3,442 results match your criteria extracellular traps


Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor is a novel therapeutic candidate in LPS-induced neutrophil extracellular traps.

Microbiol Immunol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neonatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are beneficial antibacterial defense structures. However, excessive NETs have also been linked to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. LPS and Gram-Negative bacteria induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) -dependent NETs formation via JNK pathway. Read More

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Antibodies Against Alkaline Protease Directly Enhance Disruption of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Mediated by This Enzyme.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:654649. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China.

Extracellular traps released by neutrophils (NETs) are essential for the clearance of . Alkaline protease (AprA) secreted by negatively correlates with clinical improvement. Moreover, anti-AprA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) can help identify patients with aggressive forms of chronic infection. Read More

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Circulating Histones in Sepsis: Potential Outcome Predictors and Therapeutic Targets.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:650184. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Nephrology of West China Hospital, Institute for Disaster Management and Reconstruction, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Circulating histones (CHs), a group of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules mainly derived from neutrophil extracellular traps, play a crucial role in sepsis by mediating inflammation response, organ injury and death through Toll-like receptors or inflammasome pathways. Herein, we first elucidate the molecular mechanisms of histone-induced inflammation amplification, endothelium injury and cascade coagulation activation, and discuss the close correlation between elevated level of CHs and disease severity as well as mortality in patients with sepsis. Read More

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Innate immune response in bovine neutrophils stimulated with Mycoplasma bovis.

Vet Res 2021 Apr 16;52(1):58. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Animal Health Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, 069-8501, Japan.

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a significant worldwide pathogen of cattle. Neutrophils have an important role in the innate immune response during infection with M. Read More

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JAK3 and PI3K mediates the suppressive effects of interferon tau on neutrophil extracellular traps formation during peri-implantation period.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Apr 9;145:103321. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Lactation and Immuno-Physiology Laboratory, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132 001, India. Electronic address:

Interferon tau (IFNτ) is the main maternal signal for pregnancy in ruminants and modulates the functions of various immune cells, including neutrophils. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are one of the main defence mechanisms of neutrophils. In this study, we observed higher (p < 0. Read More

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β2 Integrin Regulation of Neutrophil Functional Plasticity and Fate in the Resolution of Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:660760. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Neutrophils act as the first line of cellular defense against invading pathogens or tissue injury. Their rapid recruitment into inflamed tissues is critical for the elimination of invading microorganisms and tissue repair, but is also capable of inflicting damage to neighboring tissues. The β integrins and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αβ or complement receptor 3) in particular, are best known for mediating neutrophil adhesion and transmigration across the endothelium and phagocytosis of microbes. Read More

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The role of extracellular DNA (exDNA) in cellular processes.

Cancer Biol Ther 2021 Apr 16:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Basic Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México City.

Nowadays, extracellular DNA or circulating cell-free DNA is considered to be a molecule with clinical applications (diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of treatment responses, or patient follow-up) in diverse pathologies, especially in cancer. Nevertheless, because of its molecular characteristics, it can have many other functions. This review focuses on the participation of extracellular DNA (exDNA) in fundamental processes such as cell signaling, coagulation, immunity, evolution through horizontal transfer of genetic information, and adaptive response to inflammatory processes. Read More

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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps may be a Potential Target for Treating Early Brain Injury in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

Neuroinflammation is closely associated with poor prognosis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are important regulators of sterile inflammation, in SAH. In this study, markers of NET formation, quantified by the level of citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3), were significantly increased after SAH and correlated with SAH severity. Read More

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Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT): targeting pathomechanisms with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Institute for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Munich, Germany.

A series of cases with rare thromboembolic incidents including cerebral sinus vein thrombosis (some of them fatal) and concomitant thrombocytopenia occurring shortly after vaccination with the COVID-19 vaccine AZD1222 (Vaxzevria) has caused significant concern and led to its temporary suspension in many countries. Immediate laboratory efforts in four of these patients have identified a tentative pathomechanism underlying this syndrome termed vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) or vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (VITT), which encompasses the presence of platelet-activating antibodies to platelet-factor 4/heparin complexes, possibly emulated by polyanionic constituents of AZD1222, and thus resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Because these immune complexes bind and activate platelets via Fcγ-receptor IIA (FcγRIIA), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin G has been suggested for treatment of VIPIT in addition to non-heparin anticoagulants. Read More

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Autoantibodies stabilize neutrophil extracellular traps in COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The release of neutrophil extracellular traps ( ) by hyperactive neutrophils is recognized to play an important role in the thromboinflammatory milieu inherent to severe presentations of COVID-19. At the same time, a variety of functional autoantibodies have been observed in individuals with severe COVID-19 where they likely contribute to immunopathology. Here, we aimed to determine the extent to which autoantibodies might target NETs in COVID-19 and, if detected, to elucidate their potential functions and clinical associations. Read More

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Neutrophil extracellular traps induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance procoagulant activity in NASH patients.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 10:101697. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin Heilongjiang, China; Department of Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, Boston, MA 02132, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients are at a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with NASH remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the formation of NETs in NASH patients stimulated by specific pro-inflammatory factors. Read More

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Charcot-Leyden Crystals in Rapidly Progressing Plastic Bronchitis.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Akita University Graduate School of Medicine School of Medicine, 12934, Department of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Akita, Japan.

