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Mitochondrial damage produced by phytotoxic chromenone and chromanone derivatives from endophytic fungus Daldinia eschscholtzii strain GsE13.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Instituto de Química, Departamento de Productos Naturales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of the endophyte Daldinia eschscholtzii strain GsE13 led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including two chromenone and two chromanone derivatives: 5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one, 1; 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one, 2; 5-methoxy-2-methyl-chroman-4-one, 3; and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-chroman-4-ol, 4; as well as other aromatic compounds: 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone, 5; 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene, 6; and 4,9-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetrahydroperyl-ene-3,10-quinone, 7. Compounds 1, 4, and 7 were isolated for the first time from D. eschscholtzii. Read More

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The potential of Mangifera indica Linn. and Musa acuminata extracts to attenuate 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE )-induced DNA oxidative damage in MCF-10A cells by upregulating detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes.

J Food Biochem 2021 May 9:e13754. Epub 2021 May 9.

Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Nowadays, there have been attempts to use phytochemicals in fruits to reduce the risk of suffering a given sickness. In this work, we studied the potential effects of mango (cultivar "Nam Dok Mai") and banana (cultivar "Khai") to attenuate DNA oxidative damage in MCF-10A cells induced by 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE ). The effects of mango extract (MNE) and banana extract (BKE) were comparable with three carotenoid compounds, β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein. Read More

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Vessel Segmentation from Volumetric Images: A Multi-scale Double-pathway Network with Class-balanced Loss at the Voxel Level.

Med Phys 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Xi'an Key Lab of Radiomics and Intelligent Perception, School of Information Sciences and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710069, China.

Purpose: Vessel segmentation from volumetric medical images is becoming an essential pre-step in aiding the diagnosis, guiding the therapy and patient management for vascular-related diseases. Deep learning-based methods have drawn many attentions, but most of them did not fully utilize the multi-scale spatial information of vessels. To address this shortcoming, we propose a multi-scale network similar to the well-known multi-scale DeepMedic. Read More

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Hydrazine-Containing Heterocycle Cytochalasan Derivatives From Hydrazinolysis of Extracts of a Desert Soil-Derived Fungus 375.

Front Chem 2021 21;9:620589. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology of Natural Products, Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources Research, Comprehensive Utilization of Edible and Medicinal Plant Resources Engineering Technology Research Center, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, China.

"Diversity-enhanced extracts" is an effective method of producing chemical libraries for the purpose of drug discovery. Three rare new cytochalasan derivative chaetoglobosins B-B (-) were obtained from chemically engineered crude broth extracts of 375 prepared by reacting with hydrazine monohydrate and four known metabolite chaetoglobosins () were also identified from the fungus. The structures were identified by NMR and MS analysis and electronic circular dichroism simulation. Read More

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Evaluation of antifungal activity of mint, pomegranate and coriander on fluconazole-resistant .

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 Sep-Dec;24(3):517-522. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, SRM Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Antifungal resistance shown by different species of has affected the management of candidiasis drastically. This has led to the need for newer safer therapeutic alternatives for their management. Phytochemical agents have been long known to possess numerous medicinal activities. Read More

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January 2021

Ultrasound processing of coffee silver skin, brewer's spent grain and potato peel wastes for phenolic compounds and amino acids: a comparative study.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Jun 24;58(6):2273-2282. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Food Chemistry and Technology, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin, D15 KN3K Ireland.

Awareness towards utilizing food-processing by-products are increasing in health as well as environmental purview. Coffee silver skin (CSS), potato peel (PP) and brewer's spent grain (BSG) are voluminous by-products in their respective processing industries. The present study compared these three by-products for their prospective utilization in producing polyphenols-rich aqueous extracts by using ultrasound-assisted extractions (UAE). Read More

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Polyherbal combination for wound healing: Matricaria chamomilla L. and Punica granatum L.

Daru 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) with astringent activities and Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile) with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties are natural remedies used for various skin disorders, including wound healing. Read More

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Extracts of herbs and spices as feed additives mitigate ruminal methane production and improve fermentation characteristics in West African Dwarf sheep.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 May 9;53(2):312. Epub 2021 May 9.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Edo de México, México.

