17,684 results match your criteria external beam


Intratumoral talimogene laherparepvec injection with concurrent preoperative radiation in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the trunk and extremities: phase IB/II trial.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) in the extremities and trunk treated with standard-of-care preoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by surgical resection are associated with local and distant relapses. In preclinical studies, oncolytic virotherapy in sarcoma has demonstrated antitumor effects via direct intratumoral oncolysis and cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune responses. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is a replication-competent, immune-enhanced, oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 engineered for intratumoral injection; it has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic melanoma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A multi-centre analysis of adjuvant contact x-ray brachytherapy (CXB) in rectal cancer patients treated with local excision - preliminary results of the CONTEM1 study.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Service de Radiotherapie, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France.

Introduction: Early rectal cancers are increasingly diagnosed through screening programmes and are often treated using local excision (LE). In the case of adverse pathological features completion total mesorectal excision surgery (TME) is the standard recommendation. The morbidity and mortality risks of TME have stimulated the use of adjunctive treatments following LE to achieve organ preservation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Two-thirds anteroposterior ramus length is the preferred osteotomy point for intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Dentistry and Graduate Program of Dental Science, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the mandibular canal of ramus and design a suitable osteotomy line for intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials And Methods: Ninety patients were classified into class I, II, and III skeletal pattern groups. When extended from the horizontal base plane (0 mm, mandibular foramen [MF]), with a 2-mm section interval, to 10 mm above and 10 mm below the MF, the following landmarks were identified: external oblique ridge (EOR), posterior border of the ramus (PBR), and posterior lateral cortex of ramus (PLC): IVRO osteotomy point. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of time to prostate specific antigen nadir on biochemical recurrence and mortality rates after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the effect of time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (TTN) after radiation therapy (RTx) for prostate cancer (PCa) on biochemical recurrence (BCR) and overall survival (OS) rates.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed 2,506 patients treated with RTx (external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy or combinations) between years 2000 and 2021. Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox regression models tested BCR-free survival and OS after stratification according to TTN (≤24 vs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reconstruction of the Anterior External Auditory Canal With Mastoid Cortex Autologous Bone Graft.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Georgetown University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC.

Objective: To describe the surgical management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) herniation with external auditory canal (EAC) reconstruction using autologous bone grafting from the mastoid cortex.

Study Design: Retrospective case series.

Setting: A tertiary university medical center. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Impact of Radiotherapy Delay in Breast Conservation Patients Not Receiving Chemotherapy and the Rationale for Dichotomizing the Radiation Oncology Time-Dependent Standard into Two Quality Measures.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

The Data Working Group of the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: The Commission on Cancer/National Quality Forum breast radiotherapy quality measure establishes that for women < 70 years, adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS) should be started < 1 year from diagnosis. This was intended to prevent accidental radiotherapy omission or delay due to a long interval between surgery and chemotherapy completion, when radiation is delivered. However, the impact on patients not receiving chemotherapy, who proceed from surgery directly to radiotherapy, remains unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Complications and Their Treatment.

Front Surg 2021 12;8:696242. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Urology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Focal therapy is a modern alternative to selectively treat a specific part of the prostate harboring clinically significant disease while preserving the rest of the gland. The aim of this therapeutic approach is to retain the oncological benefit of active treatment and to minimize the side-effects of common radical treatments. The oncological effectiveness of focal therapy is yet to be proven in long-term robust trials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ankle hemophilic arthropathy: literature review.

Am J Blood Res 2021 15;11(3):206-216. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ageing, Neurosciences, Head-Neck and Orthopedics Sciences, Orthopedics and Traumatology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCSS Rome, Italy.

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder characterized by the deficiency of a coagulation factors. The hemarthrosis is the most common and earliest manifestation. Repeated hemarthrosis over time causes the development of hemophilic arthropathy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Can patients with low-risk prostate cancer really benefit from radical treatment?: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Andrologia 2021 Jul 28:e14122. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.

Radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and active surveillance are three widely used treatment options for patients with low-risk prostate cancer, but the relative effects are controversial. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science until June 2020, focusing on the studies comparing the effect of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and active surveillance in patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Through the random-effects model, dichotomous data were extracted and summarised by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ethnical Anatomical Differences in Mandibular First Permanent Molars between Indian and Saudi Arabian Subpopulations: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 May 1;22(5):484-490. Epub 2021 May 1.

Ministry of Health, Albaha, Saudi Arabia.

Aim And Objective: The variation in the anatomy of the root canal system has anthropological and demographic significances. The aim of this study was to compare the number of roots, root canals, and internal canal morphology of permanent mandibular first molars between Indian and Saudi Arabian populations.

Materials And Methods: A total of 523 (255 teeth of Indian sample and 268 teeth of Saudi Arabian sample) mandibular first molar (M1) were included for comparative analysis using cone-beam computed tomography images based on the inclusion criteria. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Interstitial Brachytherapy for Orbital Sebaceous Carcinoma.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Department of Ocular Tumor, Orbital Disease and Ophthalmic Radiation Therapy, The New York Eye Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A. The Departments of Radiation Oncology and Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Sebaceous carcinoma is characterized by its aggressive local tumor behavior and ability to metastasize. Small periocular sebaceous carcinoma are typically treated by excision with cryotherapy. Larger tumors often require adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or exenteration surgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: a Case Series and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA.

