15,603 results match your criteria eyes stages


Sleep architectural dysfunction and undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea after chronic ischemic stroke.

Sleep Med 2021 Apr 15;83:45-53. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objective/background: Sleep-wake dysfunction is bidirectionally associated with the incidence and evolution of acute stroke. It remains unclear whether sleep disturbances are transient post-stroke or are potentially enduring sequelae in chronic stroke. Here, we characterize sleep architectural dysfunction, sleep-respiratory parameters, and hemispheric sleep in ischemic stroke patients in the chronic recovery phase compared to healthy controls. Read More

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Using the perfusion index to predict changes in the depth of anesthesia in children compared with the A-line Autoregression Index: an observational study.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Assiut University, Faculty of Medicine, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Department, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: We investigated the performance of the Perfusion Index (PI) derived from pulse oximetry waveform as a tool for assessment of anesthetic depth in comparison with A-line Autoregression Index (AAI) derived from analysis of Middle-Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (MLAEP) waveform integrated by aepEXplus monitor in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for tonsillectomy.

Methods: Forty-one patients (4-12 years old) were included in this study. The PI and AAI were recorded simultaneously every minute during different stages of anesthesia delivery. Read More

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Functional connexin35 increased in the myopic chicken retina.

Vis Neurosci 2021 May 14;38:E008. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Our previous research showed that increased phosphorylation of connexin (Cx)36 indicated extended  coupling of AII amacrine cells (ACs) in the rod-dominant mouse myopic retina. This research will determine whether phosphorylation at serine 276 of Cx35-containing gap junctions increased in the myopic chicken, whose retina is cone-dominant. Refractive errors and ocular biometric dimensions of 7-days-old chickens were determined following 12 h and 7 days induction of myopia by a -10D lens. Read More

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Subthreshold Nanosecond Laser, from Trials to Real-Life Clinical Practice: A Cohort Study.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 6;15:1887-1895. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, 50923, Germany.

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder, is a major cause of irreversible severe visual deterioration in the older Western population. Thus, treatments that resolve drusen may prove helpful in limiting the progression of AMD. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of sub-threshold nanosecond laser therapy (SNL) using a double-frequency nanosecond-pulsed laser with discontinuous energy beam distribution in the early stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Read More

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The Burden of Caring for and Treating Glaucoma: The Patient Perspective.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; Center for Eye Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Purpose: To understand the treatment burden experienced by patients receiving care for primary open-angle glaucoma.

Design: Semi-structured, one-on-one, qualitative interviews PARTICIPANTS: Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and age ≥40 who were scheduled for a follow-up glaucoma appointment at the Kellogg Eye Center (Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA). Researchers used purposeful sampling to ensure that there was representation of a range of ages, disease stages, total number of medical conditions, distance traveled to clinic, history of prior glaucoma surgery, employment, and education. Read More

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EEG alterations during wake and sleep in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

iScience 2021 Apr 1;24(4):102386. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Rome "Sapienza", Via dei Marsi, 78, Rome 00185, Italy.

Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) undergo a slowing of waking electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms since prodromal stages, which could be ascribed to poor sleep quality. We examined the relationship between wake and sleep alterations by assessing EEG activity during sleep and (pre-sleep/post-sleep) wakefulness in AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. AD and MCI show high sleep latency and less slow-wave sleep. Read More

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Five Decades of Enucleations for Uveal Melanoma in One Center: More Tumors with High Risk Factors, No Improvement in Survival over Time.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021 Mar 15;7(2):133-141. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: In order to improve medical care for uveal melanoma (UM) patients, we need to monitor disease and survival to guide our research efforts. We analyzed the data of UM patients who underwent an enucleation at the Leiden University Medical Center over the last five decades and investigated trends in patient and tumor characteristics and survival.

Methods: Data were collected from charts and pathology reports from all patients who underwent an enucleation for UM between 1973 and 2019 ( = 1,212), of which 1,066 were primary enucleations; data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1973-1979 ( = 209), 1980-1989 ( = 148), 1990-1999 ( = 174), 2000-2009 ( = 280), and 2010-2019 ( = 401). Read More

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Deep Learning-based Diagnosis of Glaucoma Using Wide-field Optical Coherence Tomography Images.

J Glaucoma 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri, Korea.

Purpose: (1) To evaluate the performance of a deep learning (DL) classifier in detecting glaucoma, based on wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images. (2) To assess the performance of DL-based fusion methods in diagnosing glaucoma using a variety of wide-field SS-OCT images and compare their diagnostic abilities with that of conventional parameter-based methods.

Methods: Overall, 675 eyes, including 258 healthy eyes and 417 eyes with glaucoma were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Read More

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Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients treated with Hydroxychloroquine.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 May 11;21(1):209. Epub 2021 May 11.

Isfahan Eye Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: One of the major side effects of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in a group of patients who have Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinopathy based on Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) with a group who do not have retinopathy.

Method: This is a Cross-Sectional Study. Read More

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A case series with literature review on adjunctive usage of intravitreal ceftazidime in ocular syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 May 8:9564624211011917. Epub 2021 May 8.

University Malaya Eye Research Centre, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia.

