2,712 results match your criteria facilitation experiments

Short communication: Saliva and salivary components affect goat rumen fermentation in short-term batch incubations.

Animal 2021 Jun 4;15(7):100267. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

The research about the role of saliva in ruminants has been mainly focused on its buffering capacity together with facilitation of the rumination process. However, the role of salivary bioactive components on modulating the activity of the rumen microbiota has been neglected until recently. This study developed an in vitro approach to assess the impact of different components in saliva on rumen microbial fermentation. Read More

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Mapping the fibril core of the prion subdomain of the mammalian CPEB3 that is involved in long term memory retention.

J Mol Biol 2021 May 31:167084. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum-695551 (India). Electronic address:

Long-term memory storage is modulated by the prion nature of CPEB3 forming the molecular basis for the maintenance of synaptic facilitation. Here we report that the first prion sub-domain PRD1 of mouse CPEB3 can autonomously form amyloid fibrils in vitro and punctate-like structures in vivo. A ninety-four amino acid sequence within the PRD1 domain, PRD1-core, displays high propensity towards aggregation and associated amyloid characteristics. Read More

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Serotonin Promotes Serum Albumin Interaction with the Monomeric Amyloid β Peptide.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute for Biological Instrumentation, Pushchino Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290 Moscow, Russia.

Prevention of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) deposition via facilitation of Aβ binding to its natural depot, human serum albumin (HSA), is a promising approach to preclude Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset and progression. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of natural HSA ligands, fatty acids, to improve the affinity of this protein to monomeric Aβ by a factor of 3 (BBRC, 510(2), 248-253). Using plasmon resonance spectroscopy, we show here that another HSA ligand related to AD pathogenesis, serotonin (SRO), increases the affinity of the Aβ monomer to HSA by a factor of 7/17 for Aβ/Aβ, respectively. Read More

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Determining the types of descending waves from transcranial magnetic stimulation measured with conditioned H-reflexes in humans.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Non-invasive techniques are scarce with which human (motor) cortical mechanisms can be investigated. In a series of previous experiments, we have applied an advanced form of conditioning technique with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation by which excitability changes at the laminar level in the primary motor cortex can be estimated. This method builds on the assumption that the first of subsequent corticospinal waves from TMS which is assessed with H-reflexes (called early facilitation) results from indirect excitation of corticospinal neurons in motor cortex (I-wave) and not direct excitation of corticospinal axons (D-wave). Read More

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Interocular Suppression in Primary Visual Cortex in Strabismus.

J Neurosci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Program in Neuroscience, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA

People with strabismus acquired during childhood do not experience diplopia (double vision). To investigate how perception of the duplicate image is suppressed, we raised two male monkeys with alternating exotropia by disinserting the medial rectus muscle in each eye at age 4 weeks. Once the animals were mature, they were brought to the laboratory and trained to fixate a small spot while recordings were made in V1. Read More

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Tenderness of the Skin after Chemical Stimulation of Underlying Temporal and Thoracolumbar Fasciae Reveals Somatosensory Crosstalk between Superficial and Deep Tissues.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurophysiology, Mannheim Center for Translational Neuroscience (MCTN), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.

Musculoskeletal pain is often associated with pain referred to adjacent areas or skin. So far, no study has analyzed the somatosensory changes of the skin after the stimulation of different underlying fasciae. The current study aimed to investigate heterotopic somatosensory crosstalk between deep tissue (muscle or fascia) and superficial tissue (skin) using two established models of deep tissue pain (namely focal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) (100 pulses of constant current electrical stimulation at 10× detection threshold) or the injection of hypertonic saline in stimulus locations as verified using ultrasound). Read More

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Patient oriented research in mental health: matching laboratory to life and beyond in Canada.

