorus management guidelines and mortality in haemodialysis patients: a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 16;11(9):e051002. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Objectives: To examine the association between facility-level adherence to phosphorus management guidelines and mortality among patients with haemodialysis, and to explore the facility-related factors associated with facility-level guideline adherence.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study, which included 57 representative dialysis facilities in Japan between 2012 and 2015. Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of Brush Cutter-Related Accidents: Describing an Extraordinary Kind of Agricultural Injury.

J Emerg Med 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Training and Research Hospital, Rize, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Brush cutter (BC)-related penetrating trauma, similar to other types of power saws, can cause serious injuries, especially to the extremities. Studies of this particular injury are limited.

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize injury patterns and patient demographic characteristics for BC-related injuries. Read More

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September 2021