Endometrial cancer is a common gynaecological cancer, is typically early stage and treated with surgery. For patients where surgery is difficult or dangerous, definitive radiation therapy is the next best option. This study included a single institution case series (step 1) and a systematic review of the literature (step 2). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Short Androgen Suppression and Radiation Dose Escalation in Prostate Cancer: 12-Year Results of EORTC Trial 22991 in Patients With Localized Intermediate-Risk Disease.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 26:JCO2100855. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial 22991 (NCT00021450) showed that 6 months of concomitant and adjuvant androgen suppression (AS) improves event- (EFS, Phoenix) and clinical disease-free survival (DFS) of intermediate- and high-risk localized prostatic carcinoma, treated by external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at 70-78 Gy. We report the long-term results in intermediate-risk patients treated with 74 or 78 Gy EBRT, as per current guidelines.

Patient And Methods: Of 819 patients randomly assigned between EBRT or EBRT plus AS started on day 1 of EBRT, 481 entered with intermediate risk (International Union Against Cancer TNM 1997 cT1b-c or T2a with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 10 ng/mL or Gleason ≤ 7 and PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL, N0M0) and had EBRT planned at 74 (342 patients, 71. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Complete resolution of a giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma following androgen deprivation therapy: an illustrative case report.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Jul 21;2021(7):omab053. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

Giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma (GMPC) is a rare benign pelvic mass for which complete surgical resection is an accepted treatment of choice. This report presents the first case of complete resolution of GMPC following a 3-year course of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist alongside external beam radiotherapy for the concurrent treatment of unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer. In addition to illustrating the imaging features of the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radiotherapy on GMPC regression, this case provides evidence for considering ADT as an alternative, noninvasive GMPC treatment option in patients in whom surgical treatment is either contraindicated or can be made less invasive by reducing the size of GMPC prior to its removal. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) consensus statement for soft-tissue sarcoma brachytherapy.

Brachytherapy 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL.

Purpose: Growing data supports the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Brachytherapy has been used for decades in the management of STS and can be utilized as monotherapy or as a boost to external beam radiation. We present updated guidelines from the American Brachytherapy Society regarding the utilization of brachytherapy in the management of STS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mixed Cation Halide Perovskite under Environmental and Physical Stress.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

C.H.O.S.E. (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Despite the ideal performance demonstrated by mixed perovskite materials when used as active layers in photovoltaic devices, the factor which still hampers their use in real life remains the poor stability of their physico-chemical and functional properties when submitted to prolonged permanence in atmosphere, exposure to light and/or to moderately high temperature. We used high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy to compare the chemical state of triple cation, double halide Csx(FA0.83MA0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel Prognostic Index of High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Simple Summation of Very High-Risk Factors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Radiology, Ujitakeda Hospital, Uji-City 611-0021, Japan.

This study aimed to examine the role of very high-risk (VHR) factors (T3b-4 and Gleason score 9-10) for prognosis of clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer. We reviewed multi-institutional retrospective data of 1413 patients treated with radiotherapy (558 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and 855 patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) ± EBRT. We introduced an index by simple summation of the number of VHR factors-VHR-0, VHR-1, and VHR-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Current Indications of Secondary Enucleation in Retinoblastoma Management: A Position Paper on Behalf of the European Retinoblastoma Group (EURbG).

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des Aveugles, University of Lausanne, 1003 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Secondary enucleation (SE) puts an irreversible end to eye-preserving therapies, whenever their prolongation is expected to violate the presumed state of metastatic grace. At present, it must be acknowledged that clear criteria for SE are missing, leading to empiric and subjective indications commonly related to disease progression or relapse, disease persistence masking the optic nerve head or treatment-related complications obscuring the fundus view. This absence of evidence-based consensus regarding SE is explained by the continuously moving frontiers of the conservative management as a result of diagnostic and therapeutic advances, as well as by the lack of studies sufficiently powered to accurately stratify the risk of metastasis in conservatively treated patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Additional Value of 18F-FDOPA Amino Acid Analog Radiotracer to Irradiation Planning Process of Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme.

Front Oncol 2021 6;11:699360. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Doctoral School of Health Sciences, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Purpose: To investigate the added value of 6-(18F]-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA) PET to radiotherapy planning in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

Methods: From September 2017 to December 2020, 17 patients with GBM received external beam radiotherapy up to 60 Gy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolamide. Target volume delineations followed the European guideline with a 2-cm safety margin clinical target volume (CTV) around the contrast-enhanced lesion+resection cavity on MRI gross tumor volume (GTV). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HEDOS - a computational tool to assess radiation dose to circulating blood cells during external beam radiotherapy based on whole-body blood flow simulations.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Radiation Biophysics, Department of Radiation Oncology, , Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, UNITED STATES.