Background: Penicillin is the conventional treatment for all stages of syphilis, including ocular and neurosyphilis, according to the recommendations by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Disease. This case series highlighted three cases of ocular syphilis which showed prompt treatment response as early as 24 h after the adjunctive intravitreal ceftazidime injection.

Methods: Case Series. Read More

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Visual field-based grading of disease severity in newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma patients presenting to a tertiary eye care centre in India.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) at presentation using visual field analysis and its relationship to demographic and ocular factors in patients presenting to a tertiary eye care centre.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Newly diagnosed POAG patients were classified as early, moderate, or severe stage in the worse eye based on the Humphrey visual field testing using Hodapp-Parrish-Andersons criteria. Read More

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The management of neurotrophic keratitis.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The management of neurotrophic keratitis (NK) has evolved in the last decade. The present article reviews updated management guidelines of this entity, as well as future innovations in the field.

Recent Findings: The advent of confocal microscopy has allowed for the first time to image corneal nerves. Read More

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Disparity in Context: Understanding how monocular image content interacts with disparity processing in human visual cortex.

Neuroimage 2021 May 5:118139. Epub 2021 May 5.

Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute, 290 Jane Stanford Way, Stanford, CA 94305. Electronic address:

Horizontal disparities between the two eyes' retinal images are the primary cue for depth. Commonly used Random dot stereograms (RDS) intentionally camouflage the disparity cue, breaking the correlations between monocular image structure and the depth map that are present in natural images. Because of the nonlinear nature of visual processing, it is unlikely that simple computational rules derived from RDS will be sufficient to explain binocular vision in natural environments. Read More

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Role of sleep on respiratory failure after extubation in the ICU.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 May 8;11(1):71. Epub 2021 May 8.

INSERM CIC 1402, ALIVE Research Group, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Background: Sleep had never been assessed immediately after extubation in patients still in the ICU. However, sleep deprivation may alter respiratory function and may promote respiratory failure. We hypothesized that sleep alterations after extubation could be associated with an increased risk of post-extubation respiratory failure and reintubation. Read More

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Sleep in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients During Critical and Acute Care.

Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2021 Mar-Apr 01;40(2):118-124

Background: Nurses caring for intensive care patients diagnosed with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) conduct frequent neurological assessments and vital signs over an extended period during which patients are at risk of vasospasm. The frequency of assessments can negatively impact sleep, resulting in altered thought processes and mood, including delirium. There are 2 types of sleep during the night: non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep (also called stage R). Read More

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Sunlight exposure in infancy decreases risk of sporadic retinoblastoma, extent of intraocular disease.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 7:e1409. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pathology, Hospital Infantil de Mexico, Federico Gomez, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Prior ecologic studies suggest that UV exposure through sunlight to the retina might contribute to increased retinoblastoma incidence.

Aims: Our study objectives were (1) to examine the relationship between exposure to sunlight during postnatal retinal development (prior to diagnosis of sporadic disease) and the risk of retinoblastoma, and (2) to examine the relationship between sun exposure during postnatal retinal development, and the extent of disease among children with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma.

Methods And Results: We interviewed 511 mothers in the EpiRbMx case-control study about their child's exposure to sunlight during postnatal retinal cell division by examining three time periods prior to Rtb diagnosis coinciding with developmental stages in which outdoor activities vary. Read More

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Artificial intelligence for improving sickle cell retinopathy diagnosis and management.

Eye (Lond) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Sickle cell retinopathy is often initially asymptomatic even in proliferative stages, but can progress to cause vision loss due to vitreous haemorrhages or tractional retinal detachments. Challenges with access and adherence to screening dilated fundus examinations, particularly in medically underserved areas where the burden of sickle cell disease is highest, highlight the need for novel approaches to screening for patients with vision-threatening sickle cell retinopathy. This article reviews the existing literature on and suggests future research directions for coupling artificial intelligence with multimodal retinal imaging to expand access to automated, accurate, imaging-based screening for sickle cell retinopathy. Read More

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Age-related macular degeneration.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2021 05 6;7(1):31. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in the industrialized world. AMD is characterized by accumulation of extracellular deposits, namely drusen, along with progressive degeneration of photoreceptors and adjacent tissues. AMD is a multifactorial disease encompassing a complex interplay between ageing, environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility. Read More

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Retinal pigment epithelium melanin distribution estimated by polarisation entropy and its association with retinal sensitivity in patients with high myopia.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate retinal sensitivity of highly myopic eyes without choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or patchy chorioretinal atrophy (PCA) and investigated its association with anatomical characteristics including melanin distribution at the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which was evaluated with polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT).

Design: Retrospective consecutive observational cohort study.

Methods: We included highly myopic eyes (refractive error ≤-8. Read More

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Diabetic retinal neurodegeneration as a form of diabetic retinopathy.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Center for Vitreoretinal Diseases, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To review the evidence supporting diabetic retinal neurodegeneration (DRN) as a form of diabetic retinopathy.

Method: Review of literature.