Res Involv Engagem 2021 Apr 26;7(1):21. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

As patient-oriented research gains popularity in clinical research, the lack of patient input in foundational science grows more evident. Research has shown great utility in active partnerships between patient partners and scientists, yet many researchers are still hesitant about listening to the voices of those with lived experience guide and shape their experiments. Mental health has been a leading area for patient movements such as survivor-led research, however the stigma experienced by these patients creates difficulties not present in other health disciplines. Read More

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Young DAPK1 knockout mice have altered presynaptic function.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 21;125(5):1973-1981. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

The death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) has recently been shown to have a physiological function in long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synapses: acute inhibition of DAPK1 blocked the LTD that is normally seen at the hippocampal CA1 synapse in young mice, and a pharmacogenetic combination approach showed that this specifically required DAPK1-mediated suppression of postsynaptic Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II binding to the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2B during LTD stimuli. Surprisingly, we found here that genetic deletion of DAPK1 (in DAPK1 mice) did not reduce LTD. Paired pulse facilitation experiments indicated a presynaptic compensation mechanism: in contrast to wild-type mice, LTD stimuli in DAPK1 mice decreased presynaptic release probability. Read More

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Long-term depression at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses involves BDNF but is not mediated by p75NTR signaling.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 20;11(1):8535. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Physiology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 39120, Magdeburg, Germany.

BDNF plays a crucial role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. It is synthesized as a precursor (proBDNF) that can be proteolytically cleaved to mature BDNF (mBDNF). Previous studies revealed a bidirectional mode of BDNF actions, where long-term potentiation (LTP) was mediated by mBDNF through tropomyosin related kinase (Trk) B receptors whereas long-term depression (LTD) depended on proBDNF/p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) signaling. Read More

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A Re-evaluation of Whether Non-monosynaptic Homonymous H Reflex Facilitation Tests Propriospinal Circuits.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 23;15:641816. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Henry Wellcome Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

The C3-C4 propriospinal system is an important pathway mediating movement in cats; it contributes to movements in primates (including humans), and may have a role in recovery after lesion. Validated clinical tests of this system would find many applications, therefore we sought to test whether non-monosynaptic homonymous facilitation of the forearm flexor H reflex is mediated solely via a C3-C4 propriospinal pathway. In one anesthetized macaque monkey, median nerve stimulation elicited an H reflex in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR). Read More

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Facilitation effect of incidental environmental context on the computer screen for paired-associate learning.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Apr 22:17470218211011005. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Faculty of Informatics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan.

Three experiments, in which a total of 198 undergraduates engaged, investigate whether the incidental environmental context on the computer screen influences paired-associate learning. Experiment 1 compared the learning of foreign- and native-language words between a constant context condition, where the stimulus and response pairs were presented twice on the same 5-s video background context, and a varied context condition, where the pairs were presented twice on different video contexts. Repetition in the same context resulted in better learning than in different contexts, evaluated with a paper-and-pencil test. Read More

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Physically Implied Surfaces.

Psychol Sci 2021 May 1;32(5):799-808. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

In addition to seeing objects that are directly in view, we also represent objects that are merely implied (e.g., by occlusion, motion, and other cues). Read More

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The effect of acute alcohol consumption on meal memory and subsequent food intake: Two laboratory experiments.

Appetite 2021 Aug 28;163:105225. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Eleanor Rathbone Building, Bedford Street South, Liverpool, L69 7ZA, UK.

Altering the quality of episodic meal memories has been shown to affect subsequent food intake. Acute alcohol consumption disrupts memory formation and produces short-term overeating. In two studies, we investigated whether alcohol consumption can affect meal-related memories and later food intake. Read More

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Tactile temporal offset cues reduce visual representational momentum.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The perception of dynamic objects is sometimes biased. For example, localizing a moving object after it has disappeared results in a perceptual shift in the direction of motion, a bias known as representational momentum. We investigated whether the temporal characteristics of an irrelevant, spatially uninformative vibrotactile stimulus bias the perceived location of a visual target. Read More

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Functional specificity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in positive reappraisal: A single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Neuroimage studies have yielded evidence for a correlation between the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and a specific type of cognitive reappraisal strategy, positive reappraisal. However, evidence is still lacking for a direct relation. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left VLPFC at different time points to investigate the functional specificity of the left VLPFC in the success of positive reappraisal and the timing at which the left VLPC was involved in positive reappraisal. Read More