The study aims to evaluate the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of three herbs, namely, neem (Azadirachta indica), drumstick (Moringa oleifera) and scent (Ocimum gratissimum), and three spices garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and onion leaflets (Allium cepa) on ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics. The feed samples (200 mg substrates plus extracts of the selected herbs and spices) were incubated with rumen liquor taken from three mature West African dwarf ewes at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h. The results show that extracts of the selected herbs and spices increased the gas produced, from the insoluble fraction, degradability rate, volume of gas produced at time and time of most rapid change in gas produced. Read More

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Structural elucidation, distribution and antioxidant activity of bound phenolics from whole grain brown rice.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;358:129872. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Sericultural & Agri-Food Research Institute Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Functional Foods, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing, Guangzhou 510610, PR China. Electronic address:

Chemical profiles, distribution, and antioxidant activity of bound phenolics from brown rice were investigated. Four new dehydrodiferulic acid dimers (DFA) along with eighteen known phenolics were isolated from brown rice bound phenolic extracts and their structures were determined by multiple spectroscopic methods. Among them, ferulic acid and 8-5' DFA were the most abundant monomeric and dimeric bound phenolics in brown rice, rice bran and polished rice. Read More

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Natural products targeting the synthesis of β(1,3)-D-glucan and chitin of the fungal cell wall. Existing drugs and recent findings.

Phytomedicine 2021 Mar 27:153556. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica and Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)/Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: During the last three decades systemic fungal infections associated to immunosuppressive therapies have become a serious healthcare problem. Clinical development of new antifungals is an urgent requirement. Since fungal but not mammalian cells are encased in a carbohydrate-containing cell wall, which is required for the growth and viability of fungi, the inhibition of cell wall synthesizing machinery, such as β(1,3)-D-glucan synthases (GS) and chitin synthases (CS) that catalyze the synthesis of β(1-3)-D-glucan and chitin, respectively, represent an ideal mode of action of antifungal agents. Read More

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In-Depth Structural Characterization and Quantification of Cerebrosides and Glycosphingosines with Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry.

Anal Chem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemistry Purdue University 560 Oval Drive West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

Cerebrosides (n-HexCer) and glycosphingosines (n-HexSph) constitute two sphingolipid subclasses. Both are comprised of a monosaccharide headgroup (glucose or galactose in mammalian cells) linked via either an α- or β-glycosidic linkage to the sphingoid backbone (n = α or β, depending upon the nature of the linkage to the anomeric carbon of the sugar). Cerebrosides have an additional amide-bonded fatty acyl chain linked to the sphingoid backbone. Read More

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A Simple and Standardized Method for the Determination of Total Solanesol in Potato Leaves and Its Extracts Based on HPLC-MS.

J AOAC Int 2020 Aug 17. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Background: Solanesol is an important pharmaceutical intermediate raw material, mainly used to synthesize coenzyme Q10, vitamin K2. It can be found prominent in potato stems and leaves. But now potato stems and leaves are always abandoned or discarded as they are not suitable for use as feed in aquaculture or other purposes. Read More

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species suppress nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 6:1-5. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy.

Aerial parts and roots from three species were extracted with 70% ethanol. The phytochemical composition was investigated using GC-MS and multivariate data analysis. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed. Read More

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Comparison of Cell-Free Extracts from Three Newly Identified Strains on the Inhibitory Effect of Adipogenic Differentiation and Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:6676502. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Cellular Reprogramming and Embryo Biotechnology Laboratory, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, are rapidly becoming serious global health problems. It has been reported that () extracts have the beneficial activities of antiobesity and antidiabetes, although few studies have compared the beneficial effects among various extracts. In this study, three new (named LP, LS, and L14) strains were identified, and the antiobesogenic and diabetic effects of their extracts were investigated and compared using 3T3-L1 cells . Read More

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Giloy Ghanvati ( (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thomson) Reversed SARS-CoV-2 Viral Spike-Protein Induced Disease Phenotype in the Xenotransplant Model of Humanized Zebrafish.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:635510. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, India.