Results: DRN is recognized to be a part of retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), in addition to the well-established diabetic retinal vasculopathy (DRV). Read More

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Focus on Survival Analysis for Eye Research.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 May;62(6)

Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Analysis of time-to-event data, otherwise known as survival analysis, is a common investigative tool in ophthalmic research. For example, time-to-event data is useful when researchers are interested in investigating how long it takes for an ocular condition to worsen or whether treatment can delay the development of a potentially vision-threatening complication. Its implementation requires a different set of statistical tools compared to those required for analyses of other continuous and categorial outcomes. Read More

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Multimodal imaging of macular telangiectasia type 2 in a pediatric patient.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 1;22:101082. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kafr El Sheikh University, Mubarak Road, Qism Kafr El Sheikh, Kafr El Sheikh, Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt.

Purpose: To describe findings of multimodal imaging in non-proliferative and proliferative stages of MacTel 2 in a pediatric patient, and results of aflibercept use for treating neovascularization secondary to MacTel 2.

Methods: Retrospective case report.

Results: An 11-year-old girl with no history of systemic disease. Read More

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A Pilot Study of Changes in the Level of Catecholamines and the Activity of α-2-Macroglobulin in the Tear Fluid of Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonian Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Vavilova Street, 119334 Moscow, Russia.

Development of differential and early (preclinical) diagnostics of Parkinson's disease (PD) is among the priorities in neuroscience. We searched for changes in the level of catecholamines and α-2-macroglobulin activity in the tear fluid (TF) in PD patients at an early clinical stage. It was shown that TF in patients is characterized by an increased level of noradrenaline mainly on the ipsilateral side of pronounced motor symptoms (72%, = 0. Read More

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Determination of the sleep-wake pattern and feasibility of NREM/REM discrimination using the non-invasive piezoelectric system in rats.

J Sleep Res 2021 May 3:e13373. Epub 2021 May 3.

Unité Fatigue et Vigilance, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées (IRBA), Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

The piezoelectric cage-floor sensors have been used to successfully dissect sleep patterns in mice based on signal features related to respiration and body movements. We studied performance of the piezoelectric system to quantify the sleep-wake pattern in the rat over 7 days of recording compared with a visual electroencephalogram/electromyogram scoring, and under two light/dark (LD12:12 and LD16:8) photoperiods leading to change in the 24-hr sleep characteristics (N = 7 per group). The total sleep time (%/24 hr) over the 7 days recording and hourly sleep time over the last 24-hr recording were not statistically different between methods under the two photoperiods. Read More

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Surgical Treatment of Bilateral Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 May;20(6):E418-E419

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Even though intracranial meningiomas commonly invade the optic canals, true optic nerve sheath meningiomas are extremely rare. They are insidious lesions that frequently grow in 4 stages, leading to progressive visual loss.1-4 Frequently, management includes observation for asymptomatic patients, and fractioned stereotactic radiotherapy with progressive visual loss. Read More

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Cyclic alternating pattern in obstructive sleep apnea: A preliminary study.

J Sleep Res 2021 May 3:e13350. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neuroimaging, Sleep and Brain Plasticity Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London, UK.

Obstructive sleep apnea is linked to cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and dementia. The precise nature of the association between respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea, cortical or subcortical arousals, and cognitive, autonomic and oxidative stress consequences remains incompletely elucidated. Previous studies have aimed to understand the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and arousal patterns, as defined by the cyclic alternating pattern, but results have been inconsistent, in part likely due to the presence of associated comorbidities. Read More

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Agreement between the newly developed OCT glaucoma staging system and the standardized visual field glaucoma staging system 2.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2:11206721211014378. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to assess the agreement between the new optical coherence tomography (OCT) glaucoma staging system (GSS) and the visual field (VF) GSS 2 (GSS2).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 161 eyes of 110 patients with controlled primary openangle glaucoma (POAG). All eyes were subjected to VF examination using standard automated perimetry and Humphrey field analyzer II 750. Read More

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Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis With Optic Nerve Metastasis Secondary to Breast Cancer.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14200. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, MYS.

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) and optic nerve metastasis are uncommon occurrences in breast cancer. We report a rare case of LC with optic nerve infiltration secondary to breast cancer. A 45-year-old lady who was a known case of treated right breast carcinoma six years ago presented with a blurring of vision in both eyes, floaters, and diplopia for one month. Read More

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What Is New in Glaucoma: From Treatment to Biological Perspectives.

J Ophthalmol 2021 14;2021:5013529. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Eye Clinic San Giuseppe Hospital,IRCCS Multimedica, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Glaucoma is a chronic silent disease and an irreversible cause of blindness worldwide. Research has made many efforts to improve disease control and especially to anticipate both early diagnosis and treatment of advanced stages of glaucoma. In terms of prevention, networking between professionals and nonprofessionals is an important goal to disseminate information and help diagnose the disease early. Read More

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Detection of passive movement in lower limb joints is impaired in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Neurophysiol Clin 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: Sensory information is crucial when performing daily activities, and Parkinson's disease may diminish sensitivity to sensory cues. This study aimed to examine the detection threshold of passive motion of knee and ankle joints in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Methods: Eighteen individuals in the early stages of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (age: 62. Read More

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