We have developed a time-dependent computational framework, HEDOS (HEmatological DOSe), to estimate dose to circulating blood cells from radiation therapy treatment fields for any treatment site. Two independent dynamic models were implemented in HEDOS: one describing the spatiotemporal distribution of blood particles (BPs) in organs and the second describing the time-dependent radiation field delivery. A whole-body blood flow network based on blood volumes and flow rates from ICRP Publication 89 was simulated to produce the spatiotemporal distribution of BPs in organs across the entire body using a discrete-time Markov process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and doxorubicin in thyroid cancer: A prospective phase 2 trial.

Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: The use of external-beam radiotherapy for locally advanced nonanaplastic thyroid cancer remains controversial. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced thyroid cancer.

Methods: The authors conducted a nonrandomized phase 2 trial of IMRT with or without concurrent doxorubicin in patients with gross residual or unresectable nonanaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ClinicalTrials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors affecting urinary frequency after low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Urology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Objectives: Lower urinary tract symptoms are transiently exacerbated by low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) for prostate cancer and recover to pretreatment levels 1 year thereafter. Generally, these symptoms are influenced by temperature. We aimed to search for factors affecting the lower urinary tract symptoms after seed implant including seasons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Initial Experience with Proton Beam Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):311-318. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose: External beam radiotherapy is used in a subset of high-risk patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Recurrent, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory DTC carries a poor prognosis. We report our initial experience of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for recurrent, RAI-refractory DTC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Outcomes Following Dose-Escalated Proton Therapy for Skull-Base Chordoma.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):179-188. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of external-beam proton therapy (PT) on local control and survival in patients with skull-base chordoma.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with skull-base chordoma treated with definitive or adjuvant high-dose PT and updated their follow-up when feasible. We assessed overall survival, disease-specific survival, local control, and freedom from distant metastasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Innovations and the Use of Collimators in the Delivery of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):73-83. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Purpose: The development of collimating technologies has become a recent focus in pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy to improve the target conformity and healthy tissue sparing through field-specific or energy-layer-specific collimation. Given the growing popularity of collimators for low-energy treatments, the purpose of this work was to summarize the recent literature that has focused on the efficacy of collimators for PBS and highlight the development of clinical and preclinical collimators.

Materials And Methods: The collimators presented in this work were organized into 3 categories: per-field apertures, multileaf collimators (MLCs), and sliding-bar collimators. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ocular, Orbital, and Adnexal Toxicity With High-dose Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiation Therapy For Orbital Malignancies.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A. Department of Ophthalmology, Pacific Eye Associates and California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Purpose: Conventional modalities of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are associated with high incidences of severe vision-threatening ocular and orbital toxicities when used to treat orbital malignancies. We investigate toxicities associated with high-dose volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a commonly used contemporary treatment modality for these tumors.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of malignant orbital tumors managed with adjuvant high-dose VMAT preceded by globe-salvaging surgical therapy (GST) or exenteration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of CT-Guided I Radioactive Seed Implantation as a Salvage Therapy for Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:645077. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University 3rdHospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided I radioactive seed implantation (RSI) as a salvage therapy for recurrent head and neck squamous carcinoma (rHNSC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or surgery.

Materials And Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective study of 113 patients (83 males; median age 57 years) with rHNSC who underwent CT-guided I RSI between February 2003 and December 2017. Of the included patients, 107 patients previously received EBRT and 65 patients received surgery and all were ineligible or rejected for salvage surgery and/or repeat EBRT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Concurrent Taxol-Based Doublet Chemotherapy as an Alternative for Intracavitary Brachytherapy Boost in Locally Advanced Carcinoma Cervix- Retrospective Analysis From a Tertiary Care Center.

Cureus 2021 Jul 11;13(7):e16313. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Radiation Oncology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, IND.

Objective In light of the dogma that brachytherapy is irreplaceable for the successful treatment of cervical cancer, and the limited availability of brachytherapy facilities in developing countries, we sought to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of taxol- and platinum-based doublet chemotherapy delivered concurrently with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in locally advanced cervical cancer as an alternative to brachytherapy, which is mandated as the standard of care according to current guidelines. Methods The records from our institution were reviewed to identify patients who underwent chemoradiation with two doses of tri-weekly docetaxel (80mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC 5) concurrent with EBRT between January 2017 and 2019 for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Here, 48 cases were analysed, with a median follow-up period of two years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Is Pre-operative Radiotherapy Associated With More Acute Wound Complications?

Cureus 2021 Jun 15;13(6):e15654. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Biostatistics, Sanatorio Britanico, Rosario, ARG.

Introduction: Increased wound complication rates are attributed to the use of pre-operative radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications with or without pre-operative radiotherapy in our institution.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 48 adult patients with high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anaplastic thyroid cancer: outcomes of trimodal therapy.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 9;26(3):416-422. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

Backround: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of trimodal therapy [surgery, chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)] in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) treated with curative intent.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective review of patients with ATC treated at a tertiary referral centre between January 2009 and June 2020. Data were collected regarding demographics, histology, staging, treatment and outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF