142,516 results match your criteria extracellular matrix

The effect of environmental diesel exhaust pollution on SARS-CoV-2 infection: The mechanism of pulmonary ground glass opacity.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:103657. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara, Turkey.

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are the major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and chronic exposure is recognized to enhance respiratory system complications. Although the spread of SARS-CoV-2 was found to be associated with the PMs, the mechanism by which exposure to DEP increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under discussion. However, diesel fine PM (dPMs) elevate the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it coincides with the increase in the number of ACE2 receptors. Read More

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Understanding the cellular origin and progression of esophageal cancer using esophageal organoids.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) organoids are a novel tool to model epithelial cell biology and human diseases of the esophagus. 3D organoid culture systems have been utilized to investigate the pathobiology of esophageal cancer, including both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Additional organoid-based approaches for study of esophageal development and benign esophageal diseases have provided key insights into esophageal keratinocyte differentiation and mucosal regeneration. Read More

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Isolation and culture of adult murine cardiac atrial and ventricular fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

Methods 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montréal, Québec, H1T 1C8, Canada; Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada; Pharmacology and Physiology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada; Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:

Cardiac fibroblasts play a critical role in extracellular matrix homeostasis, wound healing, and cardiac interstitial fibrosis: the latter being a pathophysiological response to a chronic increase in afterload. Using a standard protocol to isolate cardiac fibroblasts and maintain them in their quiescent phenotype in vitro will enable a better understanding of cardiac fibroblast biology and their role in the response to profibrotic stimuli. Here, we describe an enzymatic method for isolating cardiac fibroblasts. Read More

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A functional outside-in signaling network of proteoglycans and matrix molecules regulating autophagy.

Matrix Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, and the Translational Cellular Oncology Program, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Proteoglycans and selected extracellular matrix constituents are emerging as intrinsic and critical regulators of evolutionarily conversed, intracellular catabolic pathways. Often, these secreted molecules evoke sustained autophagy in a variety of cell types, tissues, and model systems. The unique properties of proteoglycans have ushered in a paradigmatic shift to broaden our understanding of matrix-mediated signaling cascades. Read More

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Pathophysiological Roles of Cell Surface and Extracellular Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Their Molecular Mechanisms.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology; and the Key Laboratory for Drug Target Researches and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Hubei Province, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China.

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the prototypic member of the thiol isomerase family that catalyzes disulfide bond rearrangement. Initially identified in the endoplasmic reticulum as folding catalysts, PDI and other members in its family have also been widely reported to reside on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Although how PDI is exported and retained on the cell surface remains a subject of debate, this unique pool of PDI is emerging to be an important mechanism underlying the redox regulation of protein sulfhydryls that are critical for the cellular activities under various disease conditions. Read More

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Identification of transcriptomic signatures and crucial pathways involved in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Xiamen Diabetes Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Purpose: Our study aimed to uncover the crucial genes and functional pathways involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Methods: Liver transcriptome datasets were integrated with Robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, and transcriptomic signatures for NASH progression and fibrosis severity in NAFLD were developed. The functions of transcriptomic signatures were explored by multiple bioinformatic analyses, and their diagnostic role was also evaluated. Read More

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The interplay of membrane cholesterol and substrate on vascular smooth muscle biomechanics.

Curr Top Membr 2020 28;86:279-299. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, United States. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the primary cause of death worldwide. Specifically, atherosclerosis is a CVD characterized as a slow progressing chronic inflammatory disease. During atherosclerosis, vascular walls accumulate cholesterol and cause fatty streak formation. Read More

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September 2020

Mechanobiology of microvesicle release, uptake, and microvesicle-mediated activation.

Curr Top Membr 2020 10;86:255-278. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States. Electronic address:

Microvesicles are small, membrane-bound vesicles that are shed from the plasma membrane of cells into the extracellular space. Microvesicles contain a variety of cargo not typically thought to be released from cells, including receptor tyrosine kinases, cytosolic signaling proteins, and microRNAs, which are transferred from donor cells to recipient cells. The transfer of microvesicle cargo can result in the transformation of recipient cells thereby supporting disease progression, including modified fibroblast metabolism, epithelial cell contractility, vascular remodeling, and immune cell inflammatory signaling. Read More

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September 2020

Vascular smooth muscle stiffness and its role in aging.

Curr Top Membr 2020 12;86:217-253. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States.

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are now considered important contributors to the pathophysiological and biophysical mechanisms underlying arterial stiffening in aging. Here, we review mechanisms whereby VSMC stiffening alters vascular function and contributes to the changes in vascular stiffening observed in aging and cardiovascular disease. Vascular stiffening in arterial aging was historically associated with changes in the extracellular matrix; however, new evidence suggests that endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness also contribute to overall blood vessel stiffness. Read More

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October 2020

Mechanics of the cell: Interaction mechanisms and mechanobiological models.