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Heme activates platelets and exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury via CLEC-2 and GPVI/FcRγ.

Blood Adv 2021 Apr;5(7):2017-2026

Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine and.

There is increasing evidence that platelets participate in multiple pathophysiological processes other than thrombosis and hemostasis, such as immunity, inflammation, embryonic development, and cancer progression. A recent study revealed that heme (hemin)-activated platelets induce macrophage extracellular traps (METs) and exacerbate rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (RAKI); however, how hemin activates platelets remains unclear. Here, we report that both C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) are platelet hemin receptors and are involved in the exacerbation of RAKI. Read More

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High Ambient Temperature Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Symptoms.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:629306. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Lab of Ophthalmology, Chongqing Eye Institute, Chongqing Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Chongqing, China.

Whether ambient temperature influences immune responses leading to uveitis is unknown. We thus tested whether ambient temperature affects the symptoms of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice and investigated possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were kept at a normal (22°C) or high temperature (30°C) housing conditions for 2 weeks and were then immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP651-670) peptide to induce EAU. Read More

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Microglia extracellular traps in Oreochromis niloticus infected with Weissella cibaria.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 7;113:148-153. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Technology, School of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences, Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), 14884-900, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil.

The mechanism of extracellular traps (ETs) is important in the cellular response against bacteria. Thus, in the present study, we describe for the first time the capacity of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) microglia in the formation of ETs in Weissella cibaria in vitro infection. Thus, we evaluated the ultrastructure of the microglia culture and observed the formation of ETs 6 h after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and during the course of infection. Read More

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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Autoimmunity Context.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:614829. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Nephrology, Scientific Institute for Research and Health Care, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a strategy utilized by neutrophils for capturing infective agents. Extracellular traps consist in a physical net made of DNA and intracellular proteins externalized from neutrophils, where bacteria and viruses are entrapped and killed by proteolysis. A complex series of events contributes to achieving NET formation: signaling from infectious triggers comes first, followed by decondensation of chromatin and extrusion of the nucleosome components (DNA, histones) from the nucleus and, after cell membrane breakdown, outside the cell. Read More

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Thrombohaemorhhagic balance in coronavirus disease 2019 and its management: a perspective.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Apr;32(3):167-171

Formerly Head of the Department of Haematology, Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata 7000'2, India.

Coronavirus disease 2019 infection produce a prothrombotic state. This is initiated through multiple pathways and is finally aggravated by cross talks with cytokine storm and neutrophil, platelet, complement activation. All these combine towards the second week of illness to produce thrombosis in the lung capillaries surrounding the alveolus producing characteristic pulmonary dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 > 300, normal or minimally increased lung compliance and very high d-dimer levels) and a high rate of peripheral venous thrombosis. Read More

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) enhances hypochlorous acid production in phagocytic neutrophils.

Redox Biol 2021 Mar 30;41:101946. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important immuno-regulatory cytokine and is elevated in inflammatory conditions. Neutrophils are the first immune cells to migrate to sites of infection and inflammation, where they generate, among other mediators, the potent oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Here, we investigated the impact of MIF on HOCl production in neutrophils in response to phagocytic stimuli. Read More

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Mitochondria are essential for antibacterial extracellular trap formation mediated by zymosan in hemocytes of Ruditapes philippinarum.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 3;121:104094. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Muping Coastal Environment Research Station, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, PR China; Research and Development Center for Efficient Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong, 264003, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) is an important innate immune mechanism that serves to combat different invading pathogens. In this study, zymosan significantly induced the formation of ETs in the hemocytes of Ruditapes philippinarum, and this effect was accompanied by translocation of the mitochondria to the cell surface. Zymosan stimulation clearly induced an increase in intracellular ROS and MPO production and an overexpression of ROS-related genes (PI3K, AKT and HIF). Read More

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Prothrombotic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

Thromb Res 2021 Mar 21;202:108-118. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) and its precursor condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have an increased risk of thrombotic events, especially during anti-myeloma treatment. Many different underlying causes for this hypercoagulability have been suggested, but current techniques to identify abnormalities in these patients are sparse and inefficient. The aim of this study was to assess the hypercoagulability in MGUS and MM patients through various coagulation analyses and identify changes in the MM patients throughout their treatment regimen. Read More

