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The Neural Circuits Underlying General Anesthesia and Sleep.

Anesth Analg 2021 May;132(5):1254-1264

From the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

General anesthesia is characterized by loss of consciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility. Important molecular targets of general anesthetics have been identified, but the neural circuits underlying the discrete end points of general anesthesia remain incompletely understood. General anesthesia and natural sleep share the common feature of reversible unconsciousness, and recent developments in neuroscience have enabled elegant studies that investigate the brain nuclei and neural circuits underlying this important end point. Read More

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Cevimeline-induced anti-inflammatory effect through upregulations of mucins in the ocular surface of a dry eye mouse model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 12;139:111571. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

T2B infrastructure Center for Ocular Disease, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 47392, Republic of Korea; Department of Ophthalmology, Inje University College of Medicine, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 47392, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the effects of various concentrations of cevimelines (CVMs) and compare them with commercial drugs in a murine model of dry eye. The experimental mouse model used male and female NOD.B10. Read More

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The role of CECR1 in the immune-modulatory effects of butyrate and correlation between ADA2 and M1/M2 chemokines in tuberculous pleural effusion.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 12;96:107635. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region, Candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) is mainly expressed by macrophages. Given the immunomodulatory functions of butyrate, we examined the effect of butyrate on CECR1 expression of macrophages and the relationship between ADA2 and M1/M2 macrophages-associated chemokines in pleural fluid of patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE).

Methods: Expression of CECR1 was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated and/or butyrate treated THP-1 cells. Read More

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The effect of reconstruction on positive margin rates in oral cancer: Using length of stay as a proxy measure for flap reconstruction in a national database.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar 29;42(5):103012. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States of America. Electronic address:

Purpose: Planned flap reconstruction, allowing aggressive resections of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC), may decrease positive surgical margins. The purpose of this study was to determine if length of stay (LOS), as a proxy measure for flap reconstruction, is associated with positive margin rates in OCSCC.

Materials And Methods: Data from the National Cancer Database was retrospectively collected for patients undergoing surgery for previously untreated clinical T1-3 OCSCC. Read More

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Bedside video-oculographic evaluation of eye movements in acute supratentorial stroke patients: A potential biomarker for hemispatial neglect.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 9;425:117442. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The presence of hemispatial neglect adversely affects functional outcomes in stroke patients; consequently, it warrants early targeted rehabilitative intervention. Nevertheless, hemispatial neglect in the acute phase of stroke has often been underdiagnosed. In this study, we aimed to detect hemispatial neglect at the bedside in acute stroke patients by measuring eye movements using video-oculography (VOG). Read More

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Characteristics of diplopia in a pediatric population.

J AAPOS 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of diplopia in children at a single tertiary eye care center.

Methods: The medical records of patients with diplopia onset at age 18 years or younger presenting during the period 2015-2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, diagnoses, treatment, and outcome data were collected. Read More

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COVID-19 Quarantine Reveals Behavioral Changes Effect on Myopia Progression.

Ophthalmology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China; Institute of Biomedical Big Data, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China.

COVID-19 quarantine provides the largest intervention data of myopia progression in schoolchildren. We found grade is an important risk factor, and COVID-19-induced modifications of student's online time and outdoor activity time sufficiently change myopia progression. Read More

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Challenges and strategies for the delivery of biologics to the cornea.

J Control Release 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Biologics, like peptides, proteins and nucleic acids, have proven to be promising drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases. However, besides the off label use of the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab for the treatment of corneal neovascularization, to date no other biologics for corneal diseases have reached the market. Indeed, delivering biologics in the eye remains a challenge, especially at the level of the cornea. Read More

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Recent trends in drug-delivery systems for the treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy and associated Fibrosis.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre of Reproduction, Development and Aging, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau SAR, China. Electronic address:

Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and a major cause of visual impairment. In advanced stages, the abnormal neovascularization can lead to fibrosis and subsequent tractional retinal detachment and blindness. The low bioavailability of the drugs at the target site imposed by the anatomic and physiologic barriers within the eye, requires long term treatments with frequent injections that often compromise patient's compliance and increase the risk of developing more complications. Read More

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Dual cure (thermal/photo) composite hydrogel derived from chitosan/collagen for in situ 3D bioprinting.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, 266003 Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