Curr Top Membr 2020 2;86:143-184. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States. Electronic address:

The importance of cell mechanics has long been recognized for the cell development and function. Biomechanics plays an important role in cell metabolism, regulation of mechanotransduction pathways and also modulation of nuclear response. The mechanical properties of the cell are likely determined by, among many others, the cytoskeleton elasticity, membrane tension and cell-substrate adhesion. Read More

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October 2020

A liquid culture cancer spheroid model reveals low PI3K/Akt pathway activity and low adhesiveness to the extracellular matrix.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of cancer cells in liquid without extracellular matrix (ECM) offers in vitro models for metastasising conditions such as those in vessels and effusion. However, liquid culturing is often hindered by cell adhesiveness, which causes large cell clumps. We previously described a liquid culture material, LA717, which prevents non-clonal cell adhesion and subsequent clumping, thus allowing clonal growth of spheroids in an anchorage-independent manner. Read More

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Curcumin and cancer biology: Focusing regulatory effects in different signalling pathways.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Poona college of pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, India.

Cancer is the second-leading cause of death worldwide. Till date, many such effective treatments are available, for example chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy, but there are severe associated side effects, such as increased infection risk, constipation, hair loss, anaemia, among others. Thus, the need for effective therapeutic strategies and screening methodology arises. Read More

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A novel method for sensor-based quantification of single/multicellular force dynamics and stiffening in 3D matrices.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 9;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Cells in vivo generate mechanical traction on the surrounding 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) and neighboring cells. Such traction and biochemical cues may remodel the matrix, e.g. Read More

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Nonlinear elasticity of biological basement membrane revealed by rapid inflation and deflation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139;

Basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that surrounds most animal tissues, serving as a physical barrier while allowing nutrient exchange. Although they have important roles in tissue structural integrity, physical properties of BMs remain largely uncharacterized, which limits our understanding of their mechanical functions. Here, we perform pressure-controlled inflation and deflation to directly measure the nonlinear mechanics of BMs in situ. Read More

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Extracellular superoxide dismutase prevents skin aging by promoting collagen production via activation of AMPK and Nrf2/HO-1 cascades.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Dermato-Immunology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 06591, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

With aging, the skin becomes thin and drastically losses collagen. Extracellular (EC) Superoxide dismutase (SOD), also known as SOD3 is the major SOD in the extracellular matrix of the tissues, and is well known to maintain the redox homeostasis and matrix components of such tissues. However, the role of EC-SOD in aging-associated reductions of skin thickness and collagen production is not well studied. Read More

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Increased MMP-9 levels with strain-dependent stress resilience and tunnel handling in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 6:113288. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Neuroscience, Washington D.C., United States. Electronic address:

Increased perineuronal net (PNN) deposition has been observed in association with corticosteroid administration and stress in rodent models of depression. PNNs are a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM) that may enhance GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission to potentially restrict the excitation and plasticity of pyramidal glutamatergic neurons. In contrast, antidepressant administration increases levels of the PNN-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which enhances glutamatergic plasticity and neurotransmission. Read More

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Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP-12 promotes macrophage transmigration across intestinal epithelial tight junctions and increases severity of experimental colitis.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Penn State University, Hershey, PA.

Background And Aims: Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in extracellular matrix regulation during cell growth and wound healing. Increased expression of MMP-12 (human macrophage elastase) has been reported in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which is characterized by the loss of epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier function and an excessive inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP-12 in intestinal TJ barrier function and inflammation. Read More

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Small extracellular vesicles secreted by vaginal fibroblasts exert inhibitory effect in female stress urinary incontinence through regulating the function of fibroblasts.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249977. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Gynecology, Women's Hospital School of Medicine Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China.

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common condition in women and associated with extra-cellular matrix (ECM) reconstruction, which is mainly regulated by fibroblasts. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) play fundamental biological roles in various cellular functions. Read More

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MicroRNA-17-5p restrains the dysfunction of Ang-II induced podocytes by suppressing secreted modular calcium-binding protein 2 via NF-κB and TGFβ signaling.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nephrology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin, China.

Glomerulonephritis, also known as nephritis syndrome (nephritis for short), is a common kidney disease. Previous research has proved that microRNAs (miRNAs) frequently regulate various diseases including nephritis. Nonetheless, the biological function and molecular mechanism of miR-17-5p are unclear in nephritis. Read More

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Cell signaling in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma microenvironment: promising targets for molecular-specific treatment.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) result from the infiltration and proliferation of a population of T cells in the skin, inducing changes in the activity of both T cells and surrounding skin cells. In the CTCL microenvironment, cell interactions mediated by cell signaling pathways are altered. Defining changes in cell signaling enables to understand T-cell deregulations in the CTCL microenvironment and thus the progression of the disease. Read More

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Cyclically stretched ACL fibroblasts emigrating from spheroids adapt their cytoskeleton and ligament-related expression profile.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Paracelsus Medical University, Prof.-Ernst-Nathan Str. 1, 90419, Nuremberg and Salzburg, Nuremberg, Germany.