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Circulating Nucleosomes as Potential Markers to Monitor COVID-19 Disease Progression.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 18;8:600881. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute for Laboratory Medicine, German Heart Centre, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly with cases spanning from asymptomatic to lethal with a subset of individuals developing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and death from respiratory failure. To determine whether global nucleosome and citrullinated nucleosome levels were elevated in COVID-19 patients, we tested two independent cohorts of COVID-19 positive patients with quantitative nucleosome immunoassays and found that nucleosomes were highly elevated in plasma of COVID-19 patients with a severe course of the disease relative to healthy controls and that both histone 3.1 variant and citrullinated nucleosomes increase with disease severity. Read More

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Review: The Emerging Role of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Sepsis and Sepsis-Associated Thrombosis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 17;11:653228. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Patients with sepsis commonly suffer from coagulation dysfunction and lead to the formation of thrombus. During the development of sepsis, neutrophils migrate from the circulating blood to infected tissues and mediate the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that kill pathogens. However, the overactivation of neutrophils can promote the formation of immunothrombosis and even cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which damages microcirculation. Read More

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The Role of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Periodontitis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 18;11:639144. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Periodontitis is a chronic, destructive disease of periodontal tissues caused by multifaceted, dynamic interactions. Periodontal bacteria and host immunity jointly contribute to the pathological processes of the disease. The dysbiotic microbial communities elicit an excessive immune response, mainly by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Read More

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Bovine Neutrophils Release Extracellular Traps and Cooperate With Macrophages in subsp. clearance .

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:645304. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Animal Health Department, NEIKER-Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development-Basque Research and Technology Allianca (BRTA), Derio, Spain.

subsp. (Map) is the underlying pathogen causing bovine paratuberculosis (PTB), an enteric granulomatous disease that mainly affects ruminants and for which an effective treatment is needed. Macrophages are the primary target cells for Map, which survives and replicates intracellularly by inhibiting phagosome maturation. Read More

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Dengue Virus Envelope Protein Domain III Induces Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Dependent NETosis-Mediated Inflammation in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:618577. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Abnormal immune responses and cytokine storm are involved in the development of severe dengue, a life-threatening disease with high mortality. Dengue virus-induced neutrophil NETosis response is associated with cytokine storm; while the role of viral factors on the elicitation of excessive inflammation mains unclear. Here we found that treatments of dengue virus envelope protein domain III (EIII), cellular binding moiety of virion, is sufficient to induce neutrophil NETosis processes and . Read More

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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Promote the Development of Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture.

Hypertension 2021 Apr 5:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016252. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Barrow Aneurysm and AVM Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ. (M.K., J.P., Y.K., K.M., H.F., K.Y., T.M., Hitomi Sato, Hiroki Sato, J.A., M.T.L., T.H.).

Potential roles for neutrophils in the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysm have long been suggested by clinical observations. The presence of neutrophil enzymes in the aneurysm wall has been associated with significant increases in rupture risk. However, the mechanisms by which neutrophils may promote aneurysm rupture are not well understood. Read More

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Histamine triggers the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps via NADPH oxidase, ERK and p38 pathways.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 May 27;235:110234. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Life Sciences and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528225, Guangdong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Histamine plays a central role in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation is a novel effector mechanism of neutrophils to defend against various stimuli. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the role of histamine on bovine NET formation, and examined its preliminary molecular mechanisms. Read More

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Oral delivery of staphylococcal nuclease ameliorates DSS induced ulcerative colitis in mice via degrading intestinal neutrophil extracellular traps.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 31;215:112161. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may contribute directly to the initiation of ulcerative colitis (UC), a typical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by mucosal damage. Staphylococcal nuclease (SNase), a nonspecific phosphodiesterase, has a strong ability to degrade DNA. Here we investigate whether intestinal NET degradation with an oral preparation of SNase can ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. Read More

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Heterogeneity of neutrophils in arterial hypertension.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 31;402(2):112577. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Departamento Neurociencia Cognitiva and Laboratorio Nacional de Canalopatías, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, CDMX, Mexico.

Cellular heterogeneity and diversity are recognized to contribute to the functions of neutrophils under homeostatic and pathological conditions. We previously suggested that the chronic inflammatory responses associated with hypertension (HTN) are related to the participation of different subpopulations of neutrophils. Two populations of neutrophils can be obtained by density gradient centrifugation: normal-density neutrophils (NDN) and low-density neutrophils (LDN). Read More

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Platelet and Neutrophil Responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis in Human Whole Blood.

Mol Oral Microbiol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a causative agent for periodontal disease. Binding of platelets to this gram-negative anaerobe can regulate host hemostatic (thrombus forming) and immune (neutrophil interacting) responses during bacterial infection. Additionally, in response to bacterial pathogens neutrophils can release their DNA, forming highly prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which then further exaggerate platelet responses. Read More

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