In situ 3D printing technologies is a new frontier for highly personalized medicine, which requires suitable bioink with rheology, biocompatibility, and gelation kinetics to support the right shape and mechanical properties of the printed construct. To this end, a facile design of thermo/photo dual cure composite hydrogel was proposed using MHBC and soluble collagen in this study. M/C composite hydrogel exhibited rapid thermo-induced sol-gel transition and contraction, tunable mechanical properties, proper microstructure and biodegradability for 3D cell culture, as well as improve cyto-compatibility, all of which were dependent upon the methacrylation degree of MHBC and M/C ratios. Read More

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New Indicator of Children's Excessive Electronic Screen Use and Factors in Meibomian Gland Atrophy.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Assistant Professor, Georgetown University Hospital MedStar Washington Hospital Center; Surgeon, Ophthalmology, Visionary Eye Doctors.

Purpose: To evaluate the association of children's daily-electronic-screen-use with severe meibomian-gland-atrophy (MGA).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study METHODS: Children (6-17years) presenting at clinical practice December 2016-2017 were evaluated for ≥grade 2 MGA versus age-matched-controls with insignificant atrophy (Read More

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Comment on "Clinical Characteristics of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) in Patients over 50 Years of Age: A multicenter clinical cohort study".

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatric ophthalmology, Strabismus and Neuro-Ophthalmology, CL Gupta Eye Institute, Ram Ganga Vihar, Phase II (Ext) Moradabad-244001 India. Electronic address:

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Comments on "OCT Risk Factors for 3-Year Development of Macular Complications in eyes with "Resolved" Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy".

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Center for Vitreoretinal Diseases, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

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Contribution of Genetic Background to the Radiation Risk for Cancer and Non-Cancer Diseases in Ptch1+/- Mice.

Radiat Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Biomedical Technologies, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Rome, Italy.

Experimental mouse studies are important to gain a comprehensive, quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the biological factors that modify individual risk of radiation-induced health effects, including age at exposure, dose, dose rate, organ/tissue specificity and genetic factors. In this study, neonatal Ptch1+/- mice bred on CD1 and C57Bl/6 background received whole-body irradiation at postnatal day 2. This time point represents a critical phase in the development of the eye lens, cerebellum and dentate gyrus (DG), when they are also particularly susceptible to radiation effects. Read More

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Identifying geographically differentiated features of Ethopian Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) morphology with machine learning.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249593. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Computational Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Visual characteristics are among the most important features for characterizing the phenotype of biological organisms. Color and geometric properties define population phenotype and allow assessing diversity and adaptation to environmental conditions. To analyze geometric properties classical morphometrics relies on biologically relevant landmarks which are manually assigned to digital images. Read More

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Changes in plantar load distribution in legally blind subjects.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249467. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil.

We investigated the impact of visual impairment on balance control. We measured the center of pressure (COP) between the two feet and plantar surface pressures on each foot in 18 normal-sighted participants and compared their data with measures from 18 legally blind participants, either acquired or congenital. Pressures were measured in open- and closed-eye conditions using a baropodometric resistive plate. Read More

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Fast Foveating Cameras for Dense Adaptive Resolution.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Traditional cameras field of view (FOV) and resolution predetermine computer vision algorithm performance. These trade-offs decide the range and performance in computer vision algorithms. We present a novel foveating camera whose viewpoint is dynamically modulated by a programmable micro-electromechanical (MEMS) mirror, resulting in a natively high-angular resolution wide-FOV camera capable of densely and simultaneously imaging multiple regions of interest in a scene. Read More

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Bilateral Acute Anterior Uveitis and Corneal Punctate Epitheliopathy in Children Diagnosed with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Secondary to COVID-19.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 15:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Health Sciences University, Dr. Sami Ulus Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

: To report bilateral anterior uveitis and corneal punctate epitheliopathy in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) secondary to coronavirus disease (COVID-19).: Five patients who were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies and diagnosed with MIS-C were evaluated. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed in order to reveal ocular findings in MIS-C disease. Read More

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Evaluation of a Hirschberg test-based application for measuring ocular alignment and detecting strabismus.

Curr Eye Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Eye Institute, St. Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines.

Purpose: Photographic Hirschberg test applications are practical options for screening in areas where a specialist is not available. A semi-automated Hirschberg test-based application was developed and evaluated on its ability to detect and measure strabismus at distance and near fixation.

Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional inter-rater agreement study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Read More

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Are you looking at me? Impact of eye contact on object-based attention.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University.