Mechanical stress of ligaments varies; hence, ligament fibroblasts must adapt their expression profile to novel mechanomilieus to ensure tissue resilience. Activation of the mechanoreceptors leads to a specific signal transduction, the so-called mechanotransduction. However, with regard to their natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment cell reaction to mechanical stimuli during emigrating from a 3D spheroid culture is still unclear. Read More

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FGD5-AS1 Inhibits Osteoarthritis Development by Modulating miR-302d-3p/TGFBR2 Axis.

Cartilage 2021 Apr 9:19476035211003324. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disorder, accompanied by extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Reportedly, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in OA pathogenesis. However, the role of lncRNA FYVE, RhoGEF, and PH domain containing 5 antisense RNA 1 (FGD5-AS1) in OA development is still not fully clarified. Read More

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Structural and functional remodeling of the female Apoe mouse aorta due to chronic cigarette smoke exposure.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Bioengineering. Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

Despite a decline in popularity over the last several decades, cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Yet, the effects of cigarette smoking on vascular structure and function are largely unknown. To evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the aorta that occur with chronic smoking, we exposed female Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to mainstream cigarette smoke daily for 24 weeks, with room air as control. Read More

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Periostin promotes arterial calcification through PPARγ-related glucose metabolism reprogramming.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, P.R., China.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) exerts a list of biological functions, contributing to almost 30% of the osteogenic process. Periostin is a secreted protein that can alter ECM remodeling in response to vascular injury. However, the functional role of periostin in vascular calcification has yet to be fully described. Read More

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Electrochemical Trans-Channel Assay for Efficient Evaluation of Tumor Cell Invasiveness.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

Efficiently assessing the invasive capability of tumor cells is critical both for the research and treatment of cancer. Here, we report a novel method called the electrochemical trans-channel assay for efficient evaluation of tumor cell invasiveness. A bioinspired extracellular matrix degradation model (EDM) has been first fabricated on a porous anodic alumina (PAA) membrane to construct the electrochemical apparatus. Read More

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High turnover of types III and VI collagen in progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Respirology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herlev and Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background And Objective: Prediction of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) progression is vital for the choice and timing of treatment and patient follow-up. This could potentially be achieved by prognostic blood biomarkers of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling.

Methods: Neoepitope biomarkers of types III and VI collagen turnover (C3M, C6M, PRO-C3 and PRO-C6) were measured in 185 patients with newly diagnosed IPF. Read More

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Synthesis of Polymer Brushes Via SI-PET-RAFT for Photodynamic Inactivation of Bacteria.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Apr 8:e2100106. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Chemical Engineering, Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, Cluster for Advanced Macromolecular Design, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia.

Biofilms are a persistent issue in healthcare and industry. Once formed, the eradication of biofilms is challenging as the extracellular polymeric matrix provides protection against harsh environmental conditions and physically enhances resistance to antimicrobials. The fabrication of polymer brush coatings provides a versatile approach to modify the surface to resist the formation of biofilms. Read More

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MicroRNA-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

Head Neck 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Head and Neck Surgery Department, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), Laboratório de Investigação Médica 28 (LIM28), University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: We evaluated microRNAs and extracellular matrix component profiles in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) in comparison to healthy mucosa.

Methods: Retrospective study investigating 64 microRNAs related to oncogenic process and to constituents of the extracellular matrix. We also performed immunohistochemical assays for molecules involved in the same biological processes. Read More

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TGF-β as a driver of fibrosis: physiological roles and therapeutic opportunities.

J Pathol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, and Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Many chronic diseases are marked by fibrosis, which is defined by an abundance of activated fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, resulting in loss of normal function of the affected organs. The initiation and progression of fibrosis are elaborated by profibrotic cytokines, the most critical of which is transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). This review focuses on the fibrogenic roles of increased TGF-β activities and underlying signaling mechanisms in the activated fibroblast population and other cell types that contribute to progression of fibrosis. Read More

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Neovascularization of engineered tissues for clinical translation: Where we are, where we should be?

APL Bioeng 2021 Jun 5;5(2):021503. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Koç University, Istanbul 34450, Turkey.

One of the key challenges in engineering three-dimensional tissue constructs is the development of a mature microvascular network capable of supplying sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the tissue. Recent angiogenic therapeutic strategies have focused on vascularization of the constructed tissue, and its integration ; these strategies typically combine regenerative cells, growth factors (GFs) with custom-designed biomaterials. However, the field needs to progress in the clinical translation of tissue engineering strategies. Read More

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