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Insight of Synergistic Effect between CPP and Cargo on the Facilitation Mechanisms of R7-PTX Translocation: Experiments and Molecular Simulations.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 6;161:105790. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Biochemical Engineering Research Centre, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui Province, 243032, P.R. China; Department of Chemical Biology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui Province, 243032, P.R. China; State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P.R. China. Electronic address:

In our previous study, a novel cell penetrating peptide (CPP) R7 (Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg-Trp-Trp, RRRRRWW) has been developed to help cellular internalization of paclitaxel (PTX) through the non-covalent interaction with CPP. However, the facilitation mechanism of R7 mediated PTX translocation is not clear. Here the uptake pathways of R7 and R7-PTX were investigated by in vitro test and molecular simulations. Read More

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Repetitive Peripheral Magnetic Stimulation of Wrist Extensors Enhances Cortical Excitability and Motor Performance in Healthy Individuals.

Front Neurosci 2021 18;15:632716. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Yamagata Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Yamagata, Japan.

Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) may improve motor function following central nervous system lesions, but the optimal parameters of rPMS to induce neural plasticity and mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. We examined the effects of rPMS over wrist extensor muscles on neural plasticity and motor performance in 26 healthy volunteers. In separate experiments, the effects of rPMS on motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), direct motor response (M-wave), Hoffmann-reflex, and ballistic wrist extension movements were assessed before and after rPMS. Read More

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February 2021

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Configurational and Phonological Processing in Chinese One- and Two-Character Word Recognition.

Am Ann Deaf 2021 ;165(5):483-509

To examine deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students' configurational and phonological processing in Chinese one- and two-character word recognition, two experiments were conducted in a primed semantic categorization task. Configurational priming was observed in DHH participants' reaction times (RTs) at the SOA (stimulus onset asynchrony) of 47 ms and in their probability of making erroneous responses at SOAs of 47 and 187 ms in Experiment 1. Phonological priming was revealed in hearing and DHH participants' probability of making erroneous responses in Experiment 2. Read More

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January 2021

Interhemispheric interactions between the right angular gyrus and the left motor cortex: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

J Neurophysiol 2021 04 24;125(4):1236-1250. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The interconnection of the angular gyrus of right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the left motor cortex (LM1) is essential for goal-directed hand movements. Previous work with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) showed that right PPC stimulation increases LM1 excitability, but right PPC followed by left PPC-LM1 stimulation (LPPC-LM1) inhibits LM1 corticospinal output compared with LPPC-LM1 alone. It is not clear if right PPC-mediated inhibition of LPPC-LM1 is due to inhibition of left PPC or to combined effects of right and left PPC stimulation on LM1 excitability. Read More

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Presynaptic endoplasmic reticulum regulates short-term plasticity in hippocampal synapses.

Commun Biol 2021 Feb 23;4(1):241. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Short-term plasticity preserves a brief history of synaptic activity that is communicated to the postsynaptic neuron. This is primarily regulated by a calcium signal initiated by voltage dependent calcium channels in the presynaptic terminal. Imaging studies of CA3-CA1 synapses reveal the presence of another source of calcium, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in all presynaptic terminals. Read More

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February 2021

Positive and negative interspecific interactions between coexisting rice planthoppers neutralise the effects of elevated temperatures.

Funct Ecol 2021 Jan 4;35(1):181-192. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

International Rice Research Institute Metro Manila Philippines.

Global warming is often predicted to increase damage to plants through direct effects on insect herbivores. However, the indirect impacts of rising temperatures on herbivores, mediated through interactions with their biotic environment, could dampen these effects.Using a series of reciprocal density experiments with gravid females and developing nymphs, we examined interspecific competition between two coexisting phloem feeders (BPH) and (WBPH), on rice at 25 and 30°C. Read More

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January 2021

Prefrontal NMDA-receptor antagonism disrupts encoding or consolidation but not retrieval of incidental context learning.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 14;405:113175. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, United States. Electronic address:

The Context Preexposure Facilitation Effect (CPFE) is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which learning about the context, acquiring a context-shock association, and retrieval of this association occur separately across three phases (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and retention). We have shown that prefrontal inactivation or muscarinic-receptor antagonism prior to any phase disrupts retention test freezing during the CPFE in adolescent rats (Heroux et al., 2017; Robinson-Drummer et al. Read More

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Glucose-limiting conditions induce an invasive population of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with increased connexin 43 expression and membrane localization.