Eye contact plays an important role in social interaction and can capture and hold attention. However, it is unclear whether and how objects that can also guide attentional allocation interact with eye contact in guiding attention. Therefore, the current study adapted a well-established two-rectangle paradigm and used faces depicting different gaze directions (direct and averted) or rectangles overlaid with eyes as stimuli. Read More

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How resilient is reading to letter rotations? A parafoveal preview investigation.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departamento de Metodologia and ERI-Lectura.

Skilled readers have developed a certain amount of tolerance to variations in the visual form of words (e.g., CAPTCHAs, handwritten text, etc. Read More

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Association between retinal thickness variation and visual acuity change in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

Background: To assess the association between variation in retinal central subfield thickness (CSFT) with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change in patients receiving Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) inhibitor therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).

Methods: CSFT measurements were obtained from 141 eyes (total 1300 scans). SD of CSFT was calculated. Read More

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Fetal Programming Effects of a Mild Food Restriction During Pregnancy in Mice: How Does It Compare to Intragestational Ghrelin Administration?

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Instituto de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, e Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA; CONICET-UNC), Santa Rosa 1085, X5000ESU, Córdoba, Argentina.

To explore in mice if a 15% food restriction protocol during pregnancy programs the offspring postnatal development, with emphasis on reproductive function, and to assess if ghrelin (Ghrl) administration to mouse dams exerts effects that mimic those obtained under mild caloric restriction. Mice were 15% food-restricted, injected with 4 nmol/animal/day of Ghrl, or injected with the vehicle (control) thorough pregnancy. After birth, the pups did not receive further treatment. Read More

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Topical ketorolac as an adjunctive treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab in the management of diabetic macular edema: A double-masked placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To evaluate the additional effect of ketorolac eye drops on therapeutic effects of intravitreal Bevacizumab in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 50 patients with center involved DME (macular thickness ≥ 300 microns accompanied by decreased VA (24 < BCVA ≤ 70 ETDRS letters) were enrolled consecutively and randomized 1:1 to receive either bevacizumab plus topical ketorolac (25 patients) or bevacizumab plus artificial tears (25 patients). Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, history of intraocular surgery, intravitreal injection in less than three months, macular photocoagulation less than 6 months and any other concomitant ocular pathologies were excluded from the study. All the patients received three consecutive monthly injections of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Read More

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Assessment of Cumulative Incidence and Severity of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Among Participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study After 20 Years of Follow-up.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: Ocular hypertension is an important risk factor for the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Data from long-term follow-up can be used to inform the management of patients with ocular hypertension.

Objective: To determine the cumulative incidence and severity of POAG after 20 years of follow-up among participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Read More

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A Clarification and Call for a National Keratoplasty Registry.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.

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Orthoptic assessment of vision in patients with complex disability: the importance of understanding the patient's communication methods.

Strabismus 2021 Apr 15:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Health Sciences, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool.

Care for children with acquired brain injury requires a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) to maximize rehabilitation. These children frequently present to the orthoptic clinic with complex difficulties impacting visual functions and eye movements. We report on one case which led to a reevaluation of our current assessment methods, clinical care pathways and the contents of clinic correspondence. Read More

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Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Ocular Syphilis Involving the Posterior Segment of the Eye.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Ophthalmology Division, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

: To analyse posterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in ocular syphilis.: Medical records of 54 patients presenting consecutively with syphilitic uveitis were reviewed. Vitreous, retina and choroid (one eye/patient) were assessed by spectral-domain OCT on presentation (54 eyes) and after treatment (31 eyes). Read More

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Coronavirus-19-Associated Retinopathy.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 15:1-2. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

: To describe the first case of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vision loss from an acute outer retinopathy. A retrospective case report from a tertiary referral center using multimodal retinal imaging and clinical examination findings A 40-year-old female developed significant vision loss in her right eye shortly after developing fever and myalgias. She was found to be COVID positive, while her systemic laboratory evaluation was otherwise unremarkable. Read More

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Simultaneous Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusion following COVID-19 Infection.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 15:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Bapaye Eye Hospital, Nashik, Maharashtra, India.

: Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a high risk of thrombotic complications. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed simultaneous bilateral retinal artery occlusion following COVID-19 infection.: A 42-year-old male with no systemic co-morbidities presented with sudden, painless loss of vision in both eyes. Read More

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