The current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome disease caused by Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a serious strain on the healthcare infrastructure mainly due to the lack of a reliable treatment option. Alternate therapies aimed at symptomatic relief are currently prescribed along with artificial ventilation to relieve distress. Traditional medicine in the form of Ayurveda has been used since ancient times as a holistic treatment option rather than targeted therapy. Read More

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Liquid Chromatographic Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Untargeted Profiling of (Poly)phenolic Compounds in L. and L. Fruits and Their Comparative Evaluation.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry "Ugo Schiff", University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

This study provided a detailed profiling of the antioxidant and bioactive compounds occurring in three varieties of L. fruits ("Fall Gold", "Glen Ample" and "Tulameen") compared to L. black raspberry ("Jewel" cultivar), adopting a comprehensive untargeted metabolomics approach developed with UHPLC analysis coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry, using the SWATH acquisition protocol. Read More

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LC-MS/MS-based profiling of bioactive metabolites of endophytic bacteria from Cannabis sativa and their anti-Phytophthora activity.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plant Pathology, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd, Apopka, FL, 32703, USA.

Protection of crop plants from phytopathogens through endophytic bacteria is a newly emerged area of biocontrol. In this study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of Cannabis sativa. Based on initial antimicrobial screening, three (03) bacteria Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2, Enterobacter cloacae MOSEL-w7, and Paenibacillus MOSEL-w13 were selected. Read More

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Sensitivity of prick test with walnut commercial extracts and of prick by prick with raw walnut compared with open food challenge in walnut allergy.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021067. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Allergy Unit, Pediatrics Area, Department of Woman and Child Health, Policlinico Gemelli Universitary Foundation IRCCS, Catholic University of Sacre Hearth, Rome 00168, Italy. .

Background And Aim: Diagnosis of walnut allergy includes the evaluation of IgE sensitization by skin prick tests (SPT) with standardized commercial extracts. When assuming the loss of relevant allergens due to extract preparation and storage, it is possible to perform SPT with fresh foods, i.e. Read More

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Extract of Propolis on Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement: Effect on Mechanical and Antimicrobial Properties and Dentin Bonding Strength.

Int J Biomater 2021 12;2021:5597837. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Iranian Center for Endodontic Research, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1983963113, Iran.

This study assessed the effect of addition of aqueous extract of propolis in different concentrations on the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). In this in vitro study, powder of Fuji II LC RMGIC was mixed with 25% and 50% aqueous extracts of propolis. Samples ( = 15 for shear bond strength,  = 5 for flexural strength, and  = 20 for the antibacterial activity test) were fabricated using this mixture. Read More

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Tropical vibes from Sri Lanka - cyclotides from Viola betonicifolia by transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis.

Phytochemistry 2021 Apr 28;187:112749. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, 751 23, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Cyclotides are an extremely stable class of peptides, ubiquitously distributed in Violaceae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of cyclotides in Sri Lankan Violaceae plants, using combined tools of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry. New cyclotides were discovered for the first time in the wild flora of Sri Lanka, within Viola betonicifolia, a plant used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial. Read More

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Analytical profiling of phenolic compounds in extracts of three Cistus species from Sardinia and their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

Chem Biodivers 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

University of Sassari: Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Via Muroni 23/a, Sassari, ITALY.

The Cistaceae family is well represented in Sardinia, and the Cistus genus is widely used in traditional medicine. Nowadays only few studies have been performed on this genus vegetating in Sardinia in spite of its ethnobotanical importance. Moreover, in the past there have been conflicting opinions among botanists for the exact assignment of the species growing in Sardinia. Read More

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An experimental study on phytochemical composition and memory enhancing effect of Ginkgo biloba seed extract.

Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2021 Apr;63(2):203-212

Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Introduction: The Ginkgo biloba L. tree is considered as one of the oldest species on Earth. It is known as a "living fossil" dating back approximately 200 million years. Read More

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A transgenic reporter mouse model for assessment of retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activation.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Apr 30:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Vitamin A is essential for a wide range of life processes throughout embryogenesis to adult life. With the aim of developing an model to monitor retinoic acid receptor (RAR) transactivation real-time in intact animals, we generated transgenic mice carrying a luciferase (luc) reporter gene under the control of retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) consisting of three copies of a direct repeat with five spacing nucleotides (DR5). : Transgenic mice carrying a RARE dependent luciferase reporter flanked with insulator sequence were generated by pronuclear injection. Read More

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Rapid analysis and identification of dianthrone glycosides in Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on enrichment of macroporous absorbent resin and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

Phytochem Anal 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

The Centre for Drug Research and Development, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P. R. China.

Introduction: Polygoni Multiflori Caulis (PMC) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time in China. However, hepatotoxic events of PMC have been reported in recent years, but the potential toxic compounds have remained unclear. Dianthrones as the secondary plant metabolites were revealed to potential hepatotoxicity in a previous study. Read More

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Predicting Metabolite-Disease Associations Based on LightGBM Model.

Front Genet 2021 13;12:660275. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Computer Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Metabolites have been shown to be closely related to the occurrence and development of many complex human diseases by a large number of biological experiments; investigating their correlation mechanisms is thus an important topic, which attracts many researchers. In this work, we propose a computational method named LGBMMDA, which is based on the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) to predict potential metabolite-disease associations. This method extracts the features from statistical measures, graph theoretical measures, and matrix factorization results, utilizing the principal component analysis (PCA) process to remove noise or redundancy. Read More

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Effect of Olive Leaves or Marigold Petal Extract on Oxidative Stress, Gut Fermentative Activity, and Mucosa Morphology in Broiler Chickens Fed a Diet Rich in n-3 Polyunsaturated Fats.

J Poult Sci 2021 Apr;58(2):119-130

Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Groblje 3, 1230 Domžale, Slovenia.

An experiment in broilers was conducted to investigate the effect of olive () leaves and marigold () petal extract supplementation on oxidative stress, characteristics of intestinal contents, and on the morphology of the small intestine. Oxidative stress was induced by a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet. 1-day-old male broiler chickens, Ross 308, were housed in a deep litter system. Read More

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A Grape Juice Supplemented with Natural Grape Extracts Is Well Accepted by Consumers and Reduces Brain Oxidative Stress.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Oncology Area, Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Piqueras 98, 26006 Logroño, Spain.

Neurodegenerative diseases pose a major health problem for developed countries. Stress, which induces oxidation in the brain, has been identified as the main risk factor for these disorders. We have developed an antioxidant-enriched drink and have examined its protective properties against acute oxidative stress. Read More

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Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Enhancing Properties of Selective Extracts.

Molecules 2021 Apr 28;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

The sterile stems belonging to the species are often used in traditional medicine of various nations, including Romanians. They are highly efficient in treating urinary tract infections, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract infections, and medical skin conditions due to their content of polyphenolic derivatives that have been isolated. In this regard, this study aimed to provide the chemical composition of the extracts obtained from the species (, , ) and to investigate the biological action in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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A Novel Approach to Image Recoloring for Color Vision Deficiency.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Cultural Technology and Communications, University of the Aegean, 811 00 Mitilini, Greece.

In this paper, a novel method to modify color images for the protanopia and deuteranopia color vision deficiencies is proposed. The method admits certain criteria, such as preserving image naturalness and color contrast enhancement. Four modules are employed in the process. Read More

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Efficiently Classifying Lung Sounds through Depthwise Separable CNN Models with Fused STFT and MFCC Features.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.

Lung sounds remain vital in clinical diagnosis as they reveal associations with pulmonary pathologies. With COVID-19 spreading across the world, it has become more pressing for medical professionals to better leverage artificial intelligence for faster and more accurate lung auscultation. This research aims to propose a feature engineering process that extracts the dedicated features for the depthwise separable convolution neural network (DS-CNN) to classify lung sounds accurately and efficiently. Read More

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