J Cell Commun Signal 2021 Jun 16;15(2):223-236. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Midwestern University, 555 31st Street, Downers Grove, IL, 60515, USA.

Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a homeostatic process mediated by membrane channels composed of a protein family known as connexins. Alterations to channel activity can modulate suppression or facilitation of cancer progression. These varying roles are influenced by the cancer cell genetic profile and the context-dependent mechanisms of a dynamic extracellular environment that encompasses fluctuations to nutrient availability. Read More

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The Trade-Off Between Format Familiarity and Word-Segmentation Facilitation in Chinese Reading.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:602931. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences, Institute of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.

In alphabetic writing systems (such as English), the spaces between words mark the word boundaries, and the basic unit of reading is distinguished during visual-level processing. The visual-level information of word boundaries facilitates reading. Chinese is an ideographic language whose text contains no intrinsic inter-word spaces as the marker of word boundaries. Read More

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January 2021

The Role of Literal Features During Processing of Novel Verbal Metaphors.

Front Psychol 2020 26;11:556624. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Institut für Deutsche Sprache und Linguistik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

When a word is used metaphorically (for example "walrus" in the sentence "The president is a walrus"), some features of that word's meaning ("very fat," "slow-moving") are carried across to the metaphoric interpretation while other features ("has large tusks," "lives near the north pole") are not. What happens to these features that relate only to the literal meaning during processing of novel metaphors? In four experiments, the present study examined the role of the feature of physical containment during processing of verbs of physical containment. That feature is used metaphorically to signify difficulty, such as "fenced in" in the sentence "the journalist's opinion was fenced in after the change in regime. Read More

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January 2021

Behavioral evidence for attention selection as entrained synchronization without awareness.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Psychology, Soochow University.

Animal physiological and human neuroimaging studies have established a link between attention and γ-band (30-90 Hz) oscillations and synchronizations. However, a behavioral link between entrained γ-band oscillations and attention has been fraught with technical challenges. In particular, while entrainment at mid-γ band (40-70 Hz) has been claimed to be privileged in evoking attentional modulations without awareness, the effect may be attributed to display artifacts. Read More

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February 2021

Visual information increases the indirect corticospinal excitation via cervical interneurons in humans.

J Neurophysiol 2021 03 27;125(3):828-842. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Integrative Physiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka City, Tokyo, Japan.

Modulatory actions of inputs from the visual system to cervical interneurons (IN) for arm muscle control are poorly understood in humans. In the present study, we examined whether visual stimulation modulates the excitation of cervical IN systems mediating corticospinal tract (CST) inputs to biceps brachii (BB). Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were seated, and electromyogram recordings from the BB were performed across six experiments, each with discrete objectives. Read More

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How Does Fearful Emotion Affect Visual Attention?

Front Psychol 2020 8;11:584412. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

School of Management, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

It has long been suggested that emotion, especially threatening emotion, facilitates early visual perception to promote adaptive responses to potential threats in the environment. Here, we tested whether and how fearful emotion affects the basic visual ability of visual acuity. An adapted Posner's spatial cueing task was employed, with fearful and neutral faces as cues and a Vernier discrimination task as the probe. Read More

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January 2021

Posture influences on vestibulospinal tract excitability.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Mar 21;239(3):997-1007. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umami-naka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragigun, Nara, 635-0832, Japan.

The human vestibulospinal tract has important roles in postural control, but it has been unknown whether vestibulospinal tract excitability is influenced by the body's postures. We investigated whether postures influence the vestibulospinal tract excitability by a neurophysiological method, i.e. Read More

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What Cognates Reveal about Default Language Selection in Bilingual Sentence Production.

J Mem Lang 2021 Jun 4;118. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

University of California, San Diego.

When producing connected speech, bilinguals often select a as the primary force driving the utterance. The present study investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying default language selection. In three experiments, Spanish-English bilinguals named pictures out of context, or read aloud sentences with a single word replaced by a picture with a cognate (e